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Association between salt intake, heart rate and blood pressure.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature210196
Source
J Hum Hypertens. 1997 Jan;11(1):57-62
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-1997
Author
D. Rastenyte
J. Tuomilehto
V. Moltchanov
J. Lindström
P. Pietinen
A. Nissinen
Author Affiliation
Department of Epidemiology and Health Promotion, National Public Health Institute, Helsinki, Finland.
Source
J Hum Hypertens. 1997 Jan;11(1):57-62
Date
Jan-1997
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Blood Pressure - drug effects
Data Interpretation, Statistical
Female
Finland
Heart Rate - drug effects
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Random Allocation
Regression Analysis
Risk factors
Sodium Chloride, Dietary - adverse effects
Abstract
The present study investigated the association between 24-h urinary sodium excretion and heart rate in the determination of blood pressure (BP) levels in a large random population sample from eastern Finland. Three independent risk factor surveys were performed in 1979, 1982 and 1987 using the same methodology. Data from each survey was pooled for subjects aged 25-64 years who reported a complete 24-h urine collection and were not on the current antihypertensive treatment (1640 men and 1686 women). The effect of urinary sodium excretion and heart rate was examined by regressing BP on urinary sodium excretion and pulse rate, together with age and body mass index (BMI). Analyses stratified by quintiles of heart rate were also performed. There was no association between urinary sodium and BP either in men or in women. There was a significant correlation between heart rate and both systolic and diastolic BP in both men and women. A significant interaction between age and BMI with heart rate was also found in both sexes. Interaction between urinary sodium and heart rate was found neither in men nor in women. Among men, after adjustment for age and BMI, there was a curvilinear relation between 24-h urinary excretion of sodium and diastolic BP (P = 0.054) in the lowest quintile of heart rate (
PubMed ID
9111159 View in PubMed
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Bone mineral density in femoral neck is positively correlated to circulating insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I and IGF-binding protein (IGFBP)-3 in Swedish men.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature190890
Source
Calcif Tissue Int. 2002 Jan;70(1):22-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2002
Author
P. Gillberg
H. Olofsson
H. Mallmin
W F Blum
S. Ljunghall
A G Nilsson
Author Affiliation
Department of Medical Sciences, University Hospital, S-75185 Uppsala, Sweden.
Source
Calcif Tissue Int. 2002 Jan;70(1):22-9
Date
Jan-2002
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Absorptiometry, Photon
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Aging - physiology
Bone Density
Femur Neck - metabolism - radiography
Gonadal Steroid Hormones - blood
Humans
Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 3 - blood
Insulin-Like Growth Factor I - analysis
Lumbar Vertebrae - metabolism - radiography
Male
Middle Aged
Regression Analysis
Sweden
Abstract
Studies on the hormonal regulation of bone metabolism in men have indicated covariation between insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and sex hormones with bone mineral density (BMD). In this study the relationships between BMD in total body, lumbar spine, femoral neck, distal and ultradistal (UD) radius and circulating levels of IGFs, IGF binding proteins (IGFBPs), and sex steroids were investigated in 55 Swedish men between 22 and 85 (52 +/- 18, mean +/- SD) years of age. BMD in total body, distal and UD radius, and femoral neck was positively correlated with serum IGF-I (r = 0.31 to 0.49), IGF-II (r = 0.32 to 0.48), IGFBP-3 (r = 0.37 to 0.53), and free androgen index (FAI) (r = 0.32 to 0.40), and negatively with IGFBP-1 (r = -0.37 to -0.41) and IGFBP-2 (r = -0.29 to -0.41) levels. A positive correlation was observed between BMD in femoral neck and estradiol/SHBG ratio (r = 0.34, P = 0.01). Age correlated negatively with serum IGF-I, IGF-II, IGFBP-3, FAI, estradiol/SHBG ratio, and BMD in total body, distal and UD radius, and femoral neck, and positively with IGFBP-1, IGFBP-2, and SHBG levels. According to stepwise multiple regression analyses, a combination of weight, IGFBP-3, and testosterone accounted for 43% of the variation in BMD in femoral neck, 34% in ultradistal radius and 48% in total body (P
PubMed ID
11907704 View in PubMed
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Colles' fracture associated with reduced bone mineral content. Photon densitometry in 74 patients with matched controls.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature222973
Source
Acta Orthop Scand. 1992 Oct;63(5):552-4
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-1992
Author
H. Mallmin
S. Ljunghall
T. Naessén
Author Affiliation
Department of Orthopedics, University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden.
Source
Acta Orthop Scand. 1992 Oct;63(5):552-4
Date
Oct-1992
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Absorptiometry, Photon
Age Factors
Aged
Bone Density
Colles' Fracture - epidemiology - etiology - prevention & control
Female
Humans
Male
Osteoporosis - complications - pathology - radionuclide imaging
Population Surveillance
Prospective Studies
Regression Analysis
Risk factors
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
In a prospective population-based investigation, we measured bone mineral density (BMD) of the forearm using single-photon absorptiometry at both a distal and a more proximal site in 74 Colles'-fracture patients who were compared with controls matched for age, sex, and years after menopause. For both groups there was a marked inverse relationship between age and bone mass. However, over the entire age range, the probands had 11 percent reduced BMD when compared with the controls. Our findings confirm that patients with fracture of the distal forearm have reduced BMD. They constitute an appropriate group for studies aimed at prevention of fracture in the elderly.
PubMed ID
1441956 View in PubMed
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Diabetes mellitus, impaired glucose tolerance and mortality among elderly men: the Finnish cohorts of the Seven Countries Study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature223332
Source
Diabetologia. 1992 Aug;35(8):760-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-1992
Author
J H Stengård
J. Tuomilehto
J. Pekkanen
P. Kivinen
E. Kaarsalo
A. Nissinen
M J Karvonen
Author Affiliation
National Public Health Institute, Department of Epidemiology, Helsinki, Finland.
Source
Diabetologia. 1992 Aug;35(8):760-5
Date
Aug-1992
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Blood pressure
Body mass index
Cholesterol - blood
Cohort Studies
Diabetes Mellitus - epidemiology - mortality - physiopathology
Finland - epidemiology
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Hyperglycemia - epidemiology - mortality - physiopathology
Male
Mortality
Multivariate Analysis
Obesity - epidemiology - mortality - physiopathology
Regression Analysis
Risk factors
Smoking - epidemiology - mortality
Abstract
We studied the association of glucose intolerance with total and cause-specific mortality during a 5-year follow-up of 637 elderly Finnish men aged 65 to 84 years. Total mortality was 276 per 1000 for men aged 65 to 74 years and 537 per 1000 for men aged 75 to 84 years. Five-year total mortality adjusted for age was 364 per 1000 in diabetic men, 234 per 1000 in men with impaired glucose tolerance and 209 per 1000 in men with normal glucose tolerance. The relative risk of death among diabetic men was 2.10 (95% confidence interval 1.26 to 3.49) and among men with impaired glucose tolerance 1.17 (95% confidence interval 0.71 to 1.94) times higher compared with men with normal glucose tolerance. Cardiovascular disease was the most common cause of death in every glucose tolerance group. The multivariate adjusted relative risk of cardiovascular death was increased (1.55) in diabetic patients, albeit non-significantly (95% confidence interval 0.84 to 2.85). Diabetes resulted in an increased risk of cardiovascular mortality among men aged 65-74 years but not among the 75- 84-year-old men. Relative risk of death from non-cardiovascular causes was slightly increased among diabetic subjects. In conclusion, diabetes mellitus is a significant determinant of mortality among elderly Finnish men.
PubMed ID
1511803 View in PubMed
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Dietary factors determining diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance. A 20-year follow-up of the Finnish and Dutch cohorts of the Seven Countries Study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature214653
Source
Diabetes Care. 1995 Aug;18(8):1104-12
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-1995
Author
E J Feskens
S M Virtanen
L. Räsänen
J. Tuomilehto
J. Stengård
J. Pekkanen
A. Nissinen
D. Kromhout
Author Affiliation
Department of Chronic Diseases and Environmental Epidemiology, National Institute of Public Health and Environmental Protection, Bilthoven, The Netherlands.
Source
Diabetes Care. 1995 Aug;18(8):1104-12
Date
Aug-1995
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Cohort Studies
Diabetes Mellitus - blood - epidemiology
Diet
Finland
Follow-Up Studies
Food Habits
Glucose Intolerance - blood - epidemiology
Glucose Tolerance Test
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Netherlands
Predictive value of tests
Reference Values
Regression Analysis
Risk factors
Time Factors
Abstract
To investigate the role of diet as a predictor of glucose intolerance and non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM).
At the 30-year follow-up survey of the Dutch and Finnish cohorts of the Seven Countries Study, in 1989/1990, men were examined according to a standardized protocol including a 2-h oral glucose tolerance test. Information on habitual food consumption was obtained using the cross-check dietary history method. Those 338 men in whom information on habitual diet was also available 20 years earlier were included in this study. Subjects known as having diabetes in 1989/1990 were excluded from the analyses.
Adjusting for age and cohort, the intake of total, saturated, and monounsaturated fatty acids and dietary cholesterol 20 years before diagnosis was higher in men with newly diagnosed diabetes in the survey than in men with normal or impaired glucose tolerance. After adjustment for cohort, age, past body mass index, and past energy intake, the past intake of total fat was positively associated with 2-h postload glucose level (P
PubMed ID
7587845 View in PubMed
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Diet, bone mass, and osteocalcin: a cross-sectional study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature62031
Source
Calcif Tissue Int. 1995 Aug;57(2):86-93
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-1995
Author
K. Michaëlsson
L. Holmberg
H. Mallmin
A. Wolk
R. Bergström
S. Ljunghall
Author Affiliation
Department of Orthopaedics, Central Hospital, Västerås, Sweden.
Source
Calcif Tissue Int. 1995 Aug;57(2):86-93
Date
Aug-1995
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Age Factors
Aged
Bone Density
Calcium, dietary
Comparative Study
Cross-Sectional Studies
Diet
Diet Records
Energy intake
Female
Femur
Humans
Middle Aged
Multivariate Analysis
Osteocalcin - blood
Premenopause
Questionnaires
Regression Analysis
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Spine
Abstract
To determine the relationships among nutrients intake, bone mass, and bone turnover in women we have investigated these issues in a population-based, cross-sectional, observational study in one county in central Sweden. A total of 175 women aged 28-74 at entry to the study were included. Dietary assessment was made by both a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire and by four 1-week dietary records. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry was performed at five sites: total body, L2-L4 region of the lumbar spine, and three regions of the proximal femur. Serum concentrations of osteocalcin (an osteoblast-specific protein reflecting bone turnover) were measured by a radioimmunoassay. Linear regression models, with adjustment for possible confounding factors were used for statistical analyses. A weak positive association was found between dietary calcium intake as calculated from the semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire and total body bone mineral density (BMD) among premenopausal women. No association emerged between dietary calcium intake and site-specific bone mass, i.e., lumbar spine and femoral neck, nor was an association found between dietary calcium intake and serum osteocalcin. BMD at some of the measured sites was positively associated with protein and carbohydrates and negatively associated with dietary fat. In no previous studies of diet and bone mass have dietary habits been ascertained so carefully and the results adjusted for possible confounding factors. Neither of the two methods of dietary assessment used in this study revealed any effect of calcium intake on BMD at fracture-relevant sites among these healthy, mostly middle-aged women.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
PubMed ID
7584880 View in PubMed
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Muscle strength correlates with total body bone mineral density in young women but not in men.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature52051
Source
Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2004 Feb;14(1):24-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2004
Author
E. Ribom
O. Ljunggren
K. Piehl-Aulin
S. Ljunghall
L E Bratteby
G. Samuelson
H. Mallmin
Author Affiliation
Department of Surgical Sciences, Uppsala University, 751 85 Uppsala, Sweden. eva.ribon@surgsci.uu.se
Source
Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2004 Feb;14(1):24-9
Date
Feb-2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Age Factors
Aging - physiology
Body Composition - physiology
Bone Density - physiology
Comparative Study
Female
Hand - physiology
Humans
Knee - physiology
Life Style
Male
Muscle, Skeletal - physiology
Regression Analysis
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Sex Factors
Sweden
Abstract
BACKGROUND: Osteoporosis is a growing health problem. One of the proposed reasons for this is a more sedentary lifestyle. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between muscle strength and total body bone mineral density (TBMD) in young adults at expected peak bone mass. METHODS: Sixty-four women and 61 men (total 125) 21 years of age were included. Handgrip strength, isokinetic knee-flexion and -extension muscle strength, TBMD, and body composition were measured. RESULTS: Univariate regression analyses showed that knee flexion and extension explained almost 30% of the variation in TBMD in women, whereas handgrip strength was not associated with TBMD. In men, no correlation between any measures of muscle strength and TBMD was evident. Stepwise regression analysis showed that knee-flexion and -extension muscle strength in women were associated with TBMD, R2=0.27. In men, lean body mass, fat mass, weight, and height were predictors for TBMD, R2=0.43, whereas muscle strength did not affect the prediction of TBMD. CONCLUSIONS: Muscle strength at weight-bearing sites is related to TBMD in women, whereas body composition is related to TBMD in men. The association of lower limb strength on TBMD only in young women indicates a gender difference.
Notes
Comment In: Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2004 Feb;14(1):114971423
PubMed ID
14723784 View in PubMed
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Organochlorines and bone mineral density in Swedish men from the general population.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature195327
Source
Osteoporos Int. 2000;11(12):1036-42
Publication Type
Article
Date
2000
Author
A W Glynn
K. Michaëlsson
P M Lind
A. Wolk
M. Aune
S. Atuma
P O Darnerud
H. Mallmin
Author Affiliation
Toxicology Division, Swedish National Food Administration, Uppsala.
Source
Osteoporos Int. 2000;11(12):1036-42
Date
2000
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Androgen Antagonists - metabolism
Bone Density - drug effects
DDT - adverse effects - blood
Environmental Pollutants - adverse effects - blood
Estrogen Receptor Modulators - metabolism
Estrogens - metabolism
Hexachlorobenzene - blood - pharmacology
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Polychlorinated biphenyls - adverse effects - blood
Regression Analysis
Sweden
Abstract
Persistent organochlorines (POCs), such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and DDT, are present at relatively high concentrations in food and show estrogenic, anti-estrogenic or anti-androgenic activity in biological test systems. Because bone mineral density (BMD) in men is influenced by sex hormones, we looked for associations between BMD and serum concentrations of POCs in 115 men (mean age 63 years, range 40-75 years) from the general Swedish population. Ten PCB congeners, five DDT isomers, hexachlorobenzene, three hexachlorocyclohexane isomers, trans-nonachlor and oxychlordane were analyzed by gas chromatography. Quantitative bone measurements were performed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at three sites: whole body, the L2-L4 region of the lumbar spine, and the neck region of the proximal femur, as well as by quantitative ultrasound on the left os calcis (broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA) and speed of sound (SOS)). After adjustment for confounding factors in linear regression analyses we found no strong association between serum concentrations of single POCs and the five BMD and ultrasound variables. When POCs were grouped according to hormonal activity (estrogenic, anti-estrogenic, anti-androgenic) and the study subjects were divided into organochlorine concentration quartiles, a weak association was indicated between increased serum concentrations of p,p'-DDE (antiandrogenic) and decreased BMD, BUA and SOS. This may suggest that p,p'-DDE could cause negative effects on bone density, but the findings might also be due to chance since multiple comparisons were made in the statistical analysis. Overall our results do not suggest that the studied POCs caused major effects on bone density in our study group.
PubMed ID
11256895 View in PubMed
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Predictors of disability in elderly Finnish men--a longitudinal study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature231781
Source
J Clin Epidemiol. 1989;42(12):1215-25
Publication Type
Article
Date
1989
Author
U K Lammi
S L Kivelä
A. Nissinen
S. Punsar
P. Puska
M. Karvonen
Author Affiliation
Department of Public Health, University of Tampere, Finland.
Source
J Clin Epidemiol. 1989;42(12):1215-25
Date
1989
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Epidemiologic Methods
Finland
Forecasting
Health status
Humans
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Middle Aged
Morbidity
Prognosis
Regression Analysis
Abstract
Factors predicting disability in late life were studied in 716 men from eastern or southwestern Finland in connection with the 25-year follow-up of the East-West Study, which is part of the Seven Countries Study, in 1984. In middle-aged men, low forced vital capacity, occurrence of diabetes, presence of intermittent claudication, high diastolic blood pressure, higher age and lower educational level showed the greatest predicting power for future disability 15-25 years later. In later middle age, low forced vital capacity, presence of intermittent claudication, cerebrovascular disease or coronary heart disease and higher age were the most powerful predictors for disability 10 years later. In order to lower disability in old age, it is important to prevent deterioration of ventilatory function and cardiovascular diseases in middle-aged populations and to treat chronic diseases adequately.
PubMed ID
2585012 View in PubMed
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Screening for osteopenia and osteoporosis: selection by body composition.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature213486
Source
Osteoporos Int. 1996;6(2):120-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
1996
Author
K. Michaëlsson
R. Bergström
H. Mallmin
L. Holmberg
A. Wolk
S. Ljunghall
Author Affiliation
Department of Orthopaedics, Central Hospital, Västerås, Sweden.
Source
Osteoporos Int. 1996;6(2):120-6
Date
1996
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Absorptiometry, Photon
Adult
Aged
Body Composition
Body mass index
Bone Density - physiology
Bone Diseases, Metabolic - diagnosis - etiology - radiography
Cross-Sectional Studies
Female
Humans
Mass Screening
Middle Aged
Osteoporosis - diagnosis - etiology - radiography
Predictive value of tests
Random Allocation
Regression Analysis
Retrospective Studies
Risk factors
Sweden
Abstract
There is a great need for simple means of identifying persons at low risk of developing osteoporosis, in order to exclude them from screening with bone mineral measurements, since this procedure is too expensive and time-consuming for general use in the unselected population. We have determined the relationships between body measure (weight, height, body mass index, lean tissue mass, fat mass, waist-to-hip ratio) and bone mineral density (BMD) in 175 women of ages 28-74 years in a cross-sectional study in a county in central Sweden. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was performed at three sites: total body, L2-4 region of lumbar spine, and neck region of the proximal femur. Using multiple linear regression models, the relationship between the dependent variable, BMD, and each of the body measures was determined, with adjustment for confounding factors. Weight alone, in a multivariate model, explained 28%, 21% and 15% of the variance in BMD of total body, at the lumbar spine and at the femoral neck according to these models. The WHO definition of osteopenia was used to dichotomize BMD, which made it possible, in multivariate logistic regression models, to estimate the risk of osteopenia with different body measures categorized into tertiles. Weight of over 71 kg was associated with a very low risk of being osteopenic compared with women weighing less than 64 kg, with odds ratios (OR) of 0.01 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.00-0.09), 0.06 (CI 0.02-0.22) and 0.13 (CI 0.04-0.42) for osteopenia of total body, lumbar spine and femoral neck, respectively. Furthermore a sensitivity/specificity analysis revealed that, in this population, a woman weighing over 70 kg is not likely to have osteoporosis. Test specifics of a weight under 70 kg for osteoporosis (BMD less than 2.5 SD compared with normal young women) of femoral neck among the postmenopausal women showed a sensitivity of 0.94, a specificity of 0.36, positive predictive value (PPV) of 0.21, and negative predictive value (NPV) of 0.97. Thus, exclusion of the 33% of women with the highest weight meant only that 3% of osteoporotic cases were missed. The corresponding figures for lumbar spine were sensitivity 0.89, specificity 0.38, PPV 0.33, and NPV 0.91. All women who were defined as being osteoporotic of total body weighed under 62 kg. When the intention was to identify those with osteopenia of total body among the postmenopausal women we attained a sensitivity of 0.92 and a NPV of 0.91 for a weight under 70 kg, whereas we found that weight could not be used as an exclusion criterion for osteopenia of femoral neck and lumbar spine. Our data thus indicate that weight could be used to exclude women from a screening program for postmenopausal osteoporosis.
PubMed ID
8704349 View in PubMed
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14 records – page 1 of 2.