The expression of the 17 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17-HSD) gene in a series of human breast cancer cell lines was studied by Northern blot hybridization with a cDNA probe and by a time-resolved immunofluorometric assay using polyclonal antibodies against the enzyme protein. The 17-HSD enzyme protein concentration was measured in the 800 x g cell extract. A high concentration was measured in the BT-20 cell line, corresponding to one-fourth of the average concentration in placental tissue. Western blot analysis indicated that the antigen corresponded to a single Mr 35,000 band. In 2 other cell lines (MDA-MB-361 and T-47D), the 17-HSD protein concentration was much lower, but still measurable, whereas in the remaining 5 cell lines (HBL-100, MCF-7, MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-468, and ZR-75-1) it was below the detection limit of the assay. Treatment of the cells for 5 days with the synthetic progestin, ORG2058, resulted in an increase of the 17-HSD protein concentration only in the T-47D cell line. By Northern blot analysis, a low level of 2.3-kilobase mRNA transcripts was detected in all 8 cell lines. In addition, a 1.3-kilobase 17-HSD mRNA was present in the samples from the 3 cell lines containing measurable amounts of 17-HSD protein in the cell extract, and the band intensities were proportional to the amount of protein measured with the immunofluorometric assay. Only in the T-47D cell line did progestin treatment correspond to an increased amount of the 17-HSD 1.3-kilobase mRNA. These results suggest that the 1.3-kilobase mRNA for 17-HSD is the form most closely associated with protein expression and is also the only form responding to the progestin induction of the 17-HSD gene.
Capecitabine is not considered a standard agent in the adjuvant treatment of early breast cancer. The results of this study suggest that addition of adjuvant capecitabine to a regimen that contains docetaxel, epirubicin, and cyclophosphamide improves survival outcomes of patients with triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC).
To investigate the effect of capecitabine on long-term survival outcomes of patients with early breast cancer, particularly in subgroups defined by cancer estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) content, and HER2 content (human epidermal growth factor receptor 2).
This is an exploratory analysis of the multicenter FinXX randomized clinical trial that accrued 1500 women in Finland and Sweden between January 27, 2004, and May 29, 2007. About half received 3 cycles of docetaxel followed by 3 cycles of cyclophosphamide, epirubicin, and fluorouracil (T+CEF), while the other half received 3 cycles of docetaxel plus capecitabine followed by 3 cycles of cyclophosphamide, epirubicin, and capecitabine (TX+CEX). Data analysis took place between January 27, 2004, and December 31, 2015.
Recurrence-free survival (RFS).
Following random allocation, 747 women received T+CEF, and 753 women received TX+CEX. Five patients were excluded from the intention-to-treat population (3 had overt distant metastases at the time of randomization; 2 withdrew consent). The median age of the remaining 1495 patients was 53 years at the time of study entry; 157 (11%) had axillary node-negative disease; 1142 (76%) had ER-positive cancer; and 282 (19%) had HER2-positive cancer. The median follow-up time after random allocation was 10.3 years. There was no significant difference in RFS or overall survival between the groups (hazard ratio [HR], 0.88; 95% CI, 0.71-1.08; P?=?.23; and HR, 0.84, 95% CI, 0.66-1.07; P?=?.15; respectively). Breast cancer-specific survival tended to favor the capecitabine group (HR, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.60-1.04; P?=?.10). When RFS and survival of the patients were compared within the subgroups defined by cancer steroid hormone receptor status (ER and/or PR positive vs ER and PR negative) and HER2 status (positive vs negative), TX+CEX was more effective than T+CEF in the subset of patients with TNBC (HR, 0.53; 95% CI, 0.31-0.92; P?=?.02; and HR, 0.55, 95% CI, 0.31-0.96; P?=?.03; respectively).
Capecitabine administration with docetaxel, epirubicin, and cyclophosphamide did not prolong RFS or survival compared with a regimen that contained only standard agents. Patients with TNBC had favorable survival outcomes when treated with the capecitabine-containing regimen in an exploratory subgroup analysis.
Adjuvant endocrine therapy compromises bone health in patients with breast cancer, causing osteopenia, osteoporosis, and fractures. Antiresorptive treatments such as bisphosphonates prevent and counteract these side-effects. In this trial, we aimed to investigate the effects of the anti-RANK ligand antibody denosumab in postmenopausal, aromatase inhibitor-treated patients with early-stage hormone receptor-positive breast cancer.
In this prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial, postmenopausal patients with early hormone receptor-positive breast cancer receiving treatment with aromatase inhibitors were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive either denosumab 60 mg or placebo administered subcutaneously every 6 months in 58 trial centres in Austria and Sweden. Patients were assigned by an interactive voice response system. The randomisation schedule used a randomly permuted block design with block sizes 2 and 4, stratified by type of hospital regarding Hologic device for DXA scans, previous aromatase inhibitor use, and baseline bone mineral density. Patients, treating physicians, investigators, data managers, and all study personnel were masked to treatment allocation. The primary endpoint was time from randomisation to first clinical fracture, analysed by intention to treat. As an additional sensitivity analysis, we also analysed the primary endpoint on the per-protocol population. Patients were treated until the prespecified number of 247 first clinical fractures was reached. This trial is ongoing (patients are in follow-up) and is registered with the European Clinical Trials Database, number 2005-005275-15, and with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00556374.
Between Dec 18, 2006, and July 22, 2013, 3425 eligible patients were enrolled into the trial, of whom 3420 were randomly assigned to receive denosumab 60 mg (n=1711) or placebo (n=1709) subcutaneously every 6 months. Compared with the placebo group, patients in the denosumab group had a significantly delayed time to first clinical fracture (hazard ratio [HR] 0·50 [95% CI 0·39-0·65], p
Comment In: Lancet. 2015 Aug 1;386(9992):409-1026040500
Adult height and body weight are positively associated with breast cancer risk after menopause, but few studies have investigated these factors according to molecular breast cancer subtype. A total of 18,562 postmenopausal Norwegian women who were born between 1886 and 1928 were followed up for breast cancer incidence from the time (between 1963 and 1975) height and weight were measured until 2008. Immunohistochemical and in situ hybridization techniques were used to subtype 734 incident breast cancer cases into Luminal A, Luminal B [human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2-)], Luminal B (HER2+), HER2 subtype, basal-like phenotype (BP) and five-negative phenotype (5NP). We used Cox regression analysis to assess adult height and body mass index (BMI) in relation to risk of these subtypes. We found a positive association of height with risk of Luminal A breast cancer (ptrend , 0.004), but there was no clear association of height with any other subtype. BMI was positively associated with risk of all luminal breast cancer subtypes, including Luminal A (ptrend , 0.002), Luminal B (HER2-) (ptrend , 0.02), Luminal B (HER2+) (ptrend , 0.06), and also for the HER2 subtype (ptrend , 0.04), but BMI was not associated with risk of the BP or 5NP subtypes. Nonetheless, statistical tests for heterogeneity did not provide evidence that associations of height and BMI differed across breast cancer subtypes. This study of breast cancer risk among postmenopausal women suggests that height is positively associated with risk of Luminal A breast cancer. BMI is positively associated with risk of all luminal subtypes and for the HER2 subtype.
Although obesity is one of the established risk factors for postmenopausal breast cancer, it is not clear whether this positive association differs across estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) status of breast tumors. We evaluated the association between body weight and ER/PR defined breast cancer risk stratified by postmenopausal hormone (PMH) use and a family history of breast cancer in the population-based Swedish Mammography Screening Cohort comprising 51,823 postmenopausal women. Relative body weight was measured by body mass index (kg/m2) based on self-reported weight and height collected in 1987 and 1997. Relative risks (RRs) were estimated by hazard ratios derived from Cox proportional hazards regression models. During an average of 8.3-year follow-up, 1,188 invasive breast cancer cases with known ER and PR status were diagnosed. When comparing to normal weight group, we observed a positive association between obesity and risk for the development of ER+ PR+ tumors (RR = 1.67, 95% CI = 1.34-2.07) and an inverse association for the development of all PR- tumors (RR = 0.68, 95% CI = 0.47-0.98). Statistically significant heterogeneity was observed in the RRs between ER+ PR+ tumors and all PR- tumors (p(heterogeneity)
Some molecular subtypes of breast cancer have preferential sites of distant relapse. The protein expression pattern of the primary tumor may influence the first distant metastasis site.
We identified from the files of the Finnish Cancer Registry patients diagnosed with breast cancer in five geographical regions Finland in 1991-1992, reviewed the hospital case records, and collected primary tumor tissue. Out of the 2,032 cases identified, 234 developed distant metastases after a median follow-up time of 2.7 years and had the first metastatic site documented (a total of 321 sites). Primary tumor microarray (TMA) cores were analyzed for 17 proteins using immunohistochemistry and for erbB2 using chromogenic in situ hybridization, and their associations with the first metastasis site were examined. The cancers were classified into luminal A, luminal B, HER2+ enriched, basal-like or non-expressor subtypes.
A total of 3,886 TMA cores were analyzed. Luminal A cancers had a propensity to give rise first to bone metastases, HER2-enriched cancers to liver and lung metastases, and basal type cancers to liver and brain metastases. Primary tumors that gave first rise to bone metastases expressed frequently estrogen receptor (ER) and SNAI1 (SNAIL) and rarely COX2 and HER2, tumors with first metastases in the liver expressed infrequently SNAI1, those with lung metastases expressed frequently the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), cytokeratin-5 (CK5) and HER2, and infrequently progesterone receptor (PgR), tumors with early skin metastases expressed infrequently E-cadherin, and breast tumors with first metastases in the brain expressed nestin, prominin-1 and CK5 and infrequently ER and PgR.
Breast tumor biological subtypes have a tendency to give rise to first distant metastases at certain body sites. Several primary tumor proteins were associated with homing of breast cancer cells.
Cites: Cancer. 2011 May 1;117(9):1837-4621509760
Cites: Clin Cancer Res. 2008 Jul 1;14(13):4103-1018593987
Emerging data indicate an important role for biopsies of clinically/radiologically defined breast cancer 'recurrences'. The present study investigates tumour related events (relapses, other malignancies, benign conditions) after a primary breast cancer diagnosis.
The cohort includes 2102 women, representing all patients, with primary invasive breast cancer during 2000-2011 in the county of Värmland, Sweden. A comparative analysis of oestrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) and proliferation (Ki67) between the primary tumour and the relapse was performed and related to outcome.
With a mean follow-up time of 4.8 years, 1060 out of 2102 patients have had a biopsy taken after the initial breast cancer diagnosis demonstrating 177 recurrences, 93 other malignancies (colorectal, lung, skin), 40 cancer in situ (skin, breast) and 857 benign lesions. Approximately 70% (177 out of 245) of all cases of relapsed breast cancer underwent a biopsy during this time period. For patients with recurrences, ER (n=127), PR (n=101), HER2 (n=73) and Ki67 (n=55) status in both primary tumour and the corresponding relapse were determined. The discordance of receptor status was 14.2%, 39.6%, 9.6% and 36.3%, respectively. Loss of ER or PR in the relapse resulted in a significant increased risk of death (hazard ratio (HR) 3.62; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.65-7.94) and (HR 2.34; 95% CI, 1.01-5.47) compared with patients with stable ER or PR positive tumours. The proportion of patients losing ER was bigger in the group treated with endocrine therapy alone or in combination with chemotherapy, 16.7% and 13.3%, respectively, compared with the group treated with chemotherapy alone or that which received no treatment 4.3% and 7.7%, respectively.
Discordance of biomarkers between the primary tumour and the corresponding relapse was seen in 10-40% of the patients, adjuvant therapies seem to drive clonal selections. Patients with tumours losing ER or PR during progression have worse survival compared with patients with retained receptor expression.
Age and tumor subtype are prognostic factors for breast cancer survival, but it is unclear which matters the most. We used population-based data to address this question. We identified 21,384 women diagnosed with breast cancer at ages 20-89 between 2005 and 2015 in the Cancer Registry of Norway. Subtype was defined using estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and human epidermal growth factor 2 (HER2) status as luminal A-like (ER+PR+HER2-), luminal B-like HER2-negative (ER+PR-HER2-), luminal B-like HER2-positive (ER+PR+/-HER2+), HER2-positive (ER-PR-HER2+) and triple-negative (TNBC) (ER-PR-HER2-). Cox regression estimated hazard ratios (HR) for breast cancer-specific 7-year survival by age and subtype, while adjusting for year, grade, TNM stage and treatment. Young women more often had HER2-positive and TNBC tumors, while elderly women (70-89) more often had luminal A-like tumors. Compared to age 50-59, young women had doubled breast cancer-specific mortality rate (HR = 2.26, 95% CI 1.81-2.82), while elderly had two to five times higher mortality rate (70-79: HR = 2.25, 1.87-2.71; 80-89: HR = 5.19, 4.21-6.41). After adjustments, the association was non-significant among young women but remained high among elderly. Young age was associated with increased breast cancer-specific mortality among luminal A-like subtype, while old age was associated with increased mortality in all subtypes. Age and subtype were strong independent prognostic factors. The elderly always did worse, also after adjustment for subtype. Tumor-associated factors (subtype, grade and stage) largely explained the higher breast cancer-specific mortality among young. Future studies should address why luminal A-like subtype is associated with a higher mortality rate in young women.
Hormone receptor testing (oestrogen and progesterone) in breast cancer at the time of primary diagnosis is used to guide treatment decisions. Accurate and standardised testing methods are critical to ensure the proper classification of the patient's hormone receptor status. Recommendations were developed to improve the quality and accuracy of hormone receptor testing based on a systematic review conducted jointly by the American Society of Clinical Oncology/College of American Pathologists and Cancer Care Ontario's Program in Evidence-Based Care. Evidence-based recommendations were formulated to set standards for optimising immunohistochemistry in assessing hormone receptor status, as well as assuring quality and proficiency between and within laboratories. A formal external review was conducted to validate the relevance of these recommendations. It is anticipated that widespread adoption of these guidelines will further improve the accuracy of hormone receptor testing in Canada.
All cases of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) diagnosed from 1987 to 1991 in the Southern Health Care Region of Sweden, and operated upon with breast conserving treatment (BCT) with (n=66) or without (n=121) postoperative radiation (RT) were clinically followed, morphologically re-evaluated and analysed for cell biological factors (immunohistochemical assays or DNA flow cytometry). Median age at diagnosis was 58 years (range 29--83 years) and median follow-up was 62 months. Oestrogen (ER)- and progesterone receptor (PR)-negativity, c-erbB-2 overexpression, low bcl-2 expression, p53 accumulation, DNA non-diploidy and high Ki67, were strongly associated with high grade DCIS, and comedo-type necrosis. In contrast, significant associations to growth pattern (not diffuse versus diffuse) were seen only for c-erbB-2 and PgR. There was also a strong relationship between the cell biological factors, and a summary cell biological index based on principal component analysis was introduced (CBI-7). In the group that had not received postoperative RT, 31 ipsilateral local recurrences occurred (13 invasive, 18 DCIS). Ipsilateral recurrence-free interval (IL-RFI) was in univariate analyses significantly, or almost significantly, shorter for patients showing p53 accumulation, high Ki67 or low bcl-2, compared with patients with normal p53, low Ki67 and high bcl-2. The prognostic importance of the remaining cell biological factors was less pronounced. On the other hand, the index CBI-7, was a strong predictor for recurrence.