Studies on the hormonal regulation of bone metabolism in men have indicated covariation between insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and sex hormones with bone mineral density (BMD). In this study the relationships between BMD in total body, lumbar spine, femoral neck, distal and ultradistal (UD) radius and circulating levels of IGFs, IGF binding proteins (IGFBPs), and sex steroids were investigated in 55 Swedish men between 22 and 85 (52 +/- 18, mean +/- SD) years of age. BMD in total body, distal and UD radius, and femoral neck was positively correlated with serum IGF-I (r = 0.31 to 0.49), IGF-II (r = 0.32 to 0.48), IGFBP-3 (r = 0.37 to 0.53), and free androgen index (FAI) (r = 0.32 to 0.40), and negatively with IGFBP-1 (r = -0.37 to -0.41) and IGFBP-2 (r = -0.29 to -0.41) levels. A positive correlation was observed between BMD in femoral neck and estradiol/SHBG ratio (r = 0.34, P = 0.01). Age correlated negatively with serum IGF-I, IGF-II, IGFBP-3, FAI, estradiol/SHBG ratio, and BMD in total body, distal and UD radius, and femoral neck, and positively with IGFBP-1, IGFBP-2, and SHBG levels. According to stepwise multiple regression analyses, a combination of weight, IGFBP-3, and testosterone accounted for 43% of the variation in BMD in femoral neck, 34% in ultradistal radius and 48% in total body (P
To determine the relationships among nutrients intake, bone mass, and bone turnover in women we have investigated these issues in a population-based, cross-sectional, observational study in one county in central Sweden. A total of 175 women aged 28-74 at entry to the study were included. Dietary assessment was made by both a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire and by four 1-week dietary records. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry was performed at five sites: total body, L2-L4 region of the lumbar spine, and three regions of the proximal femur. Serum concentrations of osteocalcin (an osteoblast-specific protein reflecting bone turnover) were measured by a radioimmunoassay. Linear regression models, with adjustment for possible confounding factors were used for statistical analyses. A weak positive association was found between dietary calcium intake as calculated from the semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire and total body bone mineral density (BMD) among premenopausal women. No association emerged between dietary calcium intake and site-specific bone mass, i.e., lumbar spine and femoral neck, nor was an association found between dietary calcium intake and serum osteocalcin. BMD at some of the measured sites was positively associated with protein and carbohydrates and negatively associated with dietary fat. In no previous studies of diet and bone mass have dietary habits been ascertained so carefully and the results adjusted for possible confounding factors. Neither of the two methods of dietary assessment used in this study revealed any effect of calcium intake on BMD at fracture-relevant sites among these healthy, mostly middle-aged women.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
BACKGROUND: Osteoporosis is a growing health problem. One of the proposed reasons for this is a more sedentary lifestyle. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between muscle strength and total body bone mineral density (TBMD) in young adults at expected peak bone mass. METHODS: Sixty-four women and 61 men (total 125) 21 years of age were included. Handgrip strength, isokinetic knee-flexion and -extension muscle strength, TBMD, and body composition were measured. RESULTS: Univariate regression analyses showed that knee flexion and extension explained almost 30% of the variation in TBMD in women, whereas handgrip strength was not associated with TBMD. In men, no correlation between any measures of muscle strength and TBMD was evident. Stepwise regression analysis showed that knee-flexion and -extension muscle strength in women were associated with TBMD, R2=0.27. In men, lean body mass, fat mass, weight, and height were predictors for TBMD, R2=0.43, whereas muscle strength did not affect the prediction of TBMD. CONCLUSIONS: Muscle strength at weight-bearing sites is related to TBMD in women, whereas body composition is related to TBMD in men. The association of lower limb strength on TBMD only in young women indicates a gender difference.
Comment In: Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2004 Feb;14(1):114971423
AIM: To provide reference data for bone mineral variables in 15- and 17-y-old adolescents and to analyse the relationships between these variables and measures of bone and body size, gender, puberty, growth, various lifestyle and environmental factors and socioeconomic background. METHODS: In the same 321 randomly selected adolescents (147 boys and 174 girls) living in two different regions of Sweden, the total bone mineral content (TBMC), bone area (BA) and total bone mineral density (TBMD) were assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at ages 15 and 17 y. The effects of bone and body size, gender, growth, sexual maturity, physical activity, region of domicile, social conditions, food habits, smoking and alcohol intake on TBMC and TBMD were examined in multivariate analyses. RESULTS: In the 15-y-old adolescents, BA, height, gender, physical activity, maturity and weight explained 91% and 48%, of the variance in TBMC and TBMD, respectively. In similar analyses in the 17-y-olds, the corresponding figures were 92% and 62%, respectively, when BA, height, growth, physical activity, gender and region emerged as significant in the model. In all these analyses, BA explained most of the variance in TBMC and TBMD. No significant reduction of variance was found when different measures of social conditions, smoking, food habits, alcohol or dietary intakes of energy, calcium or vitamin D were included in the models. The reason why region of domicile had a significant impact on TBMC in the 17-y-olds is not known. The fact that the normal fluoride concentration in drinking water (1.1 mg/L) is 10 times higher in the region where TBMC was higher than in the other region is an interesting observation. CONCLUSION: Almost 90% of the variance in TBMC and 50% of that in TBMD was explained by measures of bone and body size and only a few percent by gender, physical activity, Tanner stage, growth and region of domicile.