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Anatomic distribution of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis and Mycoplasma genitalium infections in men who have sex with men.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature113225
Source
Sex Health. 2013 Jul;10(3):199-203
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2013
Author
N. Reinton
H. Moi
A O Olsen
N. Zarabyan
J. Bjerner
T M Tønseth
A. Moghaddam
Author Affiliation
Fürst Medisinsk Laboratorium, Søren Bulls vei 25, N-1051 Oslo, Norway. amoghaddam@furst.no
Source
Sex Health. 2013 Jul;10(3):199-203
Date
Jul-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Chlamydia Infections - diagnosis - epidemiology
Chlamydia trachomatis - isolation & purification
Genitalia, Male - microbiology
Gonorrhea - diagnosis - epidemiology
Homosexuality, Male
Humans
Male
Mycoplasma Infections - diagnosis - epidemiology
Mycoplasma genitalium - isolation & purification
Neisseria gonorrhoeae - isolation & purification
Norway
Oropharynx - microbiology
Prevalence
Rectum - microbiology
Abstract
New cases of gonorrhoea (Neisseria gonorrhoeae) and chlamydia (Chlamydia trachomatis) infections have been steadily increasing in Scandinavian countries over the last decade. There is a particular urgency in reducing new infections as isolation of multiple drug resistant strains of gonorrhoea is becoming more frequent. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and sites of infection of common sexually transmissible infections (STIs) in men who have sex with men (MSM).
We have performed a retrospective analysis of the three major STIs, gonorrhoea, chlamydia and Mycoplasma genitalium in urogenital, anorectal and oropharyngeal samples from MSM that attended two STI clinics in Oslo.
One hundred and thirty-six men (6.0%) out of 2289 MSM tested were found to be positive for gonorrhoea using a porA gene targeted nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT). Of these, 106 (77.9%) would not have been identified through testing first-void urine alone. Two hundred and twenty eight (10.0%) patients from 2289 tested were found to be positive for chlamydia, 164 (71.9%) of which were identified through anorectal specimens. Ninety-one (5.1%) patients from 1778 tested were found to be positive for M. genitalium, with 65 (71.4%) identified through testing of anorectal specimens.
Our results supports the European findings that the MSM population carries a high burden of STIs and that testing the anorectum and oropharynx will identify a significantly higher percentage of infected patients and reservoirs of STIs.
PubMed ID
23751932 View in PubMed
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Antibodies to capsular polysaccharides of group B Streptococcus in pregnant Canadian women: relationship to colonization status and infection in the neonate.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature194114
Source
J Infect Dis. 2001 Aug 1;184(3):285-91
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-1-2001
Author
H D Davies
C. Adair
A. McGeer
D. Ma
S. Robertson
M. Mucenski
L. Kowalsky
G. Tyrell
C J Baker
Author Affiliation
Departments of Microbiology and Infectious Disease, Pediatrics, and Community Health Sciences and Child Health Research Unit, Alberta Children's Hospital, University of Calgary, Calgary,T2T-5C7, Canada. dele.davies@crha-health.ab.ca
Source
J Infect Dis. 2001 Aug 1;184(3):285-91
Date
Aug-1-2001
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Alberta
Antibodies, Bacterial - blood
Canada
Cohort Studies
Female
Humans
Immunoglobulin G - blood
Infant, Newborn
Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical
Parity
Polysaccharides, Bacterial - immunology
Population Surveillance
Pregnancy
Pregnancy Complications, Infectious - microbiology
Rectum - microbiology
Serotyping
Streptococcal Infections - blood - immunology - transmission
Streptococcus agalactiae - immunology - isolation & purification
Vagina - microbiology
Abstract
In a cohort study of 1207 pregnant women in Alberta, Canada, the serotype distributions of vaginal-rectal group B Streptococcus (GBS) isolates were compared with all isolates from neonates with invasive GBS disease identified by population-based surveillance. Serum concentrations of Ia, Ib, II, III, and V capsular polysaccharide (CPS)-specific IgG also were determined, according to serotype of the vaginal-rectal colonizing GBS strain. GBS colonization was detected in 19.5% (235 of 1207) of women. Serotype III accounted for 20.6% (48 of 233) of colonizing strains available for typing but for 37% (27 of 73) of invasive isolates from neonates (P
PubMed ID
11443553 View in PubMed
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Antimicrobial resistance in colonizing group B Streptococci before the implementation of a Swedish intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis program.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature100491
Source
Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2010 Oct;29(10):1195-201
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2010
Author
M. Granlund
P. Axemo
K. Bremme
A-L Bryngelsson
M. Carlsson Wallin
C-M Ekström
S. Håkansson
B. Jacobsson
K. Källén
E. Spetz
I. Tessin
Author Affiliation
Department of Clinical Bacteriology, Umeå University Hospital, 901 85 Umeå, Sweden. Margareta.Granlund@climi.umu.se
Source
Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2010 Oct;29(10):1195-201
Date
Oct-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Anti-Bacterial Agents - pharmacology
Bacterial Typing Techniques
Carrier State - microbiology
DNA, Bacterial - genetics
Drug Resistance, Bacterial
Female
Genes, Bacterial
Humans
Infant, Newborn
Microbial Sensitivity Tests - methods
Pregnancy
Pregnancy Complications, Infectious - microbiology
Rectum - microbiology
Serotyping
Skin - microbiology
Streptococcal Infections - microbiology
Streptococcus agalactiae - drug effects - isolation & purification
Sweden
Vagina - microbiology
Abstract
The prevalence of antibiotic resistance and their genetic determinants in colonizing group B streptococci (GBS) sampled in a Swedish nationwide survey was examined. In five GBS isolates (1.3%), kanamycin/amikacin resistance and the presence of the aphA-3 gene was identified. Three of these isolates carried the aad-6 gene and were streptomycin-resistant. Screening with kanamycin and streptomycin 1,000-?g disks enabled a rapid and easy detection of these isolates. In all, 312/396 (79%) GBS were tetracycline-resistant and 95% of the examined isolates harbored the tetM gene. Among the 22 (5.5%) GBS resistant to erythromycin and/or clindamycin, the ermB gene was detected in nine isolates (41%) and erm(A/TR) in ten isolates (45%). A high level of erythromycin and clindamycin resistance with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) >256?mg/L was found in four serotype V isolates that harbored ermB. The erythromycin/clindamycin resistance was distributed among all of the common serotypes Ia, Ib, II, III, IV, and V, but was not present in any of the 44 serotype III isolates associated to clonal complex 17. Screening for penicillin resistance with 1-?g oxacillin disks showed a homogenous population with a mean inhibition zone of 20?mm. A change in the present oxacillin breakpoints for GBS is suggested.
PubMed ID
20706855 View in PubMed
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Brucella Infection in Asian Sea Otters (Enhydra lutris lutris) on Bering Island, Russia.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature290856
Source
J Wildl Dis. 2017 10; 53(4):864-868
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
10-2017
Author
Tristan L Burgess
Christine Kreuder Johnson
Alexander Burdin
Verena A Gill
Angela M Doroff
Pamela Tuomi
Woutrina A Smith
Tracey Goldstein
Author Affiliation
1 Karen C. Drayer Wildlife Health Center, University of California Davis School of Veterinary Medicine, 1089 Veterinary Medicine Drive, Davis, California 95965, USA.
Source
J Wildl Dis. 2017 10; 53(4):864-868
Date
10-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Animals
Bayes Theorem
Brucella - classification - genetics - isolation & purification
Brucellosis - epidemiology - microbiology - veterinary
DNA, Bacterial - isolation & purification
Female
Islands - epidemiology
Male
Markov Chains
Monte Carlo Method
Otters - microbiology
Phylogeny
Polymerase Chain Reaction - veterinary
Rectum - microbiology
Russia - epidemiology
Seroepidemiologic Studies
Abstract
Infection with Brucella spp., long known as a cause of abortion, infertility, and reproductive loss in domestic livestock, has increasingly been documented in marine mammals over the past two decades. We report molecular evidence of Brucella infection in Asian sea otters (Enhydra lutris lutris). Brucella DNA was detected in 3 of 78 (4%) rectal swab samples collected between 2004 and 2006 on Bering Island, Russia. These 78 animals had previously been documented to have a Brucella seroprevalence of 28%, markedly higher than the prevalence documented in sea otters (Enhydra lutris) in North America. All of the DNA sequences amplified were identical to one or more previously isolated Brucella spp. including strains from both terrestrial and marine hosts. Phylogenetic analysis of this sequence suggested that one animal was shedding Brucella spp. DNA with a sequence matching a Brucella abortus strain, whereas two animals yielded a sequence matching a group of strains including isolates classified as Brucella pinnipedialis and Brucella melitensis. Our results highlight the diversity of Brucella spp. within a single sea otter population.
PubMed ID
28715292 View in PubMed
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Cephalosporin and azithromycin susceptibility in Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates by site of infection, British Columbia, 2006 to 2011.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature117946
Source
Sex Transm Dis. 2013 Jan;40(1):46-51
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2013
Author
Travis S Hottes
Richard T Lester
Linda M N Hoang
Rachel McKay
Miguel Imperial
Mark Gilbert
David Patrick
Tom Wong
Irene Martin
Gina Ogilvie
Author Affiliation
British Columbia Centre for Disease Control, Vancouver, Canada.
Source
Sex Transm Dis. 2013 Jan;40(1):46-51
Date
Jan-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Anti-Bacterial Agents - pharmacology - therapeutic use
Azithromycin - pharmacology - therapeutic use
British Columbia - epidemiology
Cephalosporins - pharmacology - therapeutic use
Cervix Uteri - microbiology
Drug Resistance, Bacterial
Female
Gonorrhea - drug therapy - epidemiology
Humans
Male
Microbial Sensitivity Tests
Neisseria gonorrhoeae - drug effects - isolation & purification
Pharynx - microbiology
Rectum - microbiology
Urethra - microbiology
Young Adult
Abstract
Widespread resistance of Neisseria gonorrhoeae to penicillin, tetracycline, and fluoroquinolones has challenged effective treatment and control; recent international case reports of cefixime, ceftriaxone, and azithromycin resistance suggest that the remaining treatment options are now additionally threatened. To explore trends in antimicrobial susceptibility of N. gonorrhoeae, we reviewed provincial laboratory data from British Columbia, 2006 to 2011.
Susceptibility testing was performed for all N. gonorrhoeae isolates detected in-house or forwarded to the reference laboratory. Resistance or intermediate resistance (nonsusceptibility) was defined by standard breakpoints for penicillin, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin, and spectinomycin. Elevated minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) at serial dilutions of 0.064 µg/mL or greater were explored for cefixime/ceftriaxone and 0.5 µg/mL or greater for azithromycin. Nonsusceptibility/elevated MIC was compared by year, site of infection, sex, and age.
A total of 1837 isolates representing 22% of all reported gonorrhea cases were analyzed. Nonsusceptibility to penicillin was established at baseline. Nonsusceptibility to tetracycline and ciprofloxacin increased over the study period, reaching 96% and 36%, respectively, in 2011. Sixteen isolates (1%) had a cefixime MIC of 0.25 µg/mL (none =0.5), none had a ceftriaxone MIC of 0.25 µg/mL or greater, and 15 (1%) had an azithromycin MIC of 2.0 µg/mL or greater. Elevated MIC of these agents showed an increasing trend over time. Nonsusceptibility and elevated MIC were consistently highest at the rectal and pharyngeal sites and higher in isolates from males, including when stratified to the pharyngeal site.
Increases in elevated MIC of cefixime/ceftriaxone/azithromycin were superimposed on a background of established resistance to penicillin, tetracycline, and ciprofloxacin and may signal impending gonococcal resistance to first-line treatments. Ongoing surveillance will inform timely shifts in treatment recommendations.
PubMed ID
23250301 View in PubMed
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Ciprofloxacin resistance in the faecal carriage of patients undergoing transrectal ultrasound guided prostate biopsy.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature115796
Source
BJU Int. 2013 May;111(6):946-53
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2013
Author
Stephen Taylor
Joseph Margolick
Zeid Abughosh
S Larry Goldenberg
Dirk Lange
William R Bowie
Robert Bell
Diane Roscoe
Lindsay Machan
Peter Black
Author Affiliation
Department of Urologic Sciences, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.
Source
BJU Int. 2013 May;111(6):946-53
Date
May-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Analysis of Variance
Anti-Infective Agents, Urinary - administration & dosage - therapeutic use
Antibiotic Prophylaxis - methods
Canada - epidemiology
Ciprofloxacin - administration & dosage - therapeutic use
Drug Resistance, Bacterial
Endoscopic Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration - adverse effects
Escherichia coli - isolation & purification
Escherichia coli Infections - epidemiology - prevention & control
Feces - microbiology
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Prevalence
Prospective Studies
Prostatic Neoplasms - pathology - ultrasonography
Rectum - microbiology - pathology
Treatment Outcome
Abstract
WHAT'S KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT? AND WHAT DOES THE STUDY ADD?: Transrectal ultrasound guided prostate biopsies (TRUSBx) are associated with a spectrum of complications, including most significantly infection, which affects up to 5% of patients. In the most severe cases, infection leads to sepsis, a life-threatening complication. Escherichia coli is the primary responsible pathogen. Although antibiotic prophylaxis with fluoroquinolones is routinely used, there is evidence that the infection rate after TRUSBx is increasing, and this appears to be due to an increasing prevalence of ciprofloxacin-resistant rectal flora. This is the largest prospective clinical trial to date analysing the rectal flora of men undergoing prostate biopsies. We determined the microbial and antibiotic sensitivity profiles from 849 patients. Ciprofloxacin-resistant Gram-negative organisms were identified in the rectal flora of 19.0% of men. Furthermore, fluoroquinolone use within 6 months preceding a TRUSBx and the presence of a prosthetic heart valve were significant predictors of ciprofloxacin resistance on rectal swab. Determining the prevalence of rectal fluoroquinolone resistance has important implications in evaluation of the suitability of prophylactic regimens. Antimicrobial profiles derived from rectal swabs pre-biopsy may prove useful in guiding targeted antibiotic prophylaxis.
To establish the prevalence of ciprofloxacin-resistant bacteria in patients undergoing transrectal ultrasound guided prostate biopsies (TRUSBx) and to determine whether this predicts subsequent infectious complications. To identify risk factors for harbouring ciprofloxacin-resistant flora.
Any patient undergoing a TRUSBx from 2009 to 2011 was eligible for enrolment in this prospective study. Pre-biopsy rectal and urine cultures and post-biopsy urine cultures were obtained and antimicrobial susceptibility was determined. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify independent patient risk factors associated with ciprofloxacin-resistant rectal flora.
A total of 865 patients underwent TRUSBx, of whom 19.0% were found to have ciprofloxacin-resistant Gram-negative coliforms. Escherichia coli was the most prevalent Gram-negative rectal isolate (80.9%) and accounted for 90.6% of ciprofloxacin resistance. Patient characteristics that conferred an increased risk of harbouring ciprofloxacin-resistant organisms included a history of a heart valve replacement (P
Notes
Comment In: BJU Int. 2013 May;111(6):853-423615027
PubMed ID
23464844 View in PubMed
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Coincidental detection of the first outbreak of carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae colonisation in a primary care hospital, Finland, 2013.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature267364
Source
Euro Surveill. 2015;20(26)
Publication Type
Article
Date
2015
Author
M. Kanerva
K. Skogberg
K. Ryynänen
A. Pahkamäki
J. Jalava
J. Ollgren
E. Tarkka
O. Lyytikäinen
Source
Euro Surveill. 2015;20(26)
Date
2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Anti-Bacterial Agents - therapeutic use
Bacterial Proteins - secretion
Bacterial Typing Techniques - methods
Carrier State - epidemiology - microbiology
Disease Outbreaks
Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Hospital Bed Capacity, 100 to 299
Humans
Klebsiella Infections - diagnosis - epidemiology - microbiology
Klebsiella pneumoniae - enzymology - genetics - isolation & purification
Male
Mass Screening - methods
Microbial Sensitivity Tests
Middle Aged
Molecular Epidemiology
Multilocus Sequence Typing
Primary Health Care
Rectum - microbiology
Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization
beta-Lactamases - secretion
Abstract
In Finland, occurrence of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase-producing K. pneumoniae (KPC-KP) has previously been sporadic and related to travel. We describe the first outbreak of colonisation with KPC-KP strain ST512; it affected nine patients in a 137-bed primary care hospital. The index case was detected by chance when a non-prescribed urine culture was taken from an asymptomatic patient with suprapubic urinary catheter in June 2013. Thereafter, all patients on the 38-bed ward were screened until two screening rounds were negative and extensive control measures were performed. Eight additional KPC-KP-carriers were found, and the highest prevalence of carriers on the ward was nine of 38. All other patients hospitalised on the outbreak ward between 1 May and 10 June and 101 former roommates of KPC-KP carriers since January had negative screening results. Two screening rounds on the hospital's other wards were negative. No link to travel abroad was detected. Compared with non-carriers, but without statistical significance, KPC-KP carriers were older (83 vs 76 years) and had more often received antimicrobial treatment within the three months before screening (9/9 vs 90/133). No clinical infections occurred during the six-month follow-up. Early detection, prompt control measures and repetitive screening were crucial in controlling the outbreak.
PubMed ID
26159309 View in PubMed
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Detection of Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis in pharyngeal and rectal specimens using the BD Probetec ET system, the Gen-Probe Aptima Combo 2 assay and culture.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature153309
Source
Sex Transm Infect. 2009 Jun;85(3):182-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2009
Author
K V Ota
I E Tamari
M. Smieja
F. Jamieson
K E Jones
L. Towns
J. Juzkiw
S E Richardson
Author Affiliation
Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
Source
Sex Transm Infect. 2009 Jun;85(3):182-6
Date
Jun-2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Bacteriological Techniques - methods - standards
Canada
Chlamydia trachomatis - isolation & purification
Homosexuality, Male
Humans
Male
Neisseria gonorrhoeae - isolation & purification
Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques - methods - standards
Pharynx - microbiology
Prospective Studies
Rectum - microbiology
Sensitivity and specificity
Abstract
This study compared the sensitivity and specificity of culture and two nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs): the BD Probetec ET system (PT) and the Aptima Combo 2 (AC2) in detecting Neisseria gonorrhoeae (GC) and Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) in pharyngeal and rectal specimens.
Male subjects were prospectively recruited at an MSM clinic in Toronto, Canada. Pharyngeal and rectal specimens were obtained for GC and CT culture, PT and AC2. Urine was also obtained for PT. A true positive was defined as: (1) positive culture, (2) positive PT and AC2 at the same site or (3) a single positive NAAT and detection of the same organism by any method at another site.
248 subjects were recruited. The prevalence of pharyngeal GC was 8.1%, rectal GC 11.7%, pharyngeal CT 2.0% and rectal CT 7.7%. The sensitivity of culture for pharyngeal GC and CT was 0%; 41.4% for rectal GC and 21.1% for rectal CT. The sensitivity of PT for pharyngeal GC, rectal GC, pharyngeal CT and rectal CT was 95.0%, 93.1%, 80.0% and 94.7%, respectively. The sensitivity of AC2 was 95.0% for pharyngeal GC and 100% at all other sites. Specificity was consistently above 98%.
PT and AC2 detected GC and CT with superior sensitivity compared to culture. They detected 73 pharyngeal or rectal GC and CT infections compared to 16 by culture, using a rigorous gold standard. NAATs should be the method of choice for the detection of GC and CT in extragenital sites in men who have sex with men.
Notes
Comment In: Sex Transm Infect. 2009 Jun;85(3):159-6019478103
PubMed ID
19126571 View in PubMed
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Efficacy of admission screening for extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producing Enterobacteriaceae.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature114214
Source
PLoS One. 2013;8(4):e62678
Publication Type
Article
Date
2013
Author
Christopher F Lowe
Kevin Katz
Allison J McGeer
Matthew P Muller
Author Affiliation
Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
Source
PLoS One. 2013;8(4):e62678
Date
2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Canada - epidemiology
Community-Acquired Infections - epidemiology - microbiology
Cross Infection - epidemiology - microbiology
Enterobacteriaceae - isolation & purification
Enterobacteriaceae Infections - epidemiology - microbiology
Hospitals - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Incidence
Mass Screening
Patient Admission - statistics & numerical data
Rectum - microbiology
beta-Lactamases - biosynthesis
Abstract
We hypothesized that admission screening for extended-spectrum ß-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E) reduces the incidence of hospital-acquired ESBL-E clinical isolates.
Retrospective cohort study.
12 hospitals (6 screening and 6 non-screening) in Toronto, Canada.
All adult inpatients with an ESBL-E positive culture collected from 2005-2009.
Cases were defined as hospital-onset (HO) or community-onset (CO) if cultures were positive after or before 72 hours. Efficacy of screening in reducing HO-ESBL-E incidence was assessed with a negative binomial model adjusting for study year and CO-ESBL-E incidence. The accuracy of the HO-ESBL-E definition was assessed by re-classifying HO-ESBL-E cases as confirmed nosocomial (negative admission screen), probable nosocomial (no admission screen) or not nosocomial (positive admission screen) using data from the screening hospitals.
There were 2,088 ESBL-E positive patients and incidence of ESBL-E rose from 0.11 to 0.42 per 1,000 inpatient days between 2005 and 2009. CO-ESBL-E incidence was similar at screening and non-screening hospitals but screening hospitals had a lower incidence of HO-ESBL-E in all years. In the negative binomial model, screening was associated with a 49.1% reduction in HO-ESBL-E (p
Notes
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PubMed ID
23638132 View in PubMed
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44 records – page 1 of 5.