Risk factors for late fetal death and early neonatal mortality were examined in a population based prospective study. Practically all Swedish births between 1983 and 1985 were included, 281,808 births in all. The overall rates of late fetal death and early neonatal mortality were 3.5 and 3.1 per 1000, respectively. About 30% of the pregnant women were recorded as being daily smokers. Logistic regression analyses showed significant relative risks for late fetal death for high maternal age (1.4), nulliparity (1.4), multiparity (greater than or equal to 2) (1.3), smoking (1.4), and multiple births (2.8). Significant relative risks for early neonatal mortality were found for multiple births (4.9) and smoking (1.2). Smokers aged under 35 faced a relative risk of late fetal death ranging from 1.1 to 1.6, while the risk for late fetal death was doubled if the mothers were aged 35 years or more and smoked. In countries like Sweden, where maternal cigarette smoking is prevalent, smoking may be the most important preventable risk factor for late fetal death.
OBJECTIVE--To investigate the effect of advancing maternal age on pregnancy outcome among healthy nulliparous women, after adjustment for demographic characteristics, smoking, history of infertility, and other medical conditions. DESIGN--A population-based cohort study was conducted with prospectively collected data from the Swedish Medical Birth Register. PATIENTS--Nulliparous Nordic women (N = 173,715), aged 20 years and above, who delivered single births at Swedish hospitals from 1983 through 1987. OUTCOME MEASURES--Late fetal and early neonatal death rates; rates of very low birth weight (VLBW, less than 1500 g), moderately low birth weight (MLBW, 1500 through 2499 g), very preterm delivery (less than or equal to 32 weeks), moderately preterm delivery (33 through 36 weeks), and small-for-gestational-age (SGA) infants (less than -2 SDs). RESULTS--Compared with women aged 20 to 24 years, women aged 30 to 34 years had significantly higher adjusted odds ratios (ORs) of late fetal deaths (OR = 1.4); VLBW (OR = 1.2); MLBW (OR = 1.4); very preterm birth (OR = 1.2); and SGA infants (OR = 1.4). Among women aged 35 to 39 years, the adjusted OR was significantly higher for VLBW (OR = 1.9); MLBW (OR = 1.7); very preterm birth (OR = 1.7); moderately preterm birth (OR = 1.2); and SGA infants (OR = 1.7). Among women 40 years old and older, the adjusted OR was significantly higher for VLBW (OR = 1.8); MLBW (OR = 2.0); very preterm birth (OR = 1.9); moderately preterm birth (OR = 1.5); and SGA infants (OR = 1.4). CONCLUSIONS--Delayed childbearing is associated with an increased risk of poor pregnancy outcomes after adjustment for maternal complications and other risk factors.
Comment In: JAMA. 1993 Feb 10;269(6):745-6; author reply 746-78423649
Comment In: JAMA. 1993 Feb 10;269(6):746; author reply 746-78423650
Comment In: JAMA. 1993 Feb 10;269(6):746; author reply 746-78423651
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of our study was to investigate the combined interactive effects of maternal age, parity, and smoking on pregnancy outcome. STUDY DESIGN: This was a population-based Swedish study (n = 538,829). RESULTS: Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that the smoking-related effect on the relative increase in the odds ratio of low birth weight and preterm delivery was significantly greater among multiparous patients than nulliparous; among multiparas, smoking increased the odds ratios for low birth weight and preterm delivery by 2.4 and 1.6; the corresponding relative increases in the odds ratios among nulliparas were 1.7 and 1.1, respectively. With advancing maternal age there was a smoking-related relative increase in the odds ratios for small-for-gestational-age births. Moreover, the age effect on the relative increase of low birth weight, preterm delivery, and small-for-gestational-age births was greater among nulliparas than multiparas. CONCLUSIONS: Older smokers are at an especially high risk for small-for-gestational-age births, and parous smokers are at an especially high risk for low birth weight and preterm delivery.
OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects of advanced maternal age, nulliparity, and smoking on risk of stillbirth as gestation advances, and to explore possible clinical mediators of these effects. DESIGN: A population based cohort study. SETTING: Sweden, 1983 to 1989. SUBJECTS: All singleton pregnancies of 28 weeks gestation or greater in Nordic citizens at least 20 years old (n = 638,242). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Crude and adjusted risks of stillbirth; gestational age specific risks of stillbirth. RESULTS: Older women (35 years or older), smokers, and nulliparas had elevated risks of stillbirth. The elevated stillbirth risk in smokers was eliminated when women with intrauterine growth retardation, placental abruption, and placenta previa were excluded from the analysis. However, the higher risks in older women and nulliparas persisted even when the analysis excluded women with hypertension, diabetes, placental complications, or growth retardation. Over the course of the third trimester, the age related risk of stillbirth increased, the smoking related risk decreased, and the higher risk in nulliparas showed no clear trend with gestational age. CONCLUSIONS: The association between smoking and stillbirth is explained entirely by the higher incidence of growth retardation and placental complications in smokers. The clinical mediators of the associations of maternal age and parity with stillbirth remain unexplained. Gestational age is an important modifier of the effects of advanced maternal age and smoking on stillbirth risk.
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To analyse factors associated with birth weight and to evaluate the validity of obstetrical data. DESIGN: Obstetrical data were retrieved for singleton men born in 1913 and living in Gothenburg, Sweden in 1963. Information on birth weight, maternal age, marital status, parity, social class, proteinuria, gestational age, and place of birth (home or hospital) was obtained from these birth records. SETTING: Sweden. PARTICIPANTS: Fifty year old men living in Gothenburg, Sweden, in 1963. MAIN RESULTS: Obstetrical records were obtained for 524 men (65%). Place of birth, gestational age, maternal age, parity, proteinuria, and marital status were all significantly correlated to birth weight. In multivariate analyses, place of birth, gestational age, parity, and proteinuria influenced birth weight. There was a substantial difference in mean birth weight between hospital deliveries (3352 g) and home deliveries (3817 g), which could be explained only partly by sociodemographic variables. Birth weight increased with parity and gestational age in home delivered babies as well as those delivered in a hospital. CONCLUSIONS: The validity of obstetrical records from 1913 was good. The place of birth (home or hospital) is strongly associated with birth weight and may be a confounding factor in studies of the implications of birth weight for future risk of disease or death.
To investigate whether the effect modification of smoking by maternal age previously reported for small for gestational age births was also obtained for late fetal death and placental abruption, the author analyzed single births in Sweden (n = 1,057,711) from 1983 to 1992. An effect modification of smoking by maternal age was obtained only with regard to fetal growth: Compared with nonsmokers aged 40-44 years, the risk of small for gestational age births among women smoking at east 10 cigarettes per day in the same age group was 4.5, whereas the corresponding risk increase among teenagers was only 2.0. The present results support the hypothesis that smoking actually influences fetal growth more among older smokers.
OBJECTIVE: This study investigated whether the risk of antepartum stillbirth increases with body mass index during early pregnancy and also investigated the association between weight gain during pregnancy and the risk of antepartum stillbirth.Study Design: This population-based case-control study included 649 women with antepartum stillbirths and 690 control subjects among Swedish nulliparous women. RESULTS: Compared with lean mothers (body mass index or = 30.0 kg/m2) odds ratio, 2.1 (95% confidence interval, 1.2-3.6). For term antepartum death corresponding risks were even higher, with odds ratios of 1.6 (95% confidence interval, 0.9-2.6) for normal weight, 2.7 (95% confidence interval, 1.5-5.0) for overweight, and 2.8 (95% confidence interval, 1.3-6.0) for obese women, respectively. Maternal weight gain during pregnancy was not associated with risk of antepartum stillbirth. CONCLUSION: Maternal overweight condition increased the risk of antepartum stillbirth, especially term antepartum stillbirth, whereas weight gain during pregnancy was not associated with risk.
OBJECTIVES: Smoking is associated with a reduced risk of preeclampsia, but what is the outcome of pregnancy when preeclampsia develops in women who smoke? STUDY DESIGN: Single births in Sweden from 1987 through 1993 to nulliparous women aged 15 to 34 years (N = 317,652) were included. Poisson regression analyses were used to calculate adjusted relative risks and rates of adverse pregnancy outcomes. RESULTS: Maternal smoking was associated with significantly reduced risks of mild and severe preeclampsia (relative risks = 0.6 and 0.5, respectively). In pregnancies with severe preeclampsia, smoking at least 10 cigarettes per day was associated with increased rates of perinatal mortality (from 24 to 36 per 1000), abruptio placentae (from 31 to 67 per 1000), and being small for gestational age (from 28% to 68%), whereas the corresponding smoking-related increases in rates in nonhypertensive pregnancies were considerably less. CONCLUSIONS: Smokers in whom preeclampsia develops have very high risks of perinatal mortality, abruptio placentae, and small-for-gestational-age infants.
In breast milk, concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are higher than those of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs), making PCB analyses less time-consuming and expensive. We searched for PCB "markers" of PCDD/DF concentrations, by studying associations between concentrations of PCB and PCDD/DFs (expressed as toxic equivalents, TEQs) in breast milk from 27 women (primiparas, 22-35 years). These women donated breast milk in 1996-1999 together with 183 other primiparas from Uppsala County, Sweden. Regression analyses showed that both dioxin-like and non-dioxin-like penta- to hepta-chlorinated PCBs could be used as markers of TEQ concentrations in this group of women, in some cases after age adjustment of the regressions. The strong positive association between concentrations of dioxin-like PCB/DD/DFs and non-dioxin-like PCBs will in future epidemiological studies make it difficult to separate Ah receptor-dependent effects from non-Ah receptor-dependent effects. With the use of regression equations and concentrations in breast milk samples collected in 1994, TEQ concentrations were estimated in the 1994 samples. Comparisons between estimated and measured concentrations indicated that associations between concentrations of marker substances and TEQs should be determined separately within each study population, in order to obtain reliable TEQ exposure assessments from PCB markers.
Information about the etiology of childhood myeloid leukemia is limited. A population-based nested case-control study of prenatal and neonatal risk factors for childhood myeloid leukemia was performed with the use of the Swedish National Cancer Register and the Swedish Birth Register. A total of 98 cases of myeloid leukemia were identified in successive birth cohorts from 1973 through 1989. From the Birth Register, five controls were matched to each case. Fourteen of the 98 cases with myeloid leukemia and none of the controls had Down syndrome [odds ratio (OR) = infinity; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 21.0-infinity]. The risk for myeloid leukemia also increased among children who had physiological jaundice (OR = 2.5; 95% CI = 1.2-5.0; children who had been treated with phototherapy (OR = 7.5; 95% CI = 1.8-31.9); or who had been treated in an incubator (OR = 3.5; 95% CI = 1.2-10.2). Excluding cases with Down syndrome, however, decreased these risks, so that their 95% lower confidence interval included the no-effect value. Maternal age