Mental disorders are a key cause of sickness absence (SA) and challenge prolonging working careers. Thus, evidence on the development of SA trends is needed. In this study, educational differences in long SAs due to mental disorders were examined in two age groups among employees of the City of Helsinki from 2004 to 2013.
All permanently and temporarily employed staff aged 18-34 and 35-49 were included in the analyses (n=~27800 per year). SA spells of =14 days due to mental disorders were examined annually. Education was classified to higher and lower levels. Joinpoint regression was used to identify major turning points in SA trends.
Joinpoint regression models showed that lower educated groups had more long SAs spells due to mental disorders than those groups with higher education. SA trends decreased during the study period in all studied age and educational groups. Lower educated age groups had similar SA trends. Younger employees with higher education had the fewest SAs.
A clear educational gradient was found in long SAs due to mental disorders during the study period. SA trends decreased from 2004 to 2013.
Risk factors for the development of stroke was studied in a prospective long-term investigation of 855 male in a random population sampled of the same age. After 13 years of follow-up 25 participants had suffered from stroke, which gives an incidence of 19/10,000 annually. At the 1963 year investigation several parametras were studied. The stroke-prone person had higher values of systolic and diastolic blood pressure and had a significant greater total heart volume. Blood parametras as the fasting of serum cholesterole, triglyceride and erytrocyte sedimentation rate were significantly elevated in those who developed stroke. They also tended to consume more coffee and showed a higher tobacco consumption. By applying the multiple regression model it was disclosed that the most predective risk-variables were diastolic blood pressure, erytrocyte sedimentation rate and smoking habits.
Revealing causal effects from correlative data is very challenging and a contemporary problem in human life history research owing to the lack of experimental approach. Problems with causal inference arising from measurement error in independent variables, whether related either to inaccurate measurement technique or validity of measurements, seem not well-known in this field. The aim of this study is to show how structural equation modeling (SEM) with latent variables can be applied to account for measurement error in independent variables when the researcher has recorded several indicators of a hypothesized latent construct.
As a simple example of this approach, measurement error in lifetime allocation of resources to reproduction in Finnish preindustrial women is modelled in the context of the survival cost of reproduction. In humans, lifetime energetic resources allocated in reproduction are almost impossible to quantify with precision and, thus, typically used measures of lifetime reproductive effort (e.g., lifetime reproductive success and parity) are likely to be plagued by measurement error. These results are contrasted with those obtained from a traditional regression approach where the single best proxy of lifetime reproductive effort available in the data is used for inference.
As expected, the inability to account for measurement error in women's lifetime reproductive effort resulted in the underestimation of its underlying effect size on post-reproductive survival.
This article emphasizes the advantages that the SEM framework can provide in handling measurement error via multiple-indicator latent variables in human life history studies.
Cadmium, zinc, and copper from placental tissue and blood samples at the first trimester (n = 64) and at term (n = 152) were analyzed; the welfare of newborns and placental 7-ethoxycoumarin O-deethylase (ECOD) activities in vitro were determined. The study material was collected from Finland, Estonia, and Russia. The results demonstrate that Cd starts to accumulate in the placenta during the first trimester and that Zn and Cu contents were significantly higher at the first trimester than at term. Among nonsmokers a negative correlation was found between placental Cu content and birth weight of neonates. Among smokers a positive correlation between placental Zn content and birth weight and ECOD activity was found. The birth weights correlated inversely with the length of time the mothers smoked. The highest Cd concentrations were detected in the samples collected from St. Petersburg. The data demonstrate an inverse accumulation of Zn and Cd throughout the pregnancy in the placenta and maternal blood samples. Zn may act as a positive marker or even an enzymatic enhancement for the human placental vital functions. Smoking, parity, age, and especially the place of residence affect the Cd, Zn, and Cu contents and ratios in placenta and mother's blood.
According to the 'good genes' hypothesis, females choose males based on traits that indicate the male's genetic quality in terms of disease resistance. The 'immunocompetence handicap hypothesis' proposed that secondary sexual traits serve as indicators of male genetic quality, because they indicate that males can contend with the immunosuppressive effects of testosterone. Masculinity is commonly assumed to serve as such a secondary sexual trait. Yet, women do not consistently prefer masculine looking men, nor is masculinity consistently related to health across studies. Here, we show that adiposity, but not masculinity, significantly mediates the relationship between a direct measure of immune response (hepatitis B antibody response) and attractiveness for both body and facial measurements. In addition, we show that circulating testosterone is more closely associated with adiposity than masculinity. These findings indicate that adiposity, compared with masculinity, serves as a more important cue to immunocompetence in female mate choice.
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This paper examines whether the relationship between parental work and adolescents' well-being would be mediated through parenting behaviour. The primary focus was on the experiences of adolescents. Questionnaire-based data from families (both parents and one children, n = 77) and adolescents (n = 126) were collected in Finland in 2000 and 2001, respectively. The adolescents were on average 14 years old. Results showed that the relationships between parents' negative work experiences and adolescents' depression (all perceived by adolescents) were partially mediated by adolescents' experience of lessened autonomy granting in parenting and increased conflicts between parents and adolescents. In addition, the relations between fathers' negative work experiences and adolescents' negative attitude regarding school (all reported by adolescents) were mediated by adolescents' perceptions of increased conflicts between fathers and adolescents.
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between adolescent subjective well-being (SWB) and family dynamics perceived by adolescents and their parents. A sample of 239 pupils (51% female) from seventh and ninth grades completed the Berne questionnaire of SWB (youth form), two subscales from an original Finnish SWB scale and the Family Dynamics Measure II, and one of their parents (n = 239) filled in the Family Dynamics Measure II. Results indicated that parents assessed family dynamics better than did their adolescent child. Furthermore, there was no association between family dynamics perceived by adolescents and family dynamics assessed by one of their parents or between the adolescent SWB and parental perception of family dynamics. Multiple stepwise regression analysis indicated that certain aspects of family dynamics perceived by adolescents were related to adolescent global satisfaction and ill-being. Specifically, adolescents' perception of high level of mutuality and stability in the family as well as male gender and lack of serious problems in family were predictors of adolescent global satisfaction. Furthermore, disorganization in the family and poor parental relationship perceived by adolescents, being female, serious problems and illness in family predicted a high level of adolescent global ill-being.
A population's potential for evolutionary change depends on the amount of genetic variability expressed in traits under selection. Studies attempting to measure this variability typically do so over the life span of individuals, but theory suggests that the amount of additive genetic variance can change during the course of individuals' lives. Here we use pedigree data from historical Finns and a quantitative genetic framework to investigate how female fecundity, throughout an individual's reproductive life, is influenced by "maternal" versus additive genetic effects. We show that although maternal effects explain variation in female fecundity early in life, these effects wane with female age. Moreover, this decline in maternal effects is associated with a concomitant increase in additive genetic variance with age. Our results thus highlight that single over-lifetime estimates of trait heritability may give a misleading view of a trait's potential to respond to changing selection pressures.
The exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) was measured in a Finnish coking plant over a 7-year period (1988-1994), since the beginning of production. Hygienic measurements including dust and vapour sampling were performed and the correlations between the concentrations of airborne pyrene with the levels of pyrene metabolite 1-pyrenol in urine were calculated. The profile of measured 12 or 15 PAHs was very similar between mean concentrations of personal samples, which suggests that it is possible to calculate the concentrations of total PAH by using e.g. pyrene as a marker compound. Measurements suggest that the progress of working conditions has been very favourable because the mean exposure level of shift workers to benzo[a]pyrene has decreased from 2.5 micrograms/m3 to 0.3 micrograms/m3. This points to successful measures of technical prevention. The mean concentration of 1-pyrenol in urine has been 0.2-0.6 mumol/mol creatinine. The concentration increases slightly towards the end of the working day, but the correlation urinary pyrenol and air pyrene was weak. Therefore the usefulness of pyrenol level for predicting the pyrene concentration at low exposure level in the ambient air is very limited.
The connection between the amount of antenatal care and pregnancy outcome was studied using the 1987 Finnish Medical Birth Registry. A total of 57,108 women were included in the analysis. The timing of initiation of antenatal care and the relative number of antenatal visits (adjusted by gestation length), were used as measures of amount of antenatal care. Nine outcome variables measuring infant health and interventions were studied. Logistic regression was used to adjust for differences in maternal background characteristics. Women beginning antenatal care after the 16th week of gestation had the poorest outcome. Early attending multiparous women had a higher risk of low birthweight, premature infants, caesarean section and instrumental delivery than did those with average timing of their first attendance. For primigravidas, the increased risk was of prematurity only. A U-shaped curve was found for most of the outcome variables in regard to relative number of visits. The women with many visits had the poorest outcome, and also the highest rates of caesarean section and induction of labour. One reason for the unexpectedly high risks for early attenders may be connected with the content of antenatal care. In Finland, it might be possible to reduce the total number of antenatal visits without having any negative effect on infant health.