The recently discovered human parvovirus 4 (PARV4) is found most frequently in injection drug users, HIV-positive patients, and in haemophiliacs. Studies from Ghana report the finding of PARV4 in plasma from 2 to 12% of children without acute infection, and in nasal secretions and faecal samples. Studies of PARV4 in children from industrialized countries are few.
We aimed to describe the occurrence of PARV4 in a population-based birth cohort of 228 Danish mothers and their healthy children who previously participated in a study of respiratory tract infections in infancy.
Children were included over a whole calendar year and were monitored through monthly home visits through the first year of life. Plasma samples for the present study were available from 228 mothers, 176 newborns, and 202 12-months-old children. All samples were analysed for the presence of PARV4 antibodies by enzyme immunoassay, and samples with detectable antibodies were in addition studied by real-time PCR.
One (0.4%) of 228 mothers had PARV4 IgG exceeding the cut-off absorbance level and another had borderline IgG reactivity. No mother among these two had an acute infection, as they were IgM and PARV4 DNA negative. All blood samples from newborns and one-year-old children had IgG and IgM reactivity below cut-off.
PARV4 is rare in Danish mothers and infants. Further studies are needed, in both rural and urban settings, to investigate the epidemiology and clinical significance of this novel human parvovirus.
It is assumed that cytomegaloviral (CMV) infection in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is caused by reactivation due to the immunosuppressive therapy, but the role of CMV as a pathophysiological factor and prognostic marker in IBD is unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate CMV infection in IBD, with real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and immunohistochemistry, with emphasis on newly diagnosed disease.
In this prospective, controlled study, 67 patients with IBD and 34 control patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) or rectal bleeding were included. Serology for CMV was analysed along with CMV DNA in plasma, mucosal biopsies, and faeces. Mucosal biopsies were further analysed with histopathology and CMV immunohistochemistry.
Detection of CMV IgM was more common in patients with IBD, compared to controls, 21% versus 3%. CMV DNA was found in 16% of patients with newly diagnosed, untreated IBD and in 38% of steroid-treated patients. Four of the five patients that needed urgent surgery were CMV-DNA positive in at least one of three sample types. None of the controls had detectable CMV DNA.
Active CMV infection was found in high proportions of newly diagnosed untreated patients with IBD, in patients on immunosuppression and in patients in the need of surgery. Low CMV-DNA levels in non-immunosuppressed patients were not a risk factor for the development of more severe IBD, while the detection of CMV DNA in patients on immunosuppressive therapy may foresee disease progression.
Due to increasing resistance to chemical therapeutants, the use of 'cleaner fish' (primarily wrasse, Labridae, species) has become popular in European salmon farming for biocontrol of the salmon louse, Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Krøyer). While being efficient de-licers, cleaner fish mortality levels in salmon cages are commonly high, and systemic bacterial infections constitute a major problem. Atypical furunculosis, caused by Aeromonas salmonicida A-layer types V and VI, is among the most common diagnoses reached in clinical investigations. A previously described real-time PCR (qPCR), targeting the A. salmonicida A-layer gene (vapA), was modified and validated for specific and sensitive detection of all presently recognized A-layer types of this bacterium. Before stocking and during episodes of increased mortality in salmon cages, cleaner fish (primarily wild-caught wrasse) were sampled and screened for A. salmonicida by qPCR and culture. Culture indicated that systemic bacterial infections are mainly contracted after salmon farm stocking, and qPCR revealed A. salmonicida prevalences of approximately 4% and 68% in pre- and post-stocked cleaner fish, respectively. This underpins A. salmonicida's relevance as a contributing factor to cleaner fish mortality and emphasizes the need for implementation of preventive measures (e.g. vaccination) if current levels of cleaner fish use are to be continued or expanded.
Extensive copy number variation is observed for the DEFA1A3 gene encoding alpha-defensins 1-3. The objective of this study was to determine the involvement of alpha-defensins in colonic tissue from Crohn's disease (CD) patients and the possible genetic association of DEFA1A3 with CD.
Two-hundred and forty ethnic Danish CD patients were included in the study. Reverse transcriptase PCR assays determined DEFA1A3 expression in colonic tissue from a subset of patients. Immunohistochemical analysis identified alpha-defensin peptides in colonic tissue. Copy number of DEFA1A3 and individual alleles, DEFA1 and DEFA3, were compared with those for controls, by use of combined real-time quantitative PCR and pyrosequencing, and correlated with disease location.
Inflammatory-dependent mRNA expression of DEFA1A3 (P
While the mechanisms leading to ß-cell destruction and clinical onset of T1D are still unclear, the composition of the immune profile is probably important for the outcome of immune activity. The aim of this study was to investigate the composition and possible changes of the immunological profile, spontaneously and following stimulation with the autoantigens GAD65, and HSP60, at high-risk and T1D onset and further to 8 months post diagnosis.
Fifteen first-degree relatives of T1D patients with a high risk of developing the disease within five years, 25 children approximately four days and 8 months after diagnosis of T1D and 16 healthy children were included in the study. Cytokines (IL-1ß, -6, -7, -10, -13, -17, IFN-? and TNF-a) and chemokines (CCL2, -3, -4, -5 and CXCL10) associated with Th1, Th2, Tr1 and inflammatory cells were detected in cell culture supernatants by Luminex-technique, and markers associated with regulatory T-cells (FOXP3, CTLA-4 and TGF-ß) by real-time RT-PCR.
High-risk individuals differed in immunity from that seen in healthy and T1D children. High-risk individuals had a low TNF-a response and fewer responders from mitogen exposure as well as low spontaneous secretions of IL-13 compared to healthy children. High-risk individuals that later developed T1D, had a lower FOXP3 and CTLA-4 mRNA expression, following stimulation with GAD65, in combination with higher secretion of the pro-inflammatory chemokine CCL4.
Changes in immunity seen in individuals with high risk of developing T1D points to alterations/actions in the immune system already early in the pre-diabetic phase.
The European Neolithization process started around 12 000 years ago in the Near East. The introduction of agriculture spread north and west throughout Europe and a key question has been if this was brought about by migrating individuals, by an exchange of ideas or a by a mixture of these. The earliest farming evidence in Scandinavia is found within the Funnel Beaker Culture complex (Trichterbecherkultur, TRB) which represents the northernmost extension of Neolithic farmers in Europe. The TRB coexisted for almost a millennium with hunter-gatherers of the Pitted Ware Cultural complex (PWC). If migration was a substantial part of the Neolithization, even the northerly TRB community would display a closer genetic affinity to other farmer populations than to hunter-gatherer populations. We deep-sequenced the mitochondrial hypervariable region 1 from seven farmers (six TRB and one Battle Axe complex, BAC) and 13 hunter-gatherers (PWC) and authenticated the sequences using postmortem DNA damage patterns. A comparison with 124 previously published sequences from prehistoric Europe shows that the TRB individuals share a close affinity to Central European farmer populations, and that they are distinct from hunter-gatherer groups, including the geographically close and partially contemporary PWC that show a close affinity to the European Mesolithic hunter-gatherers.
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Cites: Mol Ecol. 2012 Jan;21(1):45-5622117930
Cites: Ann Anat. 2012 Jan 20;194(1):138-4521596538
Swedish laboratories reported an increase of Mycoplasma pneumoniae during the autumn 2011. Data from the laboratory in Skövde, covering 12.9% of the Swedish population, indicate an approximate increase in the number of laboratory-confirmed cases in the whole country, from around 3,500 in 2009 to 11,100 in 2011. Antibiotics are recommended only for pneumonia, not bronchitis, but compared with the autumn 2009, 42,652 more prescriptions of doxycycline and macrolides were registered in the autumn 2011.
Mutations in the Leucine Reach Repeat Kinase 2 (LRRK2) gene are the most frequent cause of familial Parkinson's disease (PD). Although the precise physiological and pathological role of LRRK2 is unclear, a direct link between mutant LRRK2 and apoptosis has been suggested. Using flow cytometric analysis (PI+Annexin V(FITC)) we showed increased spontaneous apoptosis of peripheral blood lymphocytes in patients with LRRK.2-associated PD compared to controls after 24 (P
The Aleutian Mink Virus (AMDV) causes the Aleutian Mink Disease (AMD) or Mink Plasmacytosis, a disease responsible of high economic losses for industry worldwide. Despite there is evidence of the environmental persistence of the virus, there is not literature on the detection of this virus in environmental samples in farms and this fact would have great importance in the control programs of the disease. In order to detect contamination caused by AMDV on farms, several environmental samples were taken and examined using qPCR. 93.9% of samples taken from farms confirmed to be infected tested positive. The virus was also detected on a farm which, despite having no previous positive results, was sharing personnel with an infected farm. All samples taken from AMD-free farms tested negative, including a farm where an eradication procedure by stamping out had been performed during the preceding months. Higher contamination levels were observed in samples from those surfaces in direct contact with animals. These results are the first demonstration of environmental contamination in farms, hitherto suggested by epidemiological evidences, caused by AMDV on surfaces, furniture and equipments inside mink farms. qPCR is an useful tool for evaluating the spread of AMDV into the environment, and it may have important applications within the disease control programs.
Dengue diagnostics currently relies on serum and plasma tests. Although the proof of concept for detecting dengue virus (DENV) RNA and nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) antigen from urine and saliva has been demonstrated, few studies have explored their use in diagnostics.
To investigate the occurrence, excretion kinetics, and diagnostic potential of DENV-RNA and NS1 antigen in the urine and saliva of dengue patients.
We examined serial serum, urine (n=50) and saliva (n=48) samples of 14 Finnish travelers with dengue. All samples were analyzed by NS1 ELISA and DENV RT-PCR, and the first and last serum specimens were tested for DENV IgG and IgM. In addition, biochemical parameters were studied from the urine and clinical and laboratory data of the patients were collected.
DENV-NS1 protein and RNA proved detectable from saliva and urine using tests developed for serum samples. RNA/NS1 detection showed a diagnostic sensitivity of 64%/54% and 60%/56% for urine and saliva, respectively. RNA analyses performed on days 7-13 after onset of symptoms revealed the sensitivity for urine (72%) to be greater than for serum (31%) or saliva (50%). The concentration of urine samples had no impact on RNA detection.
Noninvasive sampling enables an alternative approach to dengue diagnostics. The performance of the NS1 antigen assay may be improved by optimizing it for urine and saliva samples. The prolonged excretion of DENV-RNA in urine extends the sampling time window for molecular diagnostics and surveillance.