Our aim was to quantify the degree of association that selected psycho-social and health variables have with psychological distress in the elderly. In order to estimate the level of association, data previously obtained from the "Enquêre Santé Québec" (1987) were entered into a multiple regression analysis with psychological distress as the dependent variable. The independent variables retained were: age, sex, language, physical health, functional health, health status perception, social integration, perceived social support and stress. The scores contained in the data bank were from a representative sample of subjects (n = 361, age = 72.7 +/- 6.3) living in the Montreal area. The results of the regression analysis indicated that psychological distress is significantly related (adjusted R2 = 0.256; p = .000) to the following variables: the interaction "stress events X perceived social support", physical health, functional health and sex. The results of the present study consequently support previous reports relating psychological distress to physical health, social support, stress and sex with a predominant effect on women. Finally, the results give further support to the "buffering effect" of social support on stress.
The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of the socialization model developed by Kenyon and McPherson (1973) to determine the degree of socialization of minor league hockey coaches. A questionnaire was administered to 333 current coaches and 175 former coaches from the Quebec City area. Results showed that the coaches' perception of their competence, the degree of watching professional hockey as a spectator, the material factors, and the influence of the peer group were positively associated with their degree of socialization; however, the influence of their own children on the decision to be a coach was negatively associated with their degree of socialization. Results also show that less than 30% of the variance was explained by the model. Different research strategies are suggested in order to better investigate the phenomenon.
Faculté de médecine de l'Université de Sherbrooke et Centre de recherche sur le vieillissement de l'Institut universitaire de geriatrie de Sherbrooke, 1036 rue Belvedere Sud, Sherbrooke, QC, J1H 4C4, Canada. Dany.Fortin@USherbrooke.ca
In Quebec, benzodiazepines are some of the most extensively used drugs by the elderly. The goal of this study was to identify factors associated with short- and long-term benzodiazepine use among 2,039 elderly persons having participated in the Quebec Health Survey conducted in 1998. Results of the multivariate, multinomial logistic regression showed that a higher number of chronic health problems, a higher number of physicians visited and general practitioners consulted were associated with short- and long-term use of benzodiazepines. Factors specifically associated with long-term use were female gender (OR = 1.84) and the presence of benzodiazepine users in the household (OR = 1.90). In this study, we were unable to show a difference between the two groups of users with regards to the risk factors studied. This result leads us to conclude that prevention of long-term use must be aimed at all new benzodiazepine users.
This study concerns the geographical relationships between alcohol consumption per capita; smoking and death from cirrhosis of the liver and cancer of the oesophagus in persons of 15 years old and over in Quebec. First, the geographical distribution of variables is analysed. Secondly, we have used methods of correlation and regression in order to evaluate their relation to each other. In the latest case we have chosen the logistic regression model to investigate the simultaneous effects of alcohol and tobacco. The results show that alcohol consumption is closely related to mortality from cirrhosis of the liver. Moreover, there was no significant relation found between total alcohol consumption and oesophageal cancer. These findings can be applied to cases of consumption of wine and spirits.
This study evaluated the effectiveness of an intervention in improving the general, academic, physical and social self-concepts of 2nd to 6th grade students. The activities were carried out by the teachers during the 1992-93 school year. A questionnaire was completed by 271 students of the experimental school and by 467 students of the control school, both before and after the intervention. The multiple regression analyses showed important adjusted gains for self-concepts related to physical appearance, mathematics and relationship with parents. In all three cases, students with the largest deficit benefitted most from the intervention. This study shows that it is possible to improve self-concept and to do so through an intervention carried out in the school environment. This double finding is important to the promotion of psycho-social adaptation since self-concept is an important determinant and since few interventions have reached similar objectives.
This pilot study proposes an index to quantify the intensity of high-risk anal sex and presents factors associated with this practice among 65 homosexual men with HIV infection. All of them answered a self-administered questionnaire. Using multiple logistic regression, we first compared those who had had safe sex in the past six months to those who had had unsafe sex. Variables significantly associated with unsafe sex are: drugs and/or alcohol use with sex, and less favorable attitude towards condom use. Finally, multiple linear regression analysis among respondents who had had unsafe sex indicated that the following factors are associated with higher levels of unsafe sex: men between the ages of 32 and 38, satisfied with their social life, non-smokers, with a less favorable attitude towards condom use, and with few social relationships. These results must be interpreted with caution because of the small number of respondents.
To estimate the effect on collisions of a police traffic safety strategy carried out between January and December 2007, in the province of Quebec, Canada.
This strategy was implemented by several key players (Société de I'Assurance Automobile du Québec, Sûreté du Québec, Montreal Police Department and 34 other municipal police organizations) and targeted the leading causes of traffic casualties such as drinking and driving, speeding and not wearing a seat belt. The strategy has two main components: 1) joint law enforcement operations in which all the police organizations take part, and 2) police organizations targeting local traffic safety problems. Media campaigns supported all operations.
Over the intervention period, traffic citations issued for speed limit violations, not fastening the seat belt and running the red light or a stop sign increased from 2006 rates by 27, 33 and 8%, respectively. The Société de I'Assurance Automobile du Québec spent more than $5 million in mass media campaigns.
According to our results, the strategy was associated with decreases varying between 14 and 36% in collisions with serious injuries. In spite of evidence of downward trends for the period under investigation, neither fatal nor minor injury collisions were significantly affected by introduction of the strategy.
Police programs characterized by a substantial increase in the distribution of traffic citations and supported by mass media campaigns represent an effective strategy to prevent traffic casualties.
The results of utilization studies on ambulatory medical care are usually disappointing. Since these studies have used the regression linear model with cross-sectional data, they have rarely considered the utilization of medical services as a dynamic process unfolding over a certain period of time. The utilization of medical services was observed during three consecutive two-week periods with the help of a sample, drawn from the files of the RAMQ, of 41,811 individuals living in Laval and in the Metropolitan region of Quebec. Transition rates towards user or non-user status between each period are predicted, rather than volumes of utilization. Results show that the variables which predict the volume of utilization are not those which predict the transition towards non-user status, though volume of utilization arises from the cumulation over time periods of the using status. Differences appear between the utilization processes of persons aged 65 and over and other adults. Consequently, studies on the utilization of medical services should no longer use multiple linear regression. Thus, the conclusions which these studies draw about the impact of policies of accessibility to health care are also biased.