A population-based cohort study of 36 856 women diagnosed with alcoholism in Sweden between 1965 and 1995 found that alcoholic women had only a small 15% increase in breast-cancer incidence compared to the general female population. It is therefore apparent, contrary to expectation, that alcoholism does not increase breast-cancer risk in proportion to presumed ethanol intake.
BACKGROUND: Nonmelanoma skin cancer is associated with increased occurrence of subsequent cancer and death from cancer, but it is not known whether a history of skin cancer is associated with poor prognosis after a second diagnosis of cancer. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether history of squamous-cell skin cancer is a marker of poor prognosis in patients with cancer. DESIGN: Population-based cohort study. SETTING: Sweden, 1958 to 1996. PATIENTS: All patients in the Swedish Cancer Registry with or without a first diagnosis of squamous-cell skin cancer and a subsequent or first diagnosis of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (including chronic lymphocytic leukemia) or cancer of the colon, breast, prostate, or lung. MEASUREMENTS: Relative risk (RR) for death determined by using Cox proportional hazards regression analysis. RESULTS: Patients with a history of squamous-cell skin cancer had a significantly greater risk for death than those with no such history after receiving a diagnosis of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (RR, 1.33), colon cancer (RR, 1.24), breast cancer (RR, 1.19), or prostate cancer (RR, 1.17). Patients with lung cancer and a history of squamous-cell skin cancer who survived for 1 year after diagnosis of lung cancer also had an increased risk for death (RR, 1.29). CONCLUSION: Patients with a registered history of squamous-cell skin cancer have a poor prognosis after diagnosis of subsequent cancer and warrant careful medical attention.
Evaluation of the adverse effects of breast cancer treatment is becoming increasingly important in light of the earlier detection and prolonged survival of the patients. The beneficial effect of post-surgical radiotherapy has lately been challenged. The Swedish Cancer Registry (SCR) was used to identify approximately 141000 women with breast cancer, diagnosed between 1958 and 1997, followed-up for the occurrence of lung cancer. Standardised incidence ratios and expected number of lung cancers were calculated using incidence rates from the SCR. There were 613 subsequent lung cancers and a statistically significant increased risk of lung cancer was seen >5 years after breast cancer diagnosis, in contrast to a significantly decreased risk the first five years after the breast cancer diagnosis. The latter finding was confined to those >60 years of age when diagnosed with breast cancer. When restricting the analyses to those cases with information on the laterality of breast and lung cancer, an increased risk of a lung cancer on the same side as the breast cancer was seen >10 years after the breast cancer diagnosis. Birth cohorts with a higher smoking prevalence, i.e. 1930-1949, revealed a higher risk of lung cancer, than previous birth cohorts. Women with breast cancer have a significantly increased risk of developing a subsequent lung cancer possibly related to an interaction between radiotherapy and smoking.
Epidemiological studies of in situ breast cancer are sparse, and the role of reproductive history, an established risk modifier for invasive breast cancer, remains incompletely investigated. To examine possible associations with parity and age at first birth, we undertook a case-control study nested in a nationwide cohort of Swedish women. The reproductive history of 1,368 women aged 65 or younger with a diagnosis of carcinoma in situ of the breast were compared with that of 6,837 age-matched controls drawn randomly from a population-based Fertility Registry. Statistical analyses were performed by conditional logistic regression. Compared to nulliparous women, ever-parous women were at a reduced risk of carcinoma in situ of the breast. The risk decreased with number of live births, with the estimated risk reduction in the highest parity group (5+), being of the same magnitude as that reported for invasive breast cancer. By contrast, a positive association with increasing age at first birth was somewhat less pronounced than that observed previously in the same data set with respect to invasive breast cancer. Our findings indicate that parity affects the risk of invasive breast cancer and carcinoma in situ similarly, whereas the effect of age at first birth appears to be weaker for the risk of carcinoma in situ.
Information about the etiology of childhood myeloid leukemia is limited. A population-based nested case-control study of prenatal and neonatal risk factors for childhood myeloid leukemia was performed with the use of the Swedish National Cancer Register and the Swedish Birth Register. A total of 98 cases of myeloid leukemia were identified in successive birth cohorts from 1973 through 1989. From the Birth Register, five controls were matched to each case. Fourteen of the 98 cases with myeloid leukemia and none of the controls had Down syndrome [odds ratio (OR) = infinity; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 21.0-infinity]. The risk for myeloid leukemia also increased among children who had physiological jaundice (OR = 2.5; 95% CI = 1.2-5.0; children who had been treated with phototherapy (OR = 7.5; 95% CI = 1.8-31.9); or who had been treated in an incubator (OR = 3.5; 95% CI = 1.2-10.2). Excluding cases with Down syndrome, however, decreased these risks, so that their 95% lower confidence interval included the no-effect value. Maternal age
AIM: To assess the safety of proton pump inhibitors during pregnancy. METHODS: Fifty-one pregnant women exposed to proton pump inhibitors around the time of conception or during pregnancy were compared with 13 327 controls without exposure to any prescribed drug in a population-based study based on The Pharmaco-Epidemiological Prescription Database of North Jutland and the Danish Hospital Discharge Registry. RESULTS: Three babies with malformations were found among 38 women exposed to proton pump inhibitors from 30 days before conception to the end of the first trimester. No cases of stillbirth were recorded. Crude relative risks of malformation, low birth weight and preterm delivery were 1.6 (95% CI: 0.5-5.1), 1.8 (95% CI: 0.2-13.0) and 2.3 (95% CI: 0.9-6.0), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: In this population-based follow-up study, we found no substantially elevated risk in terms of malformations, low birth weight or number of preterm deliveries in pregnancies exposed to proton pump inhibitors. However, further monitoring is warranted in order to establish or rule out a potential association between the use of proton pump inhibitors and increased risk of either cardiac malformations or preterm birth.
Recent research suggests that intrauterine exposures, perhaps factors that influence birth weight and other indicators of fetal growth, may affect future breast cancer risk. Because birth weight shows seasonal variation in Sweden, we assessed whether risk for breast cancer is associated with month of birth. The analyses included all 115,670 women, born between 1858 and 1968, who were reported to the Swedish Cancer Registry in 1958-89 as having breast cancer. Poisson regression models were used to examine the data. After adjustment for seasonality of number of live births in the population at risk, a significant seasonal pattern was identified for women born between 1880 and 1920. Women born in June had a 5% higher risk of breast cancer than those born in December. By contrast, there was no evidence of birth seasonality among 440,948 women with cancer at other sites. Exposures relevant to breast cancer risk later in life are unlikely to be related to month of birth. Thus, prenatal or early post-natal factors influence breast carcinogenesis, but the seasonal variation in these factors must have decreased over time.
Indirect evidence, notably ecological comparisons and an association with skin cancer, links non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) with exposure to sunlight. We conducted a population-based, nationwide cohort study with exposure to outdoor work inferred from job titles reported in the population and housing censuses in 1960 and/or 1970 and by classifying each individual's work and home addresses according to latitude. Follow-up for cancer incidence was accomplished through record linkages with the virtually complete Swedish Cancer Registry. The cohort included all Swedish residents who were recorded as gainfully employed in both censuses. Altogether 4,171,175 individuals contributing 69,639,237 person-years accrued through 1989 were included in the analyses. We identified 10,381 cases of NHL, 4,018 cases of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), 11,398 cases of malignant melanoma (MM) and 11,913 cases of squamous cell skin cancer (SCC). We calculated age-adjusted relative risks for NHL, CLL, MM and SCC in strata based on estimated residential and occupational sunlight exposure. Interaction effects were considered for pesticide and solvent exposure. NHL, MM and SCC, but not CLL, were positively associated with increasingly southerly residential latitude, with stronger associations seen for skin cancer compared to NHL. Occupational sun exposure was not associated with the risk of developing any of the studied cancers. Pesticides and solvents also were not related to an increased risk of NHL, nor did these exposures enhance effects of residential or occupational sunlight exposure. Our results provide some support for an association of sunlight exposure with NHL incidence based on the associations seen using geographic latitude of residence as a proxy for exposure. Although type of occupation may be an imperfect index of the biologically relevant ultraviolet (UV) light dose, our data on individual exposure are not consistent with an important role of sunlight in the etiology of NHL.
Comment In: Int J Cancer. 2000 Sep 15;87(6):884-610956402