The objective of the study was to determine completeness of 24-hour urine collection in pregnancy.
This was a retrospective laboratory/chart review of 24-hour urine collections at British Columbia Women's Hospital. Completeness was assessed by 24-hour urinary creatinine excretion (UcreatV): expected according to maternal weight for single collections and between-measurement difference for serial collections.
For 198 randomly selected pregnant women with a hypertensive disorder (63% preeclampsia), 24-hour urine collections were frequently inaccurate (13-54%) on the basis of UcreatV of 97-220 micromol/kg per day (11.0-25.0 mg/kg per day) or 133-177 micromol/kg per day (15.1-20.1 mg/kg per day) of prepregnancy weight (respectively). Lean body weight resulted in more inaccurate collections (24-68%). The current weight was frequently unavailable (28%) and thus not used. For 161 women (81% proteinuric) with serial 24-hour urine levels, a median [interquartile range] of 11 [5-31] days apart, between-measurement difference in UcreatV was 14.4% [6.0-24.9]; 40 women (24.8%) had values 25% or greater, exceeding analytic and biologic variation.
Twenty-four hour urine collection is frequently inaccurate and not a precise measure of proteinuria or creatinine clearance.
504 overweight children admitted to hospital between 1921 and 1947 were followed up for 40 years by questionnaires at 10 year intervals. The mean weight for height (W/H) standard deviation score (SDS) reached a maximum in puberty (+3.5). The SDS fell to about +1 in adulthood. 47% patients were still obese (SDS greater than +1) in adulthood; 84.6% of these had SDS more than +2 in childhood. The degree of obesity in the family (parents and grandparents) and the degree of overweight in puberty were the most important factors for weight level in adulthood. Even when their food intake was in accordance with recommended levels, obese children had higher than normal weight as adults. Excessive overweight in puberty (SDS greater than +3) was associated with higher than expected morbidity and mortality in adult life. Weight-reducing measures should be started early in life to improve the unfavourable long-term prognosis for very obese children.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the accuracy of home blood glucose meters during hypoglycemia. METHODS: Six blood glucose meters-One Touch II (LifeScan, Milpitas, CA), Companion II (Medisense, Cambridge, U.K.), Reflolux (Boehringer Mannheim, Mannheim, Germany), Accutrend (Boehringer Mannheim), Elite (Bayer, Munich, Germany), and HemoCue (HemoCue, Angelholm, Sweden)-were compared with a reference method (Beckman Glucose Analyzer 2). Glucose concentrations from arterialized venous blood samples were measured using all glucose meters (whole blood) and the reference method (plasma) during hypoglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamps in 15 subjects. RESULTS: In total, 663 blood glucose monitor readings and 119 reference values ranging from 2.28 to 3.89 mmol/l were analyzed. The correlation coefficients and the percentage of measurements within 20% and outside 40% of the reference values for each glucose meter were as follows: One Touch II: 0.91, 99.2% and 0%; Companion II: 0.81, 88.2% and 2.5%; Reflolux: 0.78, 85.0% and 0.9%; Accutrend: 0.88, 46.0% and 6.6%; Elite: 0.78, 75.6% and 4.2%; and HemoCue: 0.93, 96.6% and 0% (P
It is now common for parents to measure tympanic temperatures in children. The objective of this study was to assess the diagnostic accuracy of these measurements.
Parents and then nurses measured the temperature of 60 children with a tympanic thermometer designed for home use (home thermometer). The reference standard was a temperature measured by a nurse with a model of tympanic thermometer commonly used in hospitals (hospital thermometer). A difference of >or= 0.5 degrees C was considered clinically significant. A fever was defined as a temperature >or= 38.5 degrees C.
The mean absolute difference between the readings done by the parent and the nurse with the home thermometer was 0.44 +/- 0.61 degrees C, and 33% of the readings differed by >or= 0.5 degrees C. The mean absolute difference between the readings done by the parent with the home thermometer and the nurse with the hospital thermometer was 0.51 +/- 0.63 degrees C, and 72 % of the readings differed by >or= 0.5 degrees C. Using the home thermometer, parents detected fever with a sensitivity of 76% (95% CI 50-93%), a specificity of 95% (95% CI 84-99%), a positive predictive value of 87% (95% CI 60-98%), and a negative predictive value of 91% (95% CI 79-98 %). In comparing the readings the nurse obtained from the two different tympanic thermometers, the mean absolute difference was 0.24 +/- 0.22 degrees C. Nurses detected fever with a sensitivity of 94% (95 % CI 71-100 %), a specificity of 88% (95% CI 75-96 %), a positive predictive value of 76% (95% CI 53-92%), and a negative predictive value of 97% (95%CI 87-100 %) using the home thermometer. The intraclass correlation coefficient for the three sets of readings was 0.80, and the consistency of readings was not affected by the body temperature.
The readings done by parents with a tympanic thermometer designed for home use differed a clinically significant amount from the reference standard (readings done by nurses with a model of tympanic thermometer commonly used in hospitals) the majority of the time, and parents failed to detect fever about one-quarter of the time. Tympanic readings reported by parents should be interpreted with great caution.
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Timely diagnosis of influenza can help clinical management.
To examine the accuracy of rapid influenza diagnostic tests (RIDTs) in adults and children with influenza-like illness and evaluate factors associated with higher accuracy.
PubMed and EMBASE through December 2011; BIOSIS and Web of Science through March 2010; and citations of articles, guidelines, reviews, and manufacturers.
Studies that compared RIDTs with a reference standard of either reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (first choice) or viral culture.
Reviewers abstracted study data by using a standardized form and assessed quality by using Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies criteria.
159 studies evaluated 26 RIDTs, and 35% were conducted during the H1N1 pandemic. Failure to report whether results were assessed in a blinded manner and the basis for patient recruitment were important quality concerns. The pooled sensitivity and specificity were 62.3% (95% CI, 57.9% to 66.6%) and 98.2% (CI, 97.5% to 98.7%), respectively. The positive and negative likelihood ratios were 34.5 (CI, 23.8 to 45.2) and 0.38 (CI, 0.34 to 0.43), respectively. Sensitivity estimates were highly heterogeneous, which was partially explained by lower sensitivity in adults (53.9% [CI, 47.9% to 59.8%]) than in children (66.6% [CI, 61.6% to 71.7%]) and a higher sensitivity for influenza A (64.6% [CI, 59.0% to 70.1%) than for influenza B (52.2% [CI, 45.0% to 59.3%).
Incomplete reporting limited the ability to assess the effect of important factors, such as specimen type and duration of influenza symptoms, on diagnostic accuracy.
Influenza can be ruled in but not ruled out through the use of RIDTs. Sensitivity varies across populations, but it is higher in children than in adults and for influenza A than for influenza B.
Obesity has been increasing in adolescents in Fiji and obesogenic dietary patterns need to be assessed to inform health promotion. The objective of this study was to identify the dietary patterns of adolescents in peri-urban Fiji and determine their relationships with standardized body mass index (BMI-z).
This study analysed baseline measurements from the Pacific Obesity Prevention In Communities (OPIC) Project. The sample comprised 6,871 adolescents aged 13-18 years from 18 secondary schools on the main island of Viti Levu, Fiji. Adolescents completed a questionnaire that included diet-related variables; height and weight were measured. Descriptive statistics and regression analyses were conducted to examine the associations between dietary patterns and BMI-z, while controlling for confounders and cluster effect by school.
Of the total sample, 24% of adolescents were overweight or obese, with a higher prevalence among Indigenous Fijians and females. Almost all adolescents reported frequent consumption of sugar sweetened beverages (SSB) (90%) and low intake of fruit and vegetables (74%). Over 25% of participants were frequent consumers of takeaways for dinner, and either high fat/salt snacks, or confectionery after school. Nearly one quarter reported irregular breakfast (24%) and lunch (24%) consumption on school days, while fewer adolescents (13%) ate fried foods after school. IndoFijians were more likely than Indigenous Fijians to regularly consume breakfast, but had a high unhealthy SSB and snack consumption.Regular breakfast (p
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