The present study investigated the association between 24-h urinary sodium excretion and heart rate in the determination of blood pressure (BP) levels in a large random population sample from eastern Finland. Three independent risk factor surveys were performed in 1979, 1982 and 1987 using the same methodology. Data from each survey was pooled for subjects aged 25-64 years who reported a complete 24-h urine collection and were not on the current antihypertensive treatment (1640 men and 1686 women). The effect of urinary sodium excretion and heart rate was examined by regressing BP on urinary sodium excretion and pulse rate, together with age and body mass index (BMI). Analyses stratified by quintiles of heart rate were also performed. There was no association between urinary sodium and BP either in men or in women. There was a significant correlation between heart rate and both systolic and diastolic BP in both men and women. A significant interaction between age and BMI with heart rate was also found in both sexes. Interaction between urinary sodium and heart rate was found neither in men nor in women. Among men, after adjustment for age and BMI, there was a curvilinear relation between 24-h urinary excretion of sodium and diastolic BP (P = 0.054) in the lowest quintile of heart rate (
We studied the association of glucose intolerance with total and cause-specific mortality during a 5-year follow-up of 637 elderly Finnish men aged 65 to 84 years. Total mortality was 276 per 1000 for men aged 65 to 74 years and 537 per 1000 for men aged 75 to 84 years. Five-year total mortality adjusted for age was 364 per 1000 in diabetic men, 234 per 1000 in men with impaired glucose tolerance and 209 per 1000 in men with normal glucose tolerance. The relative risk of death among diabetic men was 2.10 (95% confidence interval 1.26 to 3.49) and among men with impaired glucose tolerance 1.17 (95% confidence interval 0.71 to 1.94) times higher compared with men with normal glucose tolerance. Cardiovascular disease was the most common cause of death in every glucose tolerance group. The multivariate adjusted relative risk of cardiovascular death was increased (1.55) in diabetic patients, albeit non-significantly (95% confidence interval 0.84 to 2.85). Diabetes resulted in an increased risk of cardiovascular mortality among men aged 65-74 years but not among the 75- 84-year-old men. Relative risk of death from non-cardiovascular causes was slightly increased among diabetic subjects. In conclusion, diabetes mellitus is a significant determinant of mortality among elderly Finnish men.
To investigate the role of diet as a predictor of glucose intolerance and non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM).
At the 30-year follow-up survey of the Dutch and Finnish cohorts of the Seven Countries Study, in 1989/1990, men were examined according to a standardized protocol including a 2-h oral glucose tolerance test. Information on habitual food consumption was obtained using the cross-check dietary history method. Those 338 men in whom information on habitual diet was also available 20 years earlier were included in this study. Subjects known as having diabetes in 1989/1990 were excluded from the analyses.
Adjusting for age and cohort, the intake of total, saturated, and monounsaturated fatty acids and dietary cholesterol 20 years before diagnosis was higher in men with newly diagnosed diabetes in the survey than in men with normal or impaired glucose tolerance. After adjustment for cohort, age, past body mass index, and past energy intake, the past intake of total fat was positively associated with 2-h postload glucose level (P
Factors predicting disability in late life were studied in 716 men from eastern or southwestern Finland in connection with the 25-year follow-up of the East-West Study, which is part of the Seven Countries Study, in 1984. In middle-aged men, low forced vital capacity, occurrence of diabetes, presence of intermittent claudication, high diastolic blood pressure, higher age and lower educational level showed the greatest predicting power for future disability 15-25 years later. In later middle age, low forced vital capacity, presence of intermittent claudication, cerebrovascular disease or coronary heart disease and higher age were the most powerful predictors for disability 10 years later. In order to lower disability in old age, it is important to prevent deterioration of ventilatory function and cardiovascular diseases in middle-aged populations and to treat chronic diseases adequately.
The epsilon 4 allele of the apolipoprotein E (apoE) is associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and also with elevated serum total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein levels. However, the interrelationships between apoE genotype, plasma cholesterol levels and AD risk have been studied very little. We examined the possible role of serum total cholesterol in the pathogenesis of AD in a population-based sample of 444 men, aged 70-89 years, who were survivors of the Finnish cohorts of the Seven Countries Study. Previous high serum cholesterol level (mean level > or = 6.5 mmol/l) was a significant predictor of the prevalence of AD (odds ratio = 3.1; 95% confidence interval = 1.2, 8.5) after controlling for age and the presence of apoE epsilon 4 allele. In men who subsequently developed AD the cholesterol level decreased before the clinical manifestations of AD. We conclude that high serum total cholesterol may be an independent risk factor for AD and some of the effect of the apoE epsilon 4 allele on risk of AD might be mediated through high serum cholesterol.
To assess the association of smoking with the risk of glucose intolerance (diabetes plus impaired glucose tolerance).
A cohort consisting of 1,711 Finnish men born in 1900-1919 were followed up from 1959 to 1994. Smoking status was assessed in a similar way at each of the six surveys from 1959 to 1989, and subjects were classified as never, former, or current smokers. Diagnosis of diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance was made according to the oral glucose tolerance tests made in 1984 and 1989, and the 1985 World Health Organization criteria was applied.
Association between smoking and glucose intolerance was estimated separately for 420 participants and 243 nonparticipants in 1989. Multiple logistic regression analyses show that odds ratios of glucose intolerance in 1984 for current smokers in 1984 were 0.36 (0.19-0.70) and 1.20 (0.52-2.78), respectively, in the participants and the nonparticipants in 1989. Among the nonparticipants in 1989, the odds ratio for current smokers in 1969 was 2.23 (1.00-4.96). A reduced risk of glucose intolerance in 1989 associated with smoking in the participants in 1989 was found to be significant from the beginning of the follow-up. The participants in 1989 were generally healthier and had a longer life expectancy than the nonparticipants in 1989.
In a retrospective study of men, an increased risk of diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance in smokers was found among the nonparticipants, but a reduced risk was found among the participants in 1989. The difference observed might be attributed to the fact that the participants were constitutionally different from the nonparticipants.
Permanent smoking cessation reduces loss of pulmonary function. Less is known in the long term about individuals who give up smoking temporarily or quitters with lower initial pulmonary function. Little is known also about the relationship between decline in pulmonary function and mortality. We examined these aspects and the association between smoking, decline in pulmonary function, and mortality.
Two middle aged male Finnish cohorts of the Seven Countries Study and their re-examinations on five occasions during a 30 year period of follow up were analysed.
During the first 15 years (n=1007) adjusted decline in forced expiratory volume in 0.75 seconds (FEV(0.75)) was 46.4 ml/year in never smokers, 49.3 ml/year in past smokers, 55.5 ml/year in permanent quitters, 55.5 ml/year in intermittent quitters, and 66.0 ml/year in continuous smokers (p
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