Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation/Wellcome Trust DiabetesInflammation Laboratory, Cambridge Institute for Medical Research, University of Cambridge, WT/MRC building, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge, CB2 2XY, UK. email@example.com
Vitamin D is known to modulate the immune system, and its administration has been associated with reduced risk of type 1 diabetes. Vitamin D acts via its receptor (VDR). Four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the VDR gene have been commonly studied, and evidence of association with type 1 diabetes has been reported previously. We sequenced the VDR gene region and developed its SNP map. Here we analyzed association of the 98 VDR SNPs in up to 3,763 type 1 diabetic families. First, we genotyped all 98 SNPs in a minimum of 458 U.K. families with two affected offspring. We further tested eight SNPs, including four SNPs associated with P
The vitamin D3 receptor gene (VDR) contains a TaqI RFLP that is associated with increased VDR mRNA stability, increased serum levels of 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25-D3), and decreased risk for prostate cancer. Determination of the TaqI genotype, in a group of young women with breast cancer (n = 111; age,
Vitamin D receptor (VDR) polymorphisms have been associated with several immune-related diseases, and VDR and vitamin D itself modulate T cell differentiation. VDR maps to chromosome 12q, near a region commonly linked to asthma. We evaluated VDR as part of a 12q positional candidate survey, and in response to observations of VDR polymorphism associations with asthma and atopy in a founder population of Quebec. Twenty-eight loci in 7 positional candidates (7 in VDR) were genotyped in 582 families. Whereas other candidates demonstrated no association, the VDR ApaI polymorphism demonstrated significant transmission distortion, with undertransmission of the C allele in a ratio of 4:5 (p = 0.01). This association was most prominent in girls, in whom distortion was more marked (p = 0.009). Sex-specific associations between multiple VDR polymorphisms and immunoglobulin E levels were also observed (p = 0.006-0.01). Asthma associations were replicated in a second cohort (517 females with asthma and 519 matched control subjects): 4 of 6 VDR variants demonstrated significant association (p = 0.02-0.04). The direction of association in this second cohort was opposite to the effects seen in the trios, but similar to findings in the Quebec study. These results suggest that VDR influences asthma and allergy susceptibility in a complex manner.
Genome scans for asthma have identified suggestive or significant linkages on 17 different chromosomes, including chromosome 12, region q13-23, housing the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene. Through interaction with VDR, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 mediates numerous biological activities, such as regulation of helper T-cell development and subsequent cytokine secretion profiles. Variants of the VDR have been found to be associated with immune-mediated diseases that are characterized by an imbalance in helper T-cell development, such as Crohn's disease and tuberculosis. The VDR, hence, is a good candidate to be investigated for association with asthma, which is characterized by enhanced helper T-cell type 2 activity. Here, we examined VDR genetic variants in an asthma family-based cohort from Quebec. We report six variants to be strongly associated with asthma and four with atopy (0.0005
We investigated the association between polymorphism in the androgen receptor (AR) and vitamin D receptor (VDR) genes and breast cancer risk in a large population-based case-control study of genetically homogenous Swedish women. We successfully determined both AR CAG(n) and VDR A(n) genotype in 1,502 women with invasive breast cancer and in 1,510 control women. We did not find any associations between AR or VDR microsatellite lengths and breast cancer when we used a priori determined cutoffs (/=22 repeats for AR and /=19 for VDR) to define long and short alleles. There was statistically significant interaction between VDR genotype and parity, such that women with two short alleles had a halved risk for breast cancer, irrespective of parity, compared with nulliparous women with two long alleles. Homozygosity for the long VDR allele was associated with a more advanced clinical stage at diagnosis. In exploratory analyses, we determined cutoffs based on visual inspection of distributions of allele lengths among cases and controls and found that women carrying two alleles with /=20 repeats. Women carrying two VDR alleles with
A number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) related to height have been detected. Calcium metabolism is important for the skeleton and accordingly also for adult height. Therefore, in the present study, nine SNPs related to the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene and serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), calcium, phosphate and parathyroid hormone (PTH) were related to height in 9471 subjects. Relation with height was evaluated with linear regression for trend across SNP genotypes with age and gender as covariates. After correcting for multiple testing, significant associations with height were found for two SNPs related to the VDR gene (rs1544410 (Bsml) and rs7975232 (Apal)), one SNP related to serum 25(OH)D (rs3829251 at the DHCR7/NADSYN1 gene), one SNP related to serum calcium (rs1459015 at the PTH gene) and one SNP related to serum phosphate (rs1697421 at the ALPL gene). For rs3829251, the mean differences in height between major and minor homozygotes were 1.5-2.0 cm (P
In Quebec, cancer is the principal cause of mortality. This epidemiologic research program includes two components. The first component takes place at the "Institut national de santé publique du Québec" and involves surveillance and evaluation of practices in oncology with the aim of providing the Quebec Ministry of Health with some of the evidence needed to determine its policies in cancer control. The second component takes place at the "Unité de recherche en santé des populations (URESP)" of Laval University and is devoted to studying the etiology and prevention of breast cancer. This paper focuses on this second research component which uses mammographic breast density as an intermediate biomarker to study the causes of breast cancer and strategies to prevent it. Breast cancer risk is much higher among women with very dense breasts than among those with little or no breast density. Recently, we were among the first to show that women with high vitamin D or calcium intakes have less breast density than those with low intakes, especially among premenopausal women. Furthermore, we have confirmed that breast density was increased among premenopausal women with high levels of IGF-I and low levels of IGFBP3 which is consistent with the observed effect of these molecules on breast cancer risk. Studies are now being conducted to assess whether breast density varies according to blood levels of vitamin D and of additional growth factors, as well as to genetic polymorphisms involved in the pathways of vitamin D, calcium and growth factors. The increase in vitamin D and calcium intakes may prove to be a safe and inexpensive approach to breast cancer prevention; this possibility should be carefully examined as quickly as possible.
In a longitudinal study including 642 healthy 8-11-year-old Danish children, we investigated associations between vitamin D dependent SNP and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations across a school year (August-June). Serum 25(OH)D was measured three times for every child, which approximated measurements in three seasons (autumn, winter, spring). Dietary and supplement intake, physical activity, BMI and parathyroid hormone were likewise measured at each time point. In all, eleven SNP in four vitamin D-related genes: Cytochrome P450 subfamily IIR1 (CYP2R1); 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase/nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide synthetase-1(DHCR7/NADSYN1); group-specific complement (GC); and vitamin D receptor were genotyped. We found minor alleles of CYP2R1 rs10500804, and of GC rs4588 and rs7041 to be associated with lower serum 25(OH)D concentrations across the three seasons (all P
Peak bone mass has been shown to be a significant predictor of risk for osteoporosis. Previous studies have demonstrated that skeletal mass accumulation is under strong genetic control, and efforts have been made to identify candidate loci. Determinants of peak bone mass also include diet, physical activity, hormonal status, and other clinical factors. The overall contribution of these factors, genetic and nongenetic, and their interaction in determining peak bone density status have not been delineated. Six hundred and seventy-seven healthy unrelated Caucasian women ages 18-35 years were assessed. A detailed, standardized interview was conducted to evaluate lifestyle factors, menstrual and reproductive history, medical conditions, medication use, and family history of osteoporosis. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured at the lumbar spine (L2-L4) and the femoral neck (hip) using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Genotyping of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) locus at three polymorphic sites (BsmI, ApaI, and TaqI) was performed. In bivariate analyses, BMD at the lumbar spine and hip was positively correlated with weight, height, body mass index (BMI), and level of physical activity, both now and during adolescence, but negatively correlated with a family history of osteoporosis. Hip, but not spine BMD, correlated positively with dietary intake of calcium, and negatively with amenorrhea of more than 3 months, with caffeine intake, and with age. Spine, but not hip BMD, correlated positively with age and with number of pregnancies. VDR haplotype demonstrated significant associations with BMD at the hip, level of physical activity currently, and BMI. In multivariate analysis, independent predictors of greater BMD (at the hip or spine) were: age (younger for the hip, older for the spine), greater body weight, greater height (hip only), higher level of physical activity now and during adolescence, no family history of osteoporosis, and VDR genotype (hip only). Weight, age, level of physical activity, and family history are independent predictors of peak BMD. Of these factors, weight accounts for over half the explained variability in BMD. VDR alleles are significant independent predictors of peak femoral neck, but not lumbar spine BMD, even after adjusting for family history of osteoporosis, weight, age, and exercise. However, the overall contribution of this genetic determinant is modest. Taken together, these factors explained approximately 17% and 21% of the variability in peak spine and hip BMD, respectively, in our cohort. Future research should be aimed at further evaluation of genetic determinants of BMD. Most importantly, understanding the critical interactive nature between genes and the environment will facilitate development of targeted strategies directed at modifying lifestyle factors as well as earlier intervention in the most susceptible individuals.
The bb genotype of the BsmI polymorphism of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) is more common in primary hyperparathyroidism (HPT) than in the general population in Swedish and German women. However, little is known about the association of HPT with the start codon polymorphism of the VDR (defined by FokI).
To study the distribution of the VDR genotypes in a group of women with HPT compared with a control group. The bone mineral density (BMD) of different genotypes was also investigated.
VDR alleles were typed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay around the polymorphic BsmI or FokI restriction sites in 67 control women (48.5 +/- 10 years) and 53 women with HPT (61.4 +/- 11 years). They were all Caucasian and born in the Canary Islands. Lumbar and proximal femur BMDs were measured by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and quantitative computed tomography (QCT).
The 'bb' genotype was equally frequent in controls and HPT subjects (46.3 and 45.3%, respectively). There was a trend towards a lower prevalence of the FF genotype amongst women with HPT as compared with controls (41.5 vs. 57.1%; P = 0.09). BMD was lower in patients with HPT compared with controls in the lumbar spine and the proximal femur.
The association of the BsmI polymorphism of the VDR gene with HPT is not applicable to all geographical areas. In Canarian postmenopausal women suffering from HPT, VDR genotype distribution is similar to that found in controls. A possible association of HPT with the FokI polymorphism deserves further investigation.