A continuous record of postoperative surgical infections was carried out by electronic data processing of 9,181 orthopaedic and general operations. The overall infection rate was 5.7%, ranging from 2.0% (clean wounds) to 22.1% (dirty wounds). The corresponding deep infection rates were 1.7%, 0.4% and 5.4%, respectively. Employing a multiple logistic regression analysis, ten risk factors were evaluated. Factors found to be significant for both departments were: wound contamination, duration of operation and age. In addition, in the department of orthopaedic surgery: date of operation and surgeon, and in the department of general surgery: planning of operation, length of preoperative stay and anatomic groups. Sex had no influence on postoperative infection. Significant factors altered during the four years. Postoperative stay was, on an average, 13.9 days longer in infected patients.
Duration of breast-feeding (BF) was studied in 249 randomly chosen healthy, term infants of Danish origin of which 81% participated. BF was initiated by 99.5% of the mothers. At three, six, and nine months, 71%, 52%, and 33%, respectively, were still BF. Only one infant (0.5%) was exclusively BF beyond the age of seven months. In a Cox multiple regression analysis of factors influencing duration of BF, we found a positive association with maternal education (p or = 12 years) were still BF, compared to 29% with a low school education (
In the period 1971-1990 the first admission rate to Danish psychiatric hospitals and wards decreased by approximately 45%. This might reflect the similar decrease in number of available psychiatric beds. Generally, the decrease of first admission rates was larger in the metropolitan area than in the rest of the country. Consequently, the disparity in admission rates between town and country was reduced. This is probably due to the decentralization initiated in the mid-seventies when the counties were made responsible for the psychiatric services in Denmark. Furthermore, changes in morbidity could add to the occurrence of regional variations. Number of available beds has gained increasing importance as a predictor of variations between counties and municipalities whereas the importance of distance to hospital and degree of urbanization has declined. As regards sociodemographic variables special importance should be attached to variables for the amount of social aid and the employment rate in the social and health sector. However, it is generally difficult to determine whether regional variations are due to differences in treatment facilities or morbidity differences.
INTRODUCTION: Scientific production by Ph.D. students is a matter of ongoing debate. The key issues for the number of publications during and after the Ph.D. study are not sufficiently described. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Based on the Registry of Ph.D. students and data from the Central Office of Civil Registration, we conducted a survey among 1170 persons previously enrolled in a Ph.D. programme in medicine or pharmaceutical sciences. Data on activities such as supervision and teaching, social issues and economy in the research team were stratified according to sex, age, master degree, institution, year and length of enrolment. The data were modelled in multiple linear regression using the number of peer-reviewed publications as the outcome. The response rate was 60%. RESULTS: The number of publications based on the Ph.D. project was only marginally influenced by the investigated variables. A high total number of publications was associated with men, with having been a Ph.D. supervisor, with research groups described as having a good atmosphere and sufficient financial funding. CONCLUSION: The medical and pharmaceutical Ph.D. programmes display an inherent strength concerning the process. Although our study supplies confirmatory data, it also shows that the team spirit is important to scientific productivity.
To assess the offspring IDDM recurrence risk in a Danish population-based study and to investigate parental and offspring related biological variables that might influence this risk, we identified 2726 IDDM probands and their 2826 offspring from a background population of 1.725 million people (33% of the Danish population). Proband current age was 20-60 years and age at IDDM onset was 30 years or less. Offspring data were obtained by a questionnaire. The cumulative IDDM risk up to age 30 years was found significantly decreased in maternal offspring compared to paternal offspring (2.3 +/- 0.6% and 5.7 +/- 0.9%, RR = 2.40, 95% CI 1.30-4.47; Mantel Cox: p = 0.004) only if parents were diagnosed with IDDM before offspring birth. However, due to a low number of diabetic offspring of probands diagnosed with IDDM after offspring birth, this observation need to be confirmed in a larger population. Using the Cox proportional hazards model we found that among several biological variables tested separately on offspring of male and female probands, all diagnosed with IDDM before pregnancy, paternal age at IDDM onset was the only statistically significant predictor of IDDM risk in offspring. Our findings may be important for counselling families in which one parent has IDDM.
In Denmark, approximately 7% (50,000) of the population above 65 years of age live in nursing homes (NH), where they stay for the rest of their lives, whereas elderly in hospital long-term care (LTC) are institutionalized only for a few months. Numerous studies report generally poor oral health among the institutionalized elderly, and the existing oral health care services are far from satisfactory. Attitudes towards the elderly, transportation problems, age, and dental status are among the variables that have been mentioned as possible determinants for utilization of dental services and for the standard of oral health among the residents. Utilization of health care services, including dental services, depends not only on the characteristics of the consumer, but also on the society and the provider. The planning of dental care for the institutionalized elderly requires information about the need for treatment, the existing possibilities for oral health care, and the institutional staff's attitude towards the elderly and dental care. It is also necessary to take into account the perceived need and the expressed demand for treatment as well as the mental and physical health of each individual in order to estimate what in the present study is defined as the realistic treatment need.