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Association between ambient carbon monoxide levels and hospitalizations for congestive heart failure in the elderly in 10 Canadian cities.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature209090
Source
Epidemiology. 1997 Mar;8(2):162-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-1997
Author
R T Burnett
R E Dales
J R Brook
M E Raizenne
D. Krewski
Author Affiliation
Environmental Health Directorate, Health Canada, Ottawa, Canada.
Source
Epidemiology. 1997 Mar;8(2):162-7
Date
Mar-1997
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Air Pollutants - adverse effects
Canada - epidemiology
Carbon Monoxide - adverse effects - analysis
Cohort Studies
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
Environmental monitoring
Epidemiological Monitoring
Female
Health Care Surveys
Heart Failure - epidemiology - etiology - therapy
Hospitalization - statistics & numerical data - trends
Humans
Incidence
Linear Models
Male
Regression Analysis
Risk assessment
Abstract
We examined the role that ambient air pollution plays in exacerbating cardiac disease by relating daily fluctuations in admissions to 134 hospitals for congestive heart failure in the elderly to daily variations in ambient concentrations of carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, ozone, and the coefficient of haze in Canada's 10 largest cities for the 11-year period 1981-1991 inclusive. We adjusted the hospitalization time series for seasonal, subseasonal, and weekly cycles and for hospital usage patterns. The logarithm of the daily high-hour ambient carbon monoxide concentration recorded on the day of admission displayed the strongest and most consistent association with hospitalization rates among the pollutants, after stratifying the time series by month of year and adjusting simultaneously for temperature, dew point, and the other ambient air pollutants. The relative risk for a change from 1 ppm to 3 ppm, the 25th and 75th percentiles of the exposure distribution, was 1.065 (95% confidence interval = 1.028-1.104). The regression coefficients of the other air pollutants were much more sensitive to simultaneous adjustment for either multiple pollutant or weather model specifications.
PubMed ID
9229208 View in PubMed
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Association between ozone and hospitalization for respiratory diseases in 16 Canadian cities.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature210280
Source
Environ Res. 1997 Jan;72(1):24-31
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-1997
Author
R T Burnett
J R Brook
W T Yung
R E Dales
D. Krewski
Author Affiliation
Health Canada, Environmental Health Center, Tunney's Pasture, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. rick-burnett@isdtcp3.hwc.ca
Source
Environ Res. 1997 Jan;72(1):24-31
Date
Jan-1997
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Air Pollutants
Canada
Hospitalization - trends
Humans
Longitudinal Studies
Ozone - adverse effects
Regression Analysis
Respiratory Function Tests
Respiratory Tract Diseases - epidemiology
Retrospective Studies
Risk assessment
Abstract
The effects of tropospheric ozone on lung function and respiratory symptoms have been well documented at relatively high concentrations. However, previous investigations have failed to establish a clear association between tropospheric ozone and respiratory diseases severe enough to require hospitalization after controlling for climate, and with gaseous and particulate air pollution at the lower concentrations typically observed in Canada today. To determine if low levels of tropospheric ozone contribute to hospitalization for respiratory disease, air pollution data were compared to hospital admissions for 16 cities across Canada representing 12.6 million people. During the 3927-day period from April 1, 1981, to December 31, 1991, there were 720,519 admissions for which the principle diagnosis was a respiratory disease. After controlling for sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, soiling index, and dew point temperature, the daily high hour concentration of ozone recorded 1 day previous to the date of admission was positively associated with respiratory admissions in the April to December period but not in the winter months. The relative risk for a 30 ppb increase in ozone varied from 1.043 (P
PubMed ID
9012369 View in PubMed
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Associations between ambient particulate sulfate and admissions to Ontario hospitals for cardiac and respiratory diseases.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature214790
Source
Am J Epidemiol. 1995 Jul 1;142(1):15-22
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-1-1995
Author
R T Burnett
R. Dales
D. Krewski
R. Vincent
T. Dann
J R Brook
Author Affiliation
Health Protection Branch, Health Canada, Tunney's Pasture, Ottawa, Ontario.
Source
Am J Epidemiol. 1995 Jul 1;142(1):15-22
Date
Jul-1-1995
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Air Pollutants - adverse effects - analysis
Air Pollution - statistics & numerical data
Environmental Exposure - adverse effects - analysis
Female
Heart Diseases - chemically induced - epidemiology
Hospitalization - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Middle Aged
Ontario - epidemiology
Ozone
Regression Analysis
Respiratory Tract Diseases - chemically induced - epidemiology
Seasons
Sulfates - adverse effects - analysis
Abstract
The association of daily cardiac and respiratory admissions to 168 acute care hospitals in Ontario, Canada, with daily levels of particulate sulfates was examined over the 6-year period 1983-1988. Sulfate levels were recorded at nine monitoring stations in regions of southern and central Ontario spanned by three monitoring networks. A 13-micrograms/m3 increase in sulfates recorded on the day prior to admission (the 95th percentile) was associated with a 3.7% (p
PubMed ID
7785669 View in PubMed
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Case-control study of residential radon and lung cancer in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature217519
Source
Am J Epidemiol. 1994 Aug 15;140(4):310-22
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-15-1994
Author
E G Létourneau
D. Krewski
N W Choi
M J Goddard
R G McGregor
J M Zielinski
J. Du
Author Affiliation
Health Protection Branch, Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario.
Source
Am J Epidemiol. 1994 Aug 15;140(4):310-22
Date
Aug-15-1994
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Air Pollution, Indoor - adverse effects - analysis
Air Pollution, Radioactive - adverse effects - analysis
Case-Control Studies
Environmental Exposure
Environmental monitoring
Epidemiological Monitoring
Female
Housing
Humans
Lung Neoplasms - chemically induced - epidemiology
Male
Manitoba - epidemiology
Matched-Pair Analysis
Middle Aged
Population Surveillance
Radon - adverse effects - analysis
Regression Analysis
Smoking - adverse effects
Urban Population
Abstract
A case-control study of lung cancer in relation to exposure to radon in homes in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada, was conducted during 1983-1990. In total, 738 individuals with histologically confirmed incident cases of lung cancer were interviewed, along with 738 controls matched on age (+/- 5 years) and sex. Radon dosimeters were placed in all residences in which the study subjects had reported living within the Winnipeg metropolitan area for at least 1 year. Radon dosimetry was done by means of integrated alpha-track measurements over a 1-year period. In the homes monitored, the average level of radon-222 was about 120 becquerels (Bq)/m3 in the bedroom area and 200 Bq/m3 in the basement. After adjusting for cigarette smoking and education, no increase in the relative risk for any of the histologic types of lung cancer observed among the cases was detected in relation to cumulative exposure to radon.
Notes
Comment In: Am J Epidemiol. 1995 Nov 15;142(10):1121-27485057
Comment In: Am J Epidemiol. 1995 Oct 15;142(8):884-67572965
Comment In: Am J Epidemiol. 1994 Aug 15;140(4):323-328059767
Comment In: Am J Epidemiol. 1994 Aug 15;140(4):333-98059768
PubMed ID
8059766 View in PubMed
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Effect of short-term exposure to gaseous pollution on asthma hospitalisation in children: a bi-directional case-crossover analysis.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature187332
Source
J Epidemiol Community Health. 2003 Jan;57(1):50-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2003
Author
M. Lin
Y. Chen
R T Burnett
P J Villeneuve
D. Krewski
Author Affiliation
Department of Epidemiology and Community Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Canada.
Source
J Epidemiol Community Health. 2003 Jan;57(1):50-5
Date
Jan-2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Air Pollutants - adverse effects
Asthma - epidemiology - etiology
Carbon Monoxide - adverse effects
Child
Cross-Over Studies
Environmental Exposure - adverse effects
Female
Gases - adverse effects
Hospitalization - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Logistic Models
Male
Nitrogen Dioxide - adverse effects
Odds Ratio
Ontario - epidemiology
Ozone - adverse effects
Regression Analysis
Sulfur Dioxide - adverse effects
Abstract
Assess associations between short-term exposure to gaseous pollutants and asthma hospitalisation among boys and girls 6 to12 years of age.
A bi-directional case-crossover analysis was used. Conditional logistic regression models were fitted to the data for boys and girls separately. Exposures averaged over periods ranging from one to seven days were used to assess the effects of gaseous pollutants on asthma hospitalisation. Estimated relative risks for asthma hospitalisation were calculated for an incremental exposure corresponding to the interquartile range in pollutant levels, adjusted for daily weather conditions and concomitant exposure to particulate matter.
Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
A total of 7319 asthma hospitalisations for children 6 to 12 years of age (4629 for boys and 2690 for girls) in Toronto between 1981 and 1993.
A significant acute effect of carbon monoxide on asthma hospitalisation was found in boys, and sulphur dioxide showed significant effects of prolonged exposure in girls. Nitrogen dioxide was positively associated with asthma admissions in both sexes. The lag time for certain gaseous pollutant effects seemed to be shorter in boys (around two to three days for carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide), as compared with girls (about six to seven days for sulphur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide). The effects of gaseous pollutants on asthma hospitalisation remained after adjustment of particulate matter. The data showed no association between ozone and asthma hospitalisation in children.
The study showed positive relations between gaseous pollutants (carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide, and nitrogen dioxide) at comparatively low levels and asthma hospitalisation in children, using bi-directional case-crossover analyses. Though, the effects of certain specific gaseous pollutants were found to vary in boys and girls.
Notes
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PubMed ID
12490649 View in PubMed
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Effects of low ambient levels of ozone and sulfates on the frequency of respiratory admissions to Ontario hospitals.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature218206
Source
Environ Res. 1994 May;65(2):172-94
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-1994
Author
R T Burnett
R E Dales
M E Raizenne
D. Krewski
P W Summers
G R Roberts
M. Raad-Young
T. Dann
J. Brook
Author Affiliation
Environmental Health Center, Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario.
Source
Environ Res. 1994 May;65(2):172-94
Date
May-1994
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Age Factors
Aged
Air Pollution - adverse effects - analysis
Child
Child, Preschool
Emergencies
Female
Hospitalization - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Middle Aged
Ontario - epidemiology
Ozone - adverse effects - analysis
Regression Analysis
Respiratory Tract Diseases - chemically induced - epidemiology
Sulfates - adverse effects - analysis
Time Factors
Abstract
To investigate the acute respiratory health effects of ambient air pollution, the number of emergency of urgent daily respiratory admissions to 168 acute care hospitals in Ontario were related to estimates of exposure to ozone and sulfates in the vicinity of each hospital. Ozone levels were obtained from 22 monitoring stations maintained by the Ontario Ministry of the Environment for the period January 1, 1983 to December 31, 1988. Daily levels of sulfates were recorded at nine monitoring stations representing three different networks operated by the Ontario Ministry of the Environment and Environment Canada. Positive and statistically significant associations were found between hospital admissions and both ozone and sulfates recorded on the day of admission and up to 3 days prior to the date of admission. Five percent of daily respiratory admissions in the months of May to August were associated with ozone, with sulfates accounting for an additional 1% of these admissions. Ozone was a stronger predictor of admissions than sulfates. Positive and statistically significant (P
PubMed ID
8187735 View in PubMed
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Methods for detecting and estimating population threshold concentrations for air pollution-related mortality with exposure measurement error.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature198912
Source
Risk Anal. 1999 Jun;19(3):487-96
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-1999
Author
S. Cakmak
R T Burnett
D. Krewski
Author Affiliation
Health Protection Branch, Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.
Source
Risk Anal. 1999 Jun;19(3):487-96
Date
Jun-1999
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Air Pollutants - analysis
Air Pollution - analysis - statistics & numerical data
Computer simulation
Environmental Exposure - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Linear Models
Models, Statistical
Mortality
Nonlinear Dynamics
Ontario - epidemiology
Population
Regression Analysis
Risk assessment
Statistics, nonparametric
Abstract
The association between daily fluctuations in ambient particulate matter and daily variations in nonaccidental mortality have been extensively investigated. Although it is now widely recognized that such an association exists, the form of the concentration-response model is still in question. Linear, no threshold and linear threshold models have been most commonly examined. In this paper we considered methods to detect and estimate threshold concentrations using time series data of daily mortality rates and air pollution concentrations. Because exposure is measured with error, we also considered the influence of measurement error in distinguishing between these two completing model specifications. The methods were illustrated on a 15-year daily time series of nonaccidental mortality and particulate air pollution data in Toronto, Canada. Nonparametric smoothed representations of the association between mortality and air pollution were adequate to graphically distinguish between these two forms. Weighted nonlinear regression methods for relative risk models were adequate to give nearly unbiased estimates of threshold concentrations even under conditions of extreme exposure measurement error. The uncertainty in the threshold estimates increased with the degree of exposure error. Regression models incorporating threshold concentrations could be clearly distinguished from linear relative risk models in the presence of exposure measurement error. The assumption of a linear model given that a threshold model was the correct form usually resulted in overestimates in the number of averted premature deaths, except for low threshold concentrations and large measurement error.
PubMed ID
10765418 View in PubMed
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8 records – page 1 of 1.