In spite of an enormous amount of new experimental laboratory data based on evolving neuroscientific concepts during the last 25 years peripheral nerve injuries still belong to the most challenging and difficult surgical reconstructive problems. Our understanding of biological mechanisms regulating posttraumatic nerve regeneration has increased substantially with respect to the role of neurotrophic and neurite-outgrowth promoting substances, but new molecular biological knowledge has so far gained very limited clinical applications. Techniques for clinical approximation of severed nerve ends have reached an optimal technical refinement and new concepts are needed to further increase the results from nerve repair. For bridging gaps in nerve continuity little has changed during the last 25 years. However, evolving principles for immunosuppression may open new perspectives regarding the use of nerve allografts, and various types of tissue engineering combined by bioartificial conduits may also be important. Posttraumatic functional reorganizations occurring in brain cortex are key phenomena explaining much of the inferior functional outcome following nerve repair, and increased knowledge regarding factors involved in brain plasticity may help to further improve the results. Implantation of microchips in the nervous system may provide a new interface between biology and technology and developing gene technology may introduce new possibilities in the manipulation of nerve degeneration and regeneration.
Bone deficiency in revision total hip arthroplasty is a challenge to the surgeon. One option for restoration of the bone stock is impaction bone grafting and use of a cemented socket. The aim of this study was to evaluate the mid-term clinical outcome of impaction bone grafting and cemented socket revisions.
A total of 59 patients (60 hips) underwent revision arthroplasty with impaction bone grafting and application of a cemented socket on the acetabular side in the Turku University Hospital from 1999 to 2004. The study end-point was re-revision for any reason. The cumulative percentages for survival were followed and estimated with Kaplan-Meier curves. Associations between occurrence of re-revision and potential risk factors were analyzed with logistic regression. Results were quantified by odd ratios and 95% confidence intervals. The mean age of the patients was 69 years (33% male). A total of 3% of the patients had a class I Paprosky acetabular defect, 38% had class II, and 55% had class III.
The overall survival rate was 73%. The mean follow-up time was 7 years. The most common reason for re-revision was aseptic loosening of the acetabular component (13 patients, 81% of re-revisions). Cox's regression analysis did not identify any risk factors for re-revision.
Our results were inferior compared to some previous studies. Impaction bone grafting of acetabular defects in revision total hip arthroplasty may not always provide a reliable bone stock in long-term.
Adoption of Chinese children with cleft lip and palate (CLP) has become increasingly more common in Sweden. The aim of this study was to examine parents' experience when adopting a child with CLP. Since 2008, 34 adopted children with CLP have been treated in our department. A questionnaire was sent to 33 of the families and 30 of them answered (91%). The parents had queued from 1 month to 8 years before they were offered a child. Eighteen families reported that they received information on CLP from the adoption agency and 87% contacted the department of plastic surgery for additional information. In 15 cases (45%) previously unknown medical conditions or birth defects other than CLP were discovered in Sweden. Most parents (67%) had been informed before the adoption that their child could be a carrier of resistant bacteria, but not all had received enough information to grasp what it implies to be a carrier. The great majority of the families did not feel that the early hospitalisation for the first operation had a negative impact on the attachment between them and their adopted child. They thought that the aesthetic and functional results of the operations were "better than expected". Seventeen families stated that people react to the cleft and four of them think that the reactions are a problem. Presumptive adoptive parents should be informed that the child might have unsuspected medical conditions, resistant bacteria, what carriage implies, and that needed treatment and long-term results are not predictable.
A new autofibrin glue compound (AFGC) is suggested. The experiment has demonstrated that the inclusion of antibiotics and lysozyme does not influence its adhesive qualities or sterilization with gamma radiation. It has been revealed that the dose to sterilise the compound was 75 Gy. AFGC was used during tympanoplasties in 55 patients for fixation of ossiculoplasties, fascia autotransplant and skin of the external auditory meatus. Morphological and functional results of tympanoplasties turned out to be better than those of the control group in which the glue was not used.
Autologous fat transplantation to the velopharynx has been described in a few smaller studies including heterogeneous groups of patients for the treatment of velopharyngeal insufficiency (VPI). The aim of this study was to evaluate speech and to measure velopharyngeal closure with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients who underwent autologous fat transplantation for the treatment of persistent VPI of mild degree secondary to overt or submucous cleft palate.
A prospective study of 16 patients with persistent VPI of mild degree secondary to overt or submucous cleft palate who underwent autologous fat transplantation to the velopharynx. The patients were injected with a median of 5.6 (3.8-7.6) ml autologous fat to the velopharynx. Pre- and 1-year postoperative audio recordings were blinded for scoring independently by three senior speech therapists. Hypernasality, hyponasality, nasal turbulence and audible nasal emission were scored on a five-point scale. Pre- and 1-year postoperative MRIs were obtained during vocal rest and during phonation in 12 patients. Data measured were the velopharyngeal distance in the sagittal plane and the velopharyngeal gap area in the axial plane.
Hypernasality improved significantly (p=0.030), but not audible nasal emission (p=0.072) or nasal turbulence (p=0.12). The velopharyngeal distance during phonation decreased significantly (p=0.013), but not the velopharyngeal gap area (p=0.16). There was no significant correlation between speech and MRI results.
Autologous fat transplantation to the velopharynx improved hypernasality significantly, but not audible nasal emission or nasal turbulence in patients with persistent VPI of mild degree secondary to overt or submucous cleft palate. Given the low number of patients and the lack of a control group, the value of fat transplantation for the treatment of mild VPI is not proven for sure.
To determine a syndrome score threshold on PFDI or PFIQ predictive of a significant improvement in post-operative functional results.
A retrospective case review (Canadian Task Force Classification II-2).
University and research hospital.
Women diagnosed with pelvic organ prolapse and repaired with synthetic vaginal mesh.
Quality of life was arbitrarily considered to have improved significantly if the score decreases by more than 50% between pre-operatively and 36 months post-operatively. We investigated the pre-operative cut-off score predictive of no quality of life improvement at M36 from a prospective trial for surgical pelvic organ prolapse treatment.
The most accurate pre-operative cut-off score predicting a failure to improve quality of life at 36 months post-operatively was 62/300 (PFDI Score). This cut-off value had a positive predictive value of 83.6% and specificity of 62.1%. No significant threshold was obtained from the PFIQ score.
The intensity of symptoms before surgery may interfere as a predictive factor for outcome.
OBJECTIVE: To compare the short- and long-term craniofacial growth of patients operated with the Milan protocol to those operated with the Oslo protocol. DESIGN: The Milan sample included 88 patients with unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) at 5 years, 26 at 10 years, and 23 at the end of growth. The Oslo samples included 48 UCLP patients at 5 years, 29 at 10, and 23 at growth completion. Lateral cephalograms were used for comparison. An unpaired t test was run for the 5- and 10-year-old samples. The samples long term were matched for age and sex, and a paired t test was run. RESULTS: There was no significant cephalometric difference in the maxillary prominence at 5 years, a mild but significant difference at 10 years, and again no difference at the end of growth. Nevertheless, at an older age, the need for orthognathic surgery was larger in the Milan sample (26%) than in the Oslo sample (13%). CONCLUSION: Although no statistically significant differences in the cephalometric measurements were found long term, the need for orthognathic surgery was clinically judged to be larger in the Milan sample. On the other hand, although the Milan protocol seemed to require more final jaw surgery, only the cases that needed an additional orthognathic procedure in the Milan group will undertake a third surgical step, while the Oslo protocol included three surgical steps for all the patients.
Surgical management of caustic strictures of the upper digestive tract poses difficult challenges. This is because reconstruction above the cricopharyngeal junction interferes with the mechanisms of swallowing and respiration. This report reviews the outcome of colopharyngeal reconstruction of severe diffuse pharyngoesophageal caustic strictures in an indigenous African community.
The medical records of patients who underwent colopharyngoplasty from January 2006 to December 2008 were retrospectively reviewed to obtain information on patients' demographics, surgical technique and outcome.
In the study period, 20 patients underwent reconstruction for caustic esophageal strictures; in five (three males, two females) colopharyngoplasty was required. Their ages ranged from four to 56 years (mean 25 years). Follow-up ranged from 23 to 94 months (mean 33 months). Colopharyngoplasty using left colon tunneled retrosternally was performed in all patients. Rehabilitative training for deglutition was required for 0.5-5.0 months postoperatively to restore near-normal swallowing in all patients. However, tracheostomy complications caused two deaths (one early, one late) and varicella encephalitis caused another late death.
In this African community, colopharyngoplasty provided an effective mean of restoration of upper digestive tract continuity in patients with severe caustic pharyngoesophageal strictures. Tracheostomy in this setting portends a significant long-term mortality risk.
This study evaluated patient-reported outcome of the donor site in patients following head and neck cancer reconstruction. Patients who had undergone cancer reconstruction using either an anterolateral thigh or a radial forearm free flap and who were at least 6 months postsurgery were included and contacted by telephone. There were 37 patients (mean age 61 years, standard deviation 16 years) with 18 anterolateral thigh flaps and 19 radial forearm flaps. The majority of patients were not bothered by scar appearance, light touch, numbness or pain. Significantly more females (P = 0.038) and more patients with radial forearm flaps (P = 0.045) were bothered by the cold at the donor site and more females reported that the shape of the operated extremity was different (P = 0.009). Donor site morbidity is not significant following a radial forearm or anterolateral thigh free flap and the reconstruction should be based upon individual patient factors and surgeon expertise.