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16 records – page 1 of 2.

Bronchial responsiveness in a Norwegian community.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature67886
Source
Am Rev Respir Dis. 1991 Feb;143(2):317-22
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-1991
Author
P S Bakke
V. Baste
A. Gulsvik
Author Affiliation
Department of Thoracic Medicine, University of Bergen, Norway.
Source
Am Rev Respir Dis. 1991 Feb;143(2):317-22
Date
Feb-1991
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Bronchi - drug effects
Female
Forced expiratory volume
Humans
Male
Methacholine Chloride - pharmacology
Middle Aged
Norway
Regression Analysis
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Sex Characteristics
Smoking
Abstract
Bronchial responsiveness to methacholine was examined in a Norwegian general population sample (n = 490) 18 to 73 yr of age. Altogether, 20 and 6% of the sample had PC20 less than or equal to 32 mg/ml and PC20 less than or equal to 8 mg/ml, respectively. The relationship of bronchial responsiveness to the following potential predictors were examined: sex, age, smoking habits, airway caliber (FEV1), FEV1 percent predicted (%FEV1), urban-rural area of residence, occupational airborne exposure in present job, and total serum IgE. After adjusting for age and FEV1, the odds ratio for PC20 less than or equal to 32 mg/ml was higher for men than for women in smokers and in ex-smokers, but did not vary by sex in nonsmokers, the adjusted odds ratio for PC20 less than or equal to 32 mg/ml in male compared with female smokers being 8.4 (95% Cl: 2.5-37.4). Irrespective of smoking status the sex- and FEV1-adjusted odds ratio for PC20 less than or equal to 32 mg/ml fell with increasing age. For every 10-yr increase in age the adjusted odds ratio for PC20 less than or equal to 32 mg/ml methacholine in nonsmokers decreased by 2.0 (95% Cl: 1.3-3.3). Also FEV1 and %FEV1 were predictors of PC20 less than or equal to 32 mg/ml after adjusting for sex and age irrespective of smoking status. Bronchial responsiveness (PC20 less than or equal to 8 mg/ml) was more prevalent in rural than in urban areas, the adjusted odds ratio being 2.5 (95% Cl: 1.1-5.9) for bronchial responsiveness in rural compared with urban residents after adjusting for sex, age, smoking habits, and FEV1.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
PubMed ID
1990946 View in PubMed
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The burden of oral disorders in a population of older adults.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature223718
Source
Community Dent Health. 1992 Jun;9(2):109-24
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-1992
Author
D. Locker
Author Affiliation
Department of Community Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
Source
Community Dent Health. 1992 Jun;9(2):109-24
Date
Jun-1992
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Attitude to Health
Communication
Dental Care - statistics & numerical data
Dental Caries - epidemiology
Eating
Facial Pain - epidemiology
Female
Humans
Income
Male
Marriage
Mastication
Middle Aged
Models, Statistical
Mouth Diseases - complications - epidemiology - psychology
Mouth, Edentulous - epidemiology
Ontario - epidemiology
Oral Health
Periodontal Diseases - epidemiology
Regression Analysis
Self Concept
Abstract
This paper describes the burden of oral disorders in a population of adults aged 50 years and over living independently in the community. In so doing it uses clinical, functional, experiential and psychosocial impact measures to document the oral health status of this section of the population. The data reveal that substantial proportions of subjects report that their quality of life was compromised in some way by oral problems. Although only 24.1 per cent were edentulous, 30.5 per cent were unable to chew one or more foods; 37.2 per cent reported oral or facial pain in the previous four weeks and 67.5 per cent experienced one or more other oral symptoms. One third reported problems with eating and communication--social interaction, 18.7 per cent worried a great deal about their oral health and 30.8 per cent were dissatisfied with some aspect of their oral health status. Income was consistently associated with all health status measures examined, demonstrating the scope of inequalities in oral health. In addition, regression analysis showed that low income groups had higher scores on a psychosocial impact scale after controlling for clinical, functional and experiential oral health indicators. The paper illustrates the utility of a model of disease and its consequences derived from the international classification of impairments, disabilities and handicaps in exploring oral health.
PubMed ID
1504877 View in PubMed
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Correlates of dental anxiety among older adults.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature226745
Source
J Dent Res. 1991 Mar;70(3):198-203
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-1991
Author
D. Locker
A M Liddell
Author Affiliation
Department of Community Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
Source
J Dent Res. 1991 Mar;70(3):198-203
Date
Mar-1991
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Age Factors
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Analysis of Variance
Anxiety - epidemiology
Chi-Square Distribution
Cohort Effect
Dental Care - psychology
Dental Health Services - utilization
Female
Health status
Humans
Logistic Models
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Manifest Anxiety Scale
Middle Aged
Ontario - epidemiology
Patient Acceptance of Health Care
Prevalence
Questionnaires
Regression Analysis
Sex Factors
Socioeconomic Factors
Abstract
This paper reports on a study of dental anxiety among adults aged 50 years and over living independently in two communities in Ontario, Canada. Subjects were identified by means of a telephone survey based on random-digit dialing. Data on dental anxiety were collected from 580 subjects by means of a self-completed questionnaire and were measured by the Dental Anxiety Scale (DAS) (Corah, 1969). The mean DAS score was 7.8, and 8.4% of subjects were classified as dentally anxious. Age was the only demographic factor associated with dental anxiety. Older individuals had lower DAS scores than younger individuals (p less than 0.0001). There was also a significant association between dental anxiety and general fearfulness measured by the Fear Survey Schedule II (Geer, 1965) (r = 0.31; p less than 0.001). A series of regression analyses revealed that dental anxiety was a significant predictor of a number of behavioral and oral health outcomes. While these results confirm that dental anxiety is less prevalent among older adults than in younger populations, it has a number of important consequences with respect to dental care provision.
PubMed ID
1999559 View in PubMed
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Decline in FEV1 and airflow limitation related to occupational exposures in men of an urban community.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature67773
Source
Eur Respir J. 1993 Sep;6(8):1095-103
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-1993
Author
S. Humerfelt
A. Gulsvik
R. Skjaerven
S. Nilssen
G. Kvåle
O. Sulheim
E. Ramm
E. Eilertsen
S B Humerfelt
Author Affiliation
Department of Thoracic Medicine, University of Bergen, Norway.
Source
Eur Respir J. 1993 Sep;6(8):1095-103
Date
Sep-1993
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Air Pollutants, Occupational - adverse effects
Body Height
Dust - adverse effects
Forced Expiratory Volume - physiology
Gases - adverse effects
Humans
Longitudinal Studies
Lung Diseases, Obstructive - epidemiology
Male
Middle Aged
Norway - epidemiology
Occupational Diseases - epidemiology
Occupational Exposure - adverse effects
Questionnaires
Regression Analysis
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Smoking - adverse effects
Time Factors
Abstract
The purpose of this survey was to evaluate the effects of smoking and occupational exposures on the decline in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), and the presence of airflow limitation (FEV1 x100/forced vital capacity (FVC) being
Notes
Comment In: Eur Respir J. 1993 Sep;6(8):1088-98224120
PubMed ID
8224123 View in PubMed
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Dietary vitamin C intake is inversely related to cough and wheeze in young smokers.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature15288
Source
Respir Med. 2003 Feb;97(2):134-42
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2003
Author
E. Omenaas
O. Fluge
A S Buist
W M Vollmer
A. Gulsvik
Author Affiliation
Department of Thoracic Medicine, University of Bergen, Norway. ernst.omenaas@haukeland.no
Source
Respir Med. 2003 Feb;97(2):134-42
Date
Feb-2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Antioxidants - administration & dosage
Ascorbic Acid - administration & dosage
Cough - epidemiology
Cross-Sectional Studies
Diet
Female
Humans
Male
Norway - epidemiology
Odds Ratio
Regression Analysis
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Respiratory Sounds - etiology
Smoking - epidemiology
Abstract
We aimed to investigate whether dietary vitamin C intake, an important antioxidant, is inversely related to self-reported respiratory symptoms in young adults of a community. A random sample of 4300 subjects, aged 20-44 years, living in Bergen, Norway, received a postal questionnaire on respiratory symptoms; 80% responded. Vitamin C intake (mg per week) was estimated from a food-frequency questionnaire asking how often the subject, during the last year, had consumed units of orange juice, oranges, potatoes, carrots and tomatoes. Significant differences in the intake of vitamin C were observed across smoking categories with current smokers having the lowest intake, while there was no variation by gender, age or occupational dust exposure. Dietary vitamin C intake was in univariate analyses inversely related to "morning cough", "chronic cough", "wheeze" and "wheeze ever". After adjusting for gender, age, body mass index, "occupational exposure" pack-years as well as having and stratified on smoking habits in multiple logistic regression analyses, the relationship between dietary vitamin C intake and "cough" and "wheeze" tended to be associated to smoking. The odds ratio (OR) for "morning cough" was 0.68 (95% CI: 0.35-0.95), "chronic cough" OR 0.69 (95% CI: 0.47-1.04) and "wheeze ever" OR 0.75 (95% CI: 0.56-1.01) in current-smokers with dietary vitamin C intake in the upper (> or =395 mg/ week) vs. the lower (
PubMed ID
12587963 View in PubMed
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Educational level and obstructive lung disease given smoking habits and occupational airborne exposure: a Norwegian community study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature67707
Source
Am J Epidemiol. 1995 Jun 1;141(11):1080-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-1-1995
Author
P S Bakke
R. Hanoa
A. Gulsvik
Author Affiliation
Department of Thoracic Medicine, University of Bergen, Norway.
Source
Am J Epidemiol. 1995 Jun 1;141(11):1080-8
Date
Jun-1-1995
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Age Factors
Aged
Air Pollutants, Occupational - adverse effects
Comparative Study
Cross-Sectional Studies
Educational Status
Female
Humans
Lung Diseases, Obstructive - diagnosis - epidemiology - etiology - physiopathology
Male
Middle Aged
Norway
Occupational Exposure
Odds Ratio
Prevalence
Pulmonary Ventilation
Regression Analysis
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Risk factors
Sex Factors
Smoking - adverse effects - epidemiology
Social Class
Spirometry
Abstract
The relation of educational level to obstructive lung disease, spirometric airflow limitation, and respiratory symptoms was examined in a two-phase cross-sectional study of a Norwegian general population aged 18-73 years in 1985-1988. The first phase was a questionnaire survey. In the second phase, a stratified sample of those who responded in the first phase was invited to a clinical and respiratory physiologic examination. Altogether, 714 subjects attended, representing 84% of those invited. The prevalences of obstructive lung disease and spirometric airflow limitation were 7.8% and 4.5%, respectively. A total of 18% of the population had completed college, a further 60% had completed secondary school, and 21% had obtained a primary school education alone. The prevalence of both smoking and occupational airborne exposure decreased with increasing educational level. The sex-, age-, smoking-, and occupational exposure-adjusted odds ratio of obstructive lung disease in primary-versus university-educated subjects was 2.9 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.3-6.5); in secondary- versus university-educated subjects it was 1.4 (95% CI 0.7-2.8). The corresponding values for spirometric airflow limitations were 5.2 (95% CI 2.0-13.4) and 1.8 (95% CI 1.2-2.7). All of the respiratory symptoms except breathlessness grade 2 were significantly associated with educational level after allowing for sex, age, smoking, and occupational airborne exposure. The survey indicates that educational level is a risk factor for airway disorders independent of smoking and occupational airborne exposure.
PubMed ID
7771443 View in PubMed
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Evaluation of an area-based measure as an indicator of inequalities in oral health.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature218395
Source
Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 1994 Apr;22(2):80-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-1994
Author
D. Locker
J. Ford
Author Affiliation
Department of Community Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
Source
Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 1994 Apr;22(2):80-5
Date
Apr-1994
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Chi-Square Distribution
Evaluation Studies as Topic
Health Services Needs and Demand - standards - statistics & numerical data
Health Status Indicators
Humans
Life Style
Middle Aged
Odds Ratio
Ontario - epidemiology
Oral Health
Prevalence
Regression Analysis
Socioeconomic Factors
Stomatognathic Diseases - epidemiology
Abstract
The literature on inequalities in health provides convincing evidence that lower socioeconomic groups have poor oral health when compared to higher socioeconomic groups. Since conventional measures of socioeconomic status such as occupation, income and education have a number of weaknesses which may limit their ability to describe and explain health inequalities, alternatives in the form of area-based measures are increasingly being used. In this paper, a conventional measure, household income, and an area-based measure of socioeconomic status are compared in terms of their ability to identify inequalities in oral health. The data used in the analysis were taken from a telephone interview survey of the oral health of older adults in the province of Ontario, Canada. While household income proved to be a marginally better predictor of these inequalities than the area-based measure, the latter had a number of distinct advantages from an epidemiological and planning perspective. Moreover, it identified variations in measures of oral health that were independent of household income, and the region of the province in which subjects lived.
PubMed ID
8205784 View in PubMed
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Forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) variability in asymptomatic never-smoking men.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature67573
Source
Clin Physiol. 1998 Jul;18(4):387-96
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-1998
Author
S. Humerfelt
G E Eide
G. Kvåle
A. Gulsvik
Author Affiliation
Department of Thoracic Medicine, University of Bergen, Norway.
Source
Clin Physiol. 1998 Jul;18(4):387-96
Date
Jul-1998
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Forced Expiratory Volume - physiology
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Observer Variation
Regression Analysis
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Smoking
Spirometry
Vital Capacity - physiology
Abstract
We examined the effects from subjects, technicians and spirometers on within-session variability in successful recordings of forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) in 4989 asymptomatic never-smoking men. All eligible men aged 30-46 years living in western Norway (n = 45,380) were invited to a cross-sectional community survey. Information on respiratory symptoms, smoking habits and occupational exposures was obtained from a self-administered questionnaire. Three successful FEV1 and FVC recordings were obtained in 26,368 attendants using three dry-wedge bellow spirometers operated by 10 different technicians. Within-subject standard deviation (SD) from three recordings of FEV1 and FVC was on average 102 and 106 ml, respectively, and increased with height (14 and 17 ml, respectively, per 10 cm) and body mass index (BMI) (11 and 14 ml, respectively, per 5 kg m-2). Between-subject SD of the mean of three FEV1 and FVC recordings was 591 and 754 ml, respectively, and increased in groups of increasing height (43 and 40 ml, respectively, per 10 cm). Small, but significant, differences were observed between technicians in within-subject SD and in levels of FEV1 and FVC. Homogeneity of between-subject variability, necessary for linear regression analysis, was obtained using FEV1 and FVC divided by height squared. In conclusion, within-subject variability in three successful spirometric recordings was small, but dependent on height and BMI of the subjects as well as technician performance. The observed heterogeneity in between-subject variation in FEV1 and FVC levels disappeared when each variable was divided by height squared. Novel multiple linear regression equations for FEV1/height2 and FVC/height2 were developed to be used in evaluating the effects from occupational airborne exposures in Nordic men aged 30-46 years.
PubMed ID
9715766 View in PubMed
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Gender and age differences in attitudes to dental pain and dental control.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature207770
Source
Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 1997 Aug;25(4):314-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-1997
Author
A. Liddell
D. Locker
Author Affiliation
Department of Psychology, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John's, Canada. aliddell@morgan.ucs.mun.ca
Source
Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 1997 Aug;25(4):314-8
Date
Aug-1997
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Age Factors
Aged
Analysis of Variance
Attitude to Health
Chi-Square Distribution
Dental Anxiety - psychology
Dental Care - psychology
Emotions
Fear
Female
Forecasting
Health Behavior
Humans
Internal-External Control
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Middle Aged
Ontario
Pain - psychology
Questionnaires
Regression Analysis
Sex Characteristics
Sex Factors
Abstract
In the literature, it is usual to find women and younger subjects reporting higher levels of dental anxiety than men and older subjects. Fear of pain was found to be the most important predictor of dental anxiety and issues of control were also related to such anxiety. Therefore, it was predicted that gender and age differences would be reflected in attitudes to pain and control. Subjects were randomly selected from the voters' list in metropolitan Toronto and mailed a questionnaire with a request for cooperation in a study of their thoughts, feelings, and behaviour regarding dental treatment. The questionnaire included demographic data, measures of dental anxiety and painful experiences as well as the Pain Anxiety Symptoms Scale and the Iowa Dental Control Index. The results supported the main predictions. In addition, attitudes to pain and control were found to be complex phenomena with characteristic gender differences.
PubMed ID
9332809 View in PubMed
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Hospitalization for lung disease in early childhood and asthma symptoms in young adulthood.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature15689
Source
Respir Med. 1998 Aug;92(8):1003-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-1998
Author
C. Svanes
E. Omenaas
G E Eide
O. Fluge
A. Gulsvik
Author Affiliation
Department of Thoracic Medicine, Haukeland Hospital, University of Bergen, Norway.
Source
Respir Med. 1998 Aug;92(8):1003-9
Date
Aug-1998
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Asthma - diagnosis - etiology
Cross-Sectional Studies
Female
Hospitalization
Humans
Infant
Lung Diseases - complications
Male
Norway
Questionnaires
Regression Analysis
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Rhinitis, Allergic, Seasonal - complications
Risk factors
Sex Factors
Smoking - adverse effects
Abstract
Longitudinal studies have reported an association between early childhood lung disease and adult respiratory disease. This issue has not been addressed in the Nordic countries. We studied the association between hospitalization for lung disease in early childhood and asthma in young adulthood in a Norwegian population sample, while estimating the attributable fraction of childhood hospitalization. A population-based survey in Bergen, Norway included a random sample of 4300 subjects aged 20-44 years, of whom 80% responded. The effect of hospitalization for lung disease before the age of 2 years on asthma in adulthood was analysed by logistic and polytomous logistic regressions, adjusting for related variables. Adjusted attributable fractions were estimated from these models. The risk for different measures of asthma was significantly increased in the 103 persons reporting childhood hospitalization (airways symptoms: OR from 1.9 to 2.9; asthma medication: OR = 2.8). The associations with airways symptoms were stronger in women (OR from 2.6 to 5.3) than in men (OR from 1.4 to 2.4). Given a causal association, adjusted attributable fractions showed that childhood lung disease causing hospitalization explained 4% of asthma symptoms. Early childhood hospitalization for lung disease was related to asthma symptoms in young Norwegian adults, more strongly in women than in men. Only a minor proportion of asthma symptoms in this age group could be related to hospitalization for lung disease in early childhood.
PubMed ID
9893766 View in PubMed
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16 records – page 1 of 2.