This study aims to better understand the contributions of occupation and work organization conditions to the development of chronic psychotropic drugs use among workers in Canada.
The study is based on a secondary analysis of the longitudinal data of the National Population Health Survey (NPHS) of Statistics Canada which includes five cycles from 1994-1995 to 2002-2003. A panel of 6585 people from 15 to 55 years old and employed at cycle 1 and nested in 1413 neighbourhoods was selected. Multilevel models of regression were estimated on three levels: repeated measures (level 1=24,785 observations) were nested in the individuals (level 2=6585 individuals) and the individuals nested in the local communities (level 3=1413 neighborhoods).
The prevalence of multiple episodes (two episodes and more between cycle 1 and cycle 5) of psychotropic drugs use was 6.7% (95%CI=6.0-7.4%). Only occupation and the number of working hours showed a significant contribution. Family and individual variables like marital status and personality traits (locus of control and sense of coherence) had a significant contribution, in addition to time, gender, age, physical health, number of cigarettes and stressful childhood events.
Work contributes weakly to the risk of chronic psychotropic drugs use, whereas individual characteristics make a much more important contribution to the phenomenon.
The aim of the study was to identify the unique contribution of three sets of contextual factors (maternal supports, family problems and characteristics of the sexual aggression) on adolescents' post-disclosure symptoms. All participants were abused by a family member.
A total of 71 adolescents girls were recruited from youth center services across Quebec. Psychological distress was evaluated with "Trauma Symptoms Checklist for Children" (TSC-C; Briere, 1989). Adolescents also completed self-report instruments and semi-structured interviews to evaluate contextual factors.
Regression analyses indicated that general maternal support explain more variance in most of TSC-C symptoms than maternal response to disclosure. Analysis highlight that alcohol problems in family and various characteristics of sexual aggression explain a unique part of variance of several symptoms.
The discussion addresses the need to continue to explore these questions with more specific instruments to evaluate family problems. A large spectrum of symptoms should also be considered.
Vegetable and fruit consumption helps reduce the occurrence of overweight, obesity, and other chronic diseases. However, only 50% of young adults eat at least five servings of these foods daily. Based on the construct of the Theory of planned behaviour of Ajzen (1991) to which other constructs were added (descriptive norm, perceived regularity of the behaviour and past behaviour), this study aims at identifying the determinants in the intention of young adults in postsecondary education institutions to eat at least five servings of vegetables and fruit daily during the next three months.
A sample of 385 students in two CEGEP (junior college institutions) in the Quebec City area participated in this correlation study on a volunteer basis. While attending class, they completed a self-administered questionnaire.
Hierarchical regression analyses showed that perceived behavioural controls and the perceived weight of facilitating factors and barriers to the behaviour, explained 75% of the intention variance. Another 4% was explained when the perceived regularity of the behaviour, the descriptive norm, and past-behaviour, were added to the analysis. Logistic regression analyses show that individuals presenting weak/strong intention can be differentiated among themselves as to the perception of benefits derived from a daily consumption of vegetables and fruit (such as maintaining good health, eating foods that taste good), and as to facilitating factors/barriers that assist or inhibit such consumption (possessing more information on the nutritional value and taste of vegetables and fruit, or disposing of sufficient time to prepare them).
To our knowledge, this is the first study done in Quebec using a recognized theoretical model to identify the determinants of the intention to eat at least five servings of vegetables and fruit daily in a sample of young adults in postsecondary education institutions. The results may be helpful in designing the contents of interventions aimed at maintaining and increasing daily consumption of vegetables and fruit by young adults.
The study estimates the economic costs of early vulnerability in the light of population-level data showing that between 25% and 30% of Canadian children do not arrive at kindergarten meeting all of the developmental benchmarks they need to thrive both now and into the future.
The study examines Early Development Instrument (EDI) data across Canada as of 2008/09, and across time within British Columbia since 2001. We then link the BC EDI data with school achievement results on standardized tests in grades four and seven, along with graduation records and criminal justice information.
The result is a synthetic cohort with which we can simulate the impact on economic growth of reducing early vulnerability in BC from its current rate of 29% to 10%, a threshold above which child vulnerability is biologically unnecessary.
Nearly three times what it should be, a rate of early vulnerability that approaches 30% signals that the country now tolerates an unnecessary brain drain that will dramatically deplete our future stock of human capital. Economic analyses reveal that this depletion will cause Canada to forgo 20% in GDP (gross domestic product) growth over the next 60 years. The economic value of this loss is equivalent to investing $2.2 trillion to $3.4 trillion today at a rate of 3.5% interest, even after paying for the social investment required to reduce vulnerability.
This study evaluated the effectiveness of an intervention in improving the general, academic, physical and social self-concepts of 2nd to 6th grade students. The activities were carried out by the teachers during the 1992-93 school year. A questionnaire was completed by 271 students of the experimental school and by 467 students of the control school, both before and after the intervention. The multiple regression analyses showed important adjusted gains for self-concepts related to physical appearance, mathematics and relationship with parents. In all three cases, students with the largest deficit benefitted most from the intervention. This study shows that it is possible to improve self-concept and to do so through an intervention carried out in the school environment. This double finding is important to the promotion of psycho-social adaptation since self-concept is an important determinant and since few interventions have reached similar objectives.
It is a known fact that the 1990s brought a decrease in mortality after myocardial infarction in Sweden but that differences in mortality rates following myocardial infarction still remain between the Swedish counties. Unresolved, however, are questions as to what these inter-county differences mean for the individual patient and what role hospital care plays in this context. We analysed all patients aged 64-85 years who were hospitalised following diagnosis of myocardial infarction in Sweden during the period 1993-1996. To gain an understanding of the relevance of geographical differences in mortality after myocardial infarction for the individual patient we applied multi-level regression analysis and calculated county and hospital median odds ratios (MORs) in relation to 28-day mortality. For hospitalised patients with myocardial infarction, being cared for in another hospital with higher mortality would increase the risk of dying by 9% (MOR = l.09) in men and 12% in women. If these patients moved to another county with higher mortality the risk would increase by 7% and 3%, respectively. The small geographical differences in 28-day mortality after myocardial infarction found in Sweden suggest a high degree of equality across the country; however, further improvement could be achieved in hospital care, especially for women--an issue that deserves further analysis.
Comment In: Lakartidningen. 2005 Jan 3-16;102(1-2):9-1015707101
To estimate the effect on collisions of a police traffic safety strategy carried out between January and December 2007, in the province of Quebec, Canada.
This strategy was implemented by several key players (Société de I'Assurance Automobile du Québec, Sûreté du Québec, Montreal Police Department and 34 other municipal police organizations) and targeted the leading causes of traffic casualties such as drinking and driving, speeding and not wearing a seat belt. The strategy has two main components: 1) joint law enforcement operations in which all the police organizations take part, and 2) police organizations targeting local traffic safety problems. Media campaigns supported all operations.
Over the intervention period, traffic citations issued for speed limit violations, not fastening the seat belt and running the red light or a stop sign increased from 2006 rates by 27, 33 and 8%, respectively. The Société de I'Assurance Automobile du Québec spent more than $5 million in mass media campaigns.
According to our results, the strategy was associated with decreases varying between 14 and 36% in collisions with serious injuries. In spite of evidence of downward trends for the period under investigation, neither fatal nor minor injury collisions were significantly affected by introduction of the strategy.
Police programs characterized by a substantial increase in the distribution of traffic citations and supported by mass media campaigns represent an effective strategy to prevent traffic casualties.
This pilot study proposes an index to quantify the intensity of high-risk anal sex and presents factors associated with this practice among 65 homosexual men with HIV infection. All of them answered a self-administered questionnaire. Using multiple logistic regression, we first compared those who had had safe sex in the past six months to those who had had unsafe sex. Variables significantly associated with unsafe sex are: drugs and/or alcohol use with sex, and less favorable attitude towards condom use. Finally, multiple linear regression analysis among respondents who had had unsafe sex indicated that the following factors are associated with higher levels of unsafe sex: men between the ages of 32 and 38, satisfied with their social life, non-smokers, with a less favorable attitude towards condom use, and with few social relationships. These results must be interpreted with caution because of the small number of respondents.
Faculté de médecine de l'Université de Sherbrooke et Centre de recherche sur le vieillissement de l'Institut universitaire de geriatrie de Sherbrooke, 1036 rue Belvedere Sud, Sherbrooke, QC, J1H 4C4, Canada. Dany.Fortin@USherbrooke.ca
In Quebec, benzodiazepines are some of the most extensively used drugs by the elderly. The goal of this study was to identify factors associated with short- and long-term benzodiazepine use among 2,039 elderly persons having participated in the Quebec Health Survey conducted in 1998. Results of the multivariate, multinomial logistic regression showed that a higher number of chronic health problems, a higher number of physicians visited and general practitioners consulted were associated with short- and long-term use of benzodiazepines. Factors specifically associated with long-term use were female gender (OR = 1.84) and the presence of benzodiazepine users in the household (OR = 1.90). In this study, we were unable to show a difference between the two groups of users with regards to the risk factors studied. This result leads us to conclude that prevention of long-term use must be aimed at all new benzodiazepine users.