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An evaluation of legal outcome following pretrial forensic assessment.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature6875
Source
Can J Psychiatry. 1994 Apr;39(3):161-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-1994
Author
J. Arboleda-Flórez
H L Holley
J. Williams
A. Crisanti
Author Affiliation
Department of Psychiatry, Calgary General Hospital, Alberta.
Source
Can J Psychiatry. 1994 Apr;39(3):161-7
Date
Apr-1994
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Alberta - epidemiology
Antisocial Personality Disorder - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Cohort Studies
Expert Testimony - legislation & jurisprudence
Humans
Insanity Defense - statistics & numerical data
Male
Mental Disorders - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Middle Aged
Patient Care Team - legislation & jurisprudence
Referral and Consultation - legislation & jurisprudence
Abstract
This paper constitutes the first stage of data analysis in a larger controlled study designed to assess the effect of a forensic psychiatric assessment on legal disposition defined in three ways: 1. the number of days spent in custody prior to trial; 2. the number of sentenced days of incarceration; and 3. the conviction rate. A historical cohort design was used to follow two cohorts of individuals remanded, pretrial, to Southern Alberta Provincial Correctional Centres between 1988 and 1989. The study cohort consisted of all offenders detained who received a forensic psychiatric assessment. The comparison cohort consisted of a random sample of persons detained who did not undergo a forensic assessment. Because of small numbers, individuals below the age of 18 and women were excluded from study. This paper compares socio-legal characteristics of study and comparison subjects in order to better understand forensic psychiatric referral patterns and identify potentially confounding factors that would need to be controlled in subsequent analyses of legal outcomes. No differences were noted with respect to educational level but forensic subjects were found to be slightly older (average of 31 years compared to 29 years). Aboriginal peoples (Native Indian, Inuit and Metis) were three times more common among non-forensic offenders. Forensic patients were more likely to have had a prior forensic assessment but less likely to have a prior criminal detention. In addition, forensic patients were three times more likely to be charged with a crime against a person and counted more offenses in the target episode than comparison subjects.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
PubMed ID
8033022 View in PubMed
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The assessment of custody and access disputes in cases of sexual abuse allegations.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature234611
Source
Can J Psychiatry. 1987 Oct;32(7):539-44
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-1987
Author
G A Awad
Author Affiliation
University of Toronto, Ontario.
Source
Can J Psychiatry. 1987 Oct;32(7):539-44
Date
Oct-1987
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Canada
Child Abuse, Sexual - legislation & jurisprudence
Child, Preschool
Family
Female
Forensic Psychiatry
Humans
Infant
Legal Guardians
Male
Psychological Tests
Referral and Consultation - legislation & jurisprudence
Abstract
Sexual abuse allegations directed at one parent can arise in the context of custody and access disputes. The role of the clinician, when such allegations occur, is to provide an assessment of the total situation, taking the allegations into account. To assess the probability that sexual abuse has occurred involves a thorough assessment of the accuser, the accused, the accusation, the child, and different family subsystems. Particular attention should be paid to interviewing the young child with detailed focus on the interviewing process, how the interviews are reported and what conclusions may be drawn from them. Following a thorough assessment, the clinician may reach one of three conclusions: that the sexual abuse has probably occurred, has probably not occurred, or is unsure. A strong caution is given against becoming entangled in an endless process of trying to find out whether the allegations are true or false. Whatever conclusions are reached are but one factor in the recommendation regarding custody and/or access. Ultimately the recommendation will be made according to the best interests of the child, taking into account the child's relationships and attachments, as well as the sexual abuse allegations.
PubMed ID
3676984 View in PubMed
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Child custody disputes within the context of child protection investigations: secondary analysis of the Canadian Incident Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature107692
Source
Child Welfare. 2013;92(1):115-37
Publication Type
Article
Date
2013
Author
Michael A Saini
Tara Black
Barbara Fallon
Alena Marshall
Author Affiliation
University of Toronto.
Source
Child Welfare. 2013;92(1):115-37
Date
2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Canada
Child
Child Abuse - legislation & jurisprudence - statistics & numerical data
Child Abuse, Sexual - legislation & jurisprudence - statistics & numerical data
Child Custody - legislation & jurisprudence - statistics & numerical data
Child Welfare - legislation & jurisprudence - statistics & numerical data
Cross-Sectional Studies
Dissent and Disputes - legislation & jurisprudence
Divorce - legislation & jurisprudence - statistics & numerical data
Domestic Violence - legislation & jurisprudence - statistics & numerical data
Female
Humans
Male
Referral and Consultation - legislation & jurisprudence - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
This national study of child custody disputes within the context of child protection investigations confirms and reinforces the perception in the field that child custody disputes are more likely to reopen for investigations, include higher rates of malicious referrals and involve a higher proportion of children with emotional and functioning issues compared to non-custody-related investigations. Future research might consider the reasons for these higher rates so to improve the identification of these cases and to make more informed decisions about how best to respond to these families. The greatest contribution of this study is that it provides important new evidence to reinforce the need to prioritize child custody disputes within the context of child protection services given the unique challenges and opportunities for making well-informed case plan decisions.
PubMed ID
23984488 View in PubMed
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Children's adjustment during custody/access disputes: relation to custody arrangement, gender and age of child.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature232708
Source
Can J Psychiatry. 1988 Aug;33(6):517-23
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-1988
Author
B J Fidler
E B Saunders
Author Affiliation
Family Court Clinic, Toronto, Ontario.
Source
Can J Psychiatry. 1988 Aug;33(6):517-23
Date
Aug-1988
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adaptation, Psychological
Age Factors
Child
Child Custody - legislation & jurisprudence
Child Reactive Disorders - psychology
Child Welfare - legislation & jurisprudence
Child, Preschool
Humans
Learning Disorders - psychology
Ontario
Parent-Child Relations
Psychological Tests
Referral and Consultation - legislation & jurisprudence
Sex Factors
Abstract
The adjustment of pre-school and latency age children, at the time of a custody/access dispute between their parents, was studied in relation to the children's age, sex and whether they were living with a parent of the same or the opposite-sex. Few adjustment problems were noted; however, older children and boys were more vulnerable. Sex of custodial parent did not predict children's adjustment.
PubMed ID
3197004 View in PubMed
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A comparison between referred and nonreferred patients in chiropractic practices in Norway.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature72686
Source
J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 1997 Sep;20(7):448-53
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-1997
Author
A. Kilvaer
G. Rasmussen
T. Soot
S. Kalvenes
Source
J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 1997 Sep;20(7):448-53
Date
Sep-1997
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Absenteeism
Adult
Back Pain - therapy
Chiropractic - organization & administration
Comparative Study
Cost-Benefit Analysis
Female
Health Services Research
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Norway
Questionnaires
Referral and Consultation - legislation & jurisprudence - statistics & numerical data
Reimbursement Mechanisms
Social Security
Time Factors
Abstract
OBJECTIVE: This study compares patients referred to chiropractic practices by medical doctors with patients who came directly to the chiropractors offices without referral. BACKGROUND: Because Norway has legislation requiring referral as a precondition for reimbursement by the national social security system, we have a unique opportunity to examine current practice when it comes to musculoskeletal conditions and to compare demographic, diagnostic and other data between the referred and nonreferred groups. METHODS: Questionnaires recorded on a continuous basis by participating members of the Norwegian Chiropractors Association during anamnesis of the first 25 new patients after a preset date. Of 140 chiropractors, 98 participated and returned 2401 questionnaires. RESULTS: Although the referred patients had been on sick-leave an average (mean) of 22.9 days before commencing chiropractic treatment, the corresponding figure for the nonreferred was 8.5 days. Otherwise, the two groups were identical or nearly identical in all tested aspects. There were deficiencies in the medical doctor's examination procedures and referral practices. CONCLUSION: Recent studies have shown chiropractic treatment to be a cost-efficient therapy for back-related conditions. The findings in our study indicate that the result of the present system of referral is substantially longer sick-leave time and delayed onset of chiropractic treatment. It is generally accepted that early, effective intervention is the primary method of preventing chronicity. This is not promoted by the present Norwegian system of referral, which in earlier studies we have shown to be inconsistent and expensive for both the patient and the social security system.
PubMed ID
9310899 View in PubMed
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Doctor fined 25,000 dollars over Internet prescriptions.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature178396
Source
CMAJ. 2004 Sep 14;171(6):560
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-14-2004

Do physicians care about patient choice?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature92067
Source
Soc Sci Med. 2008 Nov;67(10):1502-11
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2008
Author
Winblad Ulrika
Author Affiliation
Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Health Services Research, Uppsala Science Park, Uppsala, Sweden. ulrika.winblad@pubcare.uu.se
Source
Soc Sci Med. 2008 Nov;67(10):1502-11
Date
Nov-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Attitude of Health Personnel
Data Collection
Delivery of Health Care, Integrated - legislation & jurisprudence
Health Policy - legislation & jurisprudence
Humans
Patient Acceptance of Health Care
Patient Participation - legislation & jurisprudence
Physicians, Family
Referral and Consultation - legislation & jurisprudence
Sweden
Abstract
A new policy (patient choice) was introduced in Sweden in the early 1990s to give patients the right to choose their healthcare providers, however, evaluations show that few patients exercise this right. This paper analyses physicians' roles in putting the patient choice policy into effect. To examine attitudes, knowledge and behaviour among physicians, a questionnaire was sent to 960 physicians in one of the most populous counties in Sweden. The results show that the physicians approve of the policy, yet only a minority state that they regularly help patients to choose healthcare providers by giving them information and letting them choose where they will be referred. Instead, referrals are mostly based on medical grounds; the patient's wish to choose a specific provider is considered less important. In summary, we found that more than a decade after the policy was introduced, only a minority of physicians act according to the political intention. This could be one explanation for why many patients still do not exercise their right to choose a hospital.
PubMed ID
18786753 View in PubMed
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Examining the needs of youth in secure custody: why we need to "recreate the wheel" in Canadian juvenile justice.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature230043
Source
Can J Psychiatry. 1989 Oct;34(7):675-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-1989
Author
A W Leschied
K E Thomas
Author Affiliation
Family Court Clinic, London, Ontario.
Source
Can J Psychiatry. 1989 Oct;34(7):675-9
Date
Oct-1989
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Antisocial Personality Disorder - rehabilitation
Child Welfare - legislation & jurisprudence
Female
Humans
Juvenile Delinquency - legislation & jurisprudence - rehabilitation
Legal Guardians
Male
Ontario
Referral and Consultation - legislation & jurisprudence
Risk factors
Security Measures - legislation & jurisprudence
Abstract
The current study reviews the personal characteristics of 32 consecutive admissions to a secure custody centre in one southwest Ontario jurisdiction under the Young Offenders Act. Results indicated that there was considerable variability amongst the group regarding court history and the seriousness of the charge on which committal was made. Background history data suggested that the problems of youths committed to secure custody reflect considerable difficulties within families and school. The discussion questions whether the youths in this group are better served through the dispositions emphasizing custody-deterrence or rehabilitation-treatment. Implications for young offender policy are also presented.
PubMed ID
2804878 View in PubMed
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Informed proxy consent: communication between pediatric surgeons and surrogates about surgery.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature199310
Source
Pediatrics. 2000 Mar;105(3 Pt 1):591-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2000
Author
M. Lashley
W. Talley
L C Lands
E W Keyserlingk
Author Affiliation
Department of Counselling Psychology, Faculty of Arts and Science, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.
Source
Pediatrics. 2000 Mar;105(3 Pt 1):591-7
Date
Mar-2000
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Child
Child, Preschool
Communication
Female
General Surgery - legislation & jurisprudence
Hospitals, Pediatric - legislation & jurisprudence
Hospitals, Urban - legislation & jurisprudence
Humans
Infant
Informed Consent - legislation & jurisprudence
Legal Guardians
Male
Pediatrics - legislation & jurisprudence
Professional-Family Relations
Quebec
Referral and Consultation - legislation & jurisprudence
Abstract
Informed consent for surgical procedures requires that the procedures are explained and that the patient understands the procedures and risks and agrees to undergo them. Proxy consent occurs when an individual is provided with the legal right to make decisions on behalf of another. This study was conducted to determine how surgeons communicate information to obtain an informed proxy consent, and to investigate how that information is received and processed by surrogates responsible for providing such consent.
Twenty English-speaking parents or legal guardians and 5 surgeons in an urban pediatric hospital were interviewed before, and 2 to 4 weeks after, the surgical procedure. In addition, the interview between the surgeon and surrogate, when consent was obtained, was audiotaped and subsequently analyzed. Semistructured interviews were used to elicit the motivations and influences on the surrogates to consent to the procedure. The same methodology was used to elicit the corresponding impressions of the surgeons. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and crosstabulations.
Demographic data did not influence the results. Although there was concordance between the surrogate's understanding of the procedure and the surgeon's impression of this understanding, only 3 of 17 surrogates could recall any specifics of the explained procedure. Contrary to the stated belief of surgeons, surrogates consulted with a variety of others, including medical and paramedical professionals, family members, and spiritual leaders.
Communication plays an important role within the surrogate-surgeon dyad. Psychologic variables such as expectations, and the perception of both the surrogates and the surgeons, influence the amount of information that is proffered and the manner in which it is received. Improved communication may be achieved by use of visual aids, discussion of anesthesia and the postoperative course, recognition of the circumstances around the discussion, such as timing and location of the discussion, and personalization of the discussion.
PubMed ID
10699114 View in PubMed
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30 records – page 1 of 3.