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902 MHz mobile phone does not affect short term memory in humans.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature51972
Source
Bioelectromagnetics. 2004 Sep;25(6):452-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2004
Author
Christian Haarala
Maria Ek
Linda Björnberg
Matti Laine
Antti Revonsuo
Mika Koivisto
Heikki Hämäläinen
Author Affiliation
Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, University of Turku, Turku, Finland. christian.haarala@utu.fi
Source
Bioelectromagnetics. 2004 Sep;25(6):452-6
Date
Sep-2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Cellular Phone
Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation
Female
Finland
Humans
Male
Memory, Short-Term - physiology - radiation effects
Microwaves
Middle Aged
Radiation Dosage
Reaction Time - physiology - radiation effects
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Sweden
Abstract
We studied the effects of an electromagnetic field (EMF) as emitted by a 902 MHz mobile phone on human short term memory. This study was a replication with methodological improvements to our previous study. The improvements included multi-centre testing and a double blind design. A total of 64 subjects (32 men) in two independent laboratories performed a short term memory task (n-back) which poses a varying memory load (0-3 items) on the subjects' memory. They performed the task twice, once each under EMF and sham exposure. Reaction times (RTs) and accuracy of the responses were recorded. The order of exposure and memory load conditions were counterbalanced across subjects and gender. There were no statistically significant differences in performance between the two laboratories. We could not replicate our previous results: the EMF had no effect on RTs or on the accuracy of the subjects' answers. The inability to replicate previous findings could have been caused by lack of actual EMF effects or the magnitude of effects being at the sensitivity threshold of the test used.
PubMed ID
15300731 View in PubMed
Less detail

Abnormal brain processing in hepatic encephalopathy: evidence of cerebral reorganization?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature141910
Source
Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2010 Nov;22(11):1323-30
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2010
Author
Rolf Ankerlund Blauenfeldt
Søren Schou Olesen
Jesper Bach Hansen
Carina Graversen
Asbjørn Mohr Drewes
Author Affiliation
Mech-Sense, Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Aalborg Hospital, Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark.
Source
Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2010 Nov;22(11):1323-30
Date
Nov-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acoustic Stimulation
Aged
Auditory Perception
Brain - physiopathology
Brain Mapping
Brain Waves
Case-Control Studies
Denmark
Electric Stimulation
Electroencephalography
Evoked Potentials, Somatosensory
Evoked Potentials, Visual
Female
Functional Laterality
Hepatic Encephalopathy - diagnosis - physiopathology
Humans
Male
Median Nerve - physiopathology
Middle Aged
Neural Conduction
Neuropsychological Tests
Photic Stimulation
Psychometrics
Reaction Time
Time Factors
Abstract
Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a severe and frequent complication of liver cirrhosis characterized by abnormal cerebral function. Little is known about the underlying neural mechanisms in HE and human data are sparse. Electrophysiological methods such as evoked brain potentials after somatic stimuli can be combined with inverse modeling of the underlying brain activity. Thereby, information on neuronal dynamics and brain activity can be studied in vivo. The aim of this study was to investigate the sensory brain processing in patients with HE.
Twelve patients with minimal or overt HE and 26 healthy volunteers were included in the study. Cerebral sensory processing was investigated as (i) an auditory reaction time task; (ii) visual and somatosensory evoked brain potentials, and (iii) reconstruction of the underlying brain activity.
Somatosensory evoked potentials were reproducible (all P>0.05), whereas flash evoked potentials were not reproducible (all P
PubMed ID
20661140 View in PubMed
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Accelerated onset of vecuronium neuromuscular block with pulmonary arterial administration.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature46523
Source
Can J Anaesth. 1994 Dec;41(12):1178-80
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-1994
Author
H. Iwasaki
M. Igarashi
S. Kawana
A. Namiki
Author Affiliation
Department of Anesthesiology, Sapporo Medical University, School of Medicine, Japan.
Source
Can J Anaesth. 1994 Dec;41(12):1178-80
Date
Dec-1994
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Anesthesia, Intravenous
Catheterization, Peripheral
Comparative Study
Female
Fentanyl - administration & dosage
Heart Catheterization
Humans
Injections, Intra-Arterial
Male
Midazolam - administration & dosage
Middle Aged
Muscle Contraction - drug effects - physiology
Neuromuscular Junction - drug effects
Pulmonary Artery
Reaction Time - drug effects
Time Factors
Ulnar Nerve - drug effects - physiology
Vecuronium Bromide - administration & dosage
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to determine the onset times of vecuronium neuromuscular block administered into either the central circulation or a peripheral vein. One hundred and twenty adult patients with a pulmonary artery (PA) catheter were randomly divided into one of three groups with respect to the routes of vecuronium administration (n = 40 in each group). Anaesthesia was induced with midazolam 2.5 mg iv and fentanyl 10-50 micrograms.kg-1 iv and maintained with intermittent doses of fentanyl 50 micrograms iv and nitrous oxide 60-70% in oxygen. After immobilization of the forearm in a splint, the ulnar nerve was stimulated supramaximally every 12 sec. The resulting force of the evoked thumb twitch was recorded (Myograph 2000, Biometer, Denmark). The times from the injection to the first depression of twitch response (latent onset) in patients given vecuronium 0.08 mg.kg-1 into the pulmonary artery, the right atrium, and a peripheral vein on the hand were 58.0 +/- 19.5, 71.5 +/- 17.1, and 82.4 +/- 18.0 sec (mean +/- SD), respectively. The latent onset of neuromuscular block occurred sooner in patients given vecuronium into the central vein than when administered into a vein on the hand (P
PubMed ID
7867112 View in PubMed
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Acceptability and concurrent validity of measures to predict older driver involvement in motor vehicle crashes: an Emergency Department pilot case-control study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature161383
Source
Accid Anal Prev. 2007 Sep;39(5):1056-63
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2007
Author
Frank J Molnar
Shawn C Marshall
Malcolm Man-Son-Hing
Keith G Wilson
Anna M Byszewski
Ian Stiell
Author Affiliation
CanDRIVE(1): a Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR) Institute of Aging funded New Emerging Team, Elisabeth-Bruyère Research Institute, 43 Bruyère Street, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1N 5C8. fmolnar@ottawahospital.on.ca
Source
Accid Anal Prev. 2007 Sep;39(5):1056-63
Date
Sep-2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Accidents, Traffic - prevention & control - statistics & numerical data
Aged
Automobile Driver Examination - statistics & numerical data
Case-Control Studies
Chronic Disease - epidemiology
Dementia - diagnosis - epidemiology
Disability Evaluation
Female
Head Movements
Humans
Male
Mass Screening - statistics & numerical data
Mental Status Schedule - statistics & numerical data
Motor Skills
Neuropsychological Tests - statistics & numerical data
Ontario
Pilot Projects
Psychomotor Performance
Questionnaires
Reaction Time
Risk
Visual Fields
Wounds and injuries - epidemiology - prevention & control
Abstract
Older drivers have one of the highest motor vehicle crash (MVC) rates per kilometer driven, largely due to the functional effects of the accumulation, and progression of age-associated medical conditions that eventually impact on fitness-to-drive. Consequently, physicians in many jurisdictions are legally mandated to report to licensing authorities patients who are judged to be medically at risk for MVCs. Unfortunately, physicians lack evidence-based tools to assess the fitness-to-drive of their older patients. This paper reports on a pilot study that examines the acceptability and association with MVC of components of a comprehensive clinical assessment battery.
To evaluate the acceptability to participants of components of a comprehensive assessment battery, and to explore potential predictors of MVC that can be employed in front-line clinical settings.
Case-control study of 10 older drivers presenting to a tertiary care hospital emergency department after involvement in an MVC and 20 age-matched controls.
The measures tested were generally found to be acceptable to participants. Positive associations (p
PubMed ID
17854579 View in PubMed
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Acceptance of background noise, working memory capacity, and auditory evoked potentials in subjects with normal hearing.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature120548
Source
J Am Acad Audiol. 2012 Jul-Aug;23(7):542-52
Publication Type
Article
Author
K Jonas Brännström
Edita Zunic
Aida Borovac
Tina Ibertsson
Author Affiliation
Department of Clinical Science, Section of Logopedics, Phoniatrics, and Audiology, Lund University, Sweden. jonas.brannstrom@med.lu.se
Source
J Am Acad Audiol. 2012 Jul-Aug;23(7):542-52
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Audiometry, Pure-Tone
Auditory Threshold - physiology
Evoked Potentials, Auditory - physiology
Female
Hearing - physiology
Humans
Male
Memory, Short-Term - physiology
Noise
Reaction Time - physiology
Reference Values
Speech Perception - physiology
Sweden
Young Adult
Abstract
The acceptable noise level (ANL) test is a method for quantifying the amount of background noise that subjects accept when listening to speech. Large variations in ANL have been seen between normal-hearing subjects and between studies of normal-hearing subjects, but few explanatory variables have been identified.
To explore a possible relationship between a Swedish version of the ANL test, working memory capacity (WMC), and auditory evoked potentials (AEPs).
ANL, WMC, and AEP were tested in a counterbalanced order across subjects.
Twenty-one normal-hearing subjects participated in the study (14 females and 7 males; aged 20-39 yr with an average of 25.7 yr).
Reported data consists of age, pure-tone average (PTA), most comfortable level (MCL), background noise level (BNL), ANL (i.e., MCL - BNL), AEP latencies, AEP amplitudes, and WMC. Spearman's rank correlation coefficient was calculated between the collected variables to investigate associations. A principal component analysis (PCA) with Varimax rotation was conducted on the collected variables to explore underlying factors and estimate interactions between the tested variables. Subjects were also pooled into two groups depending on their results on the WMC test, one group with a score lower than the average and one with a score higher than the average. Comparisons between these two groups were made using the Mann-Whitney U-test with Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons.
A negative association was found between ANL and WMC but not between AEP and ANL or WMC. Furthermore, ANL is derived from MCL and BNL, and a significant positive association was found between BNL and WMC. However, no significant associations were seen between AEP latencies and amplitudes and the demographic variables, MCL, and BNL. The PCA identified two underlying factors: One that contained MCL, BNL, ANL, and WMC and another that contained latency for wave Na and amplitudes for waves V and Na-Pa. Using the variables in the first factor, the findings were further explored by pooling the subjects into two groups according to their WMC (WMClow and WMChigh). It was found that the WMClow had significantly poorer BNL than the WMChigh.
The findings suggest that there is a strong relationship between BNL and WMC, while the association between MCL, ANL, and WMC seems less clear-cut.
PubMed ID
22992261 View in PubMed
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Accessibility effects on implicit social cognition: the role of knowledge activation and retrieval experiences.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature171536
Source
J Pers Soc Psychol. 2005 Nov;89(5):672-85
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2005
Author
Bertram Gawronski
Galen V Bodenhausen
Author Affiliation
Department of Psychology, University of Western Ontario, London, ON, Canada. bgawrons@uwo.ca
Source
J Pers Soc Psychol. 2005 Nov;89(5):672-85
Date
Nov-2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
African Americans
Analysis of Variance
Association
Cognition
European Continental Ancestry Group
Female
Humans
Judgment
Male
Memory
Ontario
Psychological Theory
Race Relations
Reaction Time
Semantics
Social Perception
Stereotyping
United States
Abstract
Performance on measures of implicit social cognition has been shown to vary as a function of the momentary accessibility of relevant information. The present research investigated the mechanisms underlying accessibility effects of self-generated information on implicit measures. Results from 3 experiments demonstrate that measures based on response compatibility processes (e.g., Implicit Association Test, affective priming with an evaluative decision task) are influenced by subjective feelings pertaining to the ease of retrieving relevant information from memory, whereas measures based on stimulus compatibility processes (e.g., semantic priming with a lexical-decision task) are influenced by direct knowledge activation in associative memory. These results indicate that the mediating mechanisms underlying context effects on implicit measures can differ as a function of the task even when these tasks show similar effects on a superficial level. Implications for research on implicit social cognition and the ease-of-retrieval effect are discussed.
PubMed ID
16351361 View in PubMed
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Acoustic-reflex responses in patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature48476
Source
Am J Otolaryngol. 1994 Mar-Apr;15(2):109-13
Publication Type
Article
Author
J. Virtaniemi
M. Laakso
J. Nuutinen
S. Karjalainen
E. Vartiainen
Author Affiliation
Department of Otolaryngology, University of Kuopio, Finland.
Source
Am J Otolaryngol. 1994 Mar-Apr;15(2):109-13
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acoustic Impedance Tests
Adult
Auditory Threshold - physiology
Autonomic Nervous System - physiology
Autonomic Nervous System Diseases - physiopathology
Blood Glucose - analysis
Comparative Study
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 - blood - drug therapy - metabolism - physiopathology
Diabetic Angiopathies - physiopathology
Diabetic Neuropathies - physiopathology
Evoked Potentials, Auditory, Brain Stem - physiology
Female
Hemoglobin A, Glycosylated - analysis
Humans
Male
Reaction Time - physiology
Reflex, Acoustic - physiology
Reflex, Stretch - physiology
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Time Factors
Abstract
PURPOSE: Patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) are especially susceptible to microangiopathic complications such as nephropathy, retinopathy, and neuropathy. Microangiopathic changes are also the most important findings in histopathologic studies of the inner ear and central nervous systems in diabetic subjects. No previous studies have measured acoustic-reflex latencies (ARL) or amplitudes (ARA) in patients with IDDM. ARL and ARA reflect the function of the acoustic-reflex arch. Furthermore, possible changes in the tympanic membrane, ossicular chain, and stapedius muscle may affect the shape of acoustic-reflex. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Acoustic-reflex thresholds, latencies, and amplitudes were studied in 53 patients with IDDM and 42 randomly selected nondiabetic control subjects, aged between 20 and 40 years, using the Madsen Model ZO 73 Impedance Bridge (Madsen Electronics, Copenhagen, Denmark). Subjects with an abnormal tympanic membrane, conductive hearing loss, and known cause for hearing impairment eg, noise damage, were excluded from the study. RESULTS: There were no differences between control and diabetic subjects in the contralateral acoustic-reflex thresholds. In contrast, patients with IDDM had longer ARLs and decreased ARAs compared with those of control subjects. ARA amplitude had linear correlation with the amplitude of tympanogram, whereas ARL had no linear correlation with auditory brainstem latencies in the same study subjects. Acoustic-reflex responses in insulin-dependent diabetic patients were not associated with the duration of diabetes, metabolic control, microangiopathy, or neuropathy. CONCLUSIONS: Prolonged ARLs and decreased ARAs in patients with insulin-dependent diabetes are probably caused more by the stiff middle ear system than disturbances in the brainstem.
PubMed ID
8179101 View in PubMed
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Acute and rebound effects of lorazepam on orolingual motor function in young versus aged Fischer 344/Brown Norway rats.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature93471
Source
Behav Pharmacol. 2008 Mar;19(2):161-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2008
Author
Zhang Hongyu
Stanford John A
Author Affiliation
Department of Molecular and Integrative Physiology, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, Kansas 66160, USA.
Source
Behav Pharmacol. 2008 Mar;19(2):161-5
Date
Mar-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Age Factors
Animals
Anti-Anxiety Agents - toxicity
Drinking Behavior - drug effects
Hybridization, Genetic
Lorazepam - toxicity
Male
Rats
Rats, Inbred BN - genetics
Rats, Inbred F344 - genetics
Reaction Time - drug effects
Tongue - drug effects
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to measure the acute effects of lorazepam [a short-acting benzodiazepine (BZ) with no active metabolites] on orolingual motor function in young (6 months) versus aged (24 months) Fischer 344/Brown Norway hybrid (F344/BN) rats. Rats licked water from an isometric force-sensing operandum so that the number of licks per session, licking rhythm (licks/second), and lick force could be measured during daily sessions. Acute doses (1.0 and 2.0 mg/kg) of lorazepam were administered 30 min before the testing sessions, 4 days apart. Whereas aged rats produced more licks per session, lorazepam increased this measure primarily in the young group. On the days after each lorazepam dose, rats licked less than they did before receiving the drug. This effect was shown by both groups. Aged rats showed significantly slower licking rhythm than young rats. Lorazepam slowed this measure in both groups. Peak tongue forces were significantly increased by lorazepam. These findings suggest that BZs such as lorazepam can affect tongue force output and exacerbate age-related tongue motility deficits. They also suggest that although BZs can directly influence motivation to engage in water-reinforced tasks, opposite 'rebound' effects may occur, even after acute dosing.
PubMed ID
18332681 View in PubMed
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Adoptive transfer of alveolar macrophages abrogates bronchial hyperresponsiveness.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature15196
Source
Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2004 Jul;31(1):22-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2004
Author
Eric Careau
Elyse Y Bissonnette
Author Affiliation
Centre de Recherche, Hôpital Laval, Institut universitaire de Cardiologie et de Pneumologie de l'Université Laval, Québec, Canada. eric.careau@crhl.ulaval.ca
Source
Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2004 Jul;31(1):22-7
Date
Jul-2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adoptive Transfer
Animals
Asthma - physiopathology
Bronchi - drug effects - immunology - physiopathology
Bronchial Hyperreactivity - genetics - physiopathology - therapy
Bronchial Provocation Tests
Clodronic Acid
Disease Models, Animal
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
Drug Resistance - physiology
Genetic Predisposition to Disease - genetics
Immunoglobulin E - blood
Immunoglobulin G - blood
Liposomes
Macrophages, Alveolar - drug effects - immunology - transplantation
Male
Methacholine Chloride - pharmacology
Ovalbumin - immunology
Rats
Rats, Sprague-Dawley
Reaction Time - drug effects - physiology
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Abstract
Increasing evidence suggests that alveolar macrophages (AM) are involved in asthma pathogenesis. To better understand the role that these cells play, we investigated the capacity of AM from allergy-resistant rat, Sprague Dawley (SD), to modulate airway hyperresponsiveness of allergy-susceptible rat, Brown Norway (BN). AM of ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized BN rats were eliminated by intratracheal instillation of liposomes containing clodronate. AM from OVA-sensitized SD rats were transferred into AM-depleted BN rats 24 h before allergen challenge. Airway responsiveness to methacholine was measured the following day. Instillation of liposomes containing clodronate in BN rats eliminated 85% AM after 3 d compared with saline liposomes. Methacholine concentration needed to increase lung resistance by 200% (EC200RL) was significantly lower in OVA-challenged BN rats (27.9 +/- 2.8 mg/ml) compared with SD rats (63.9 +/- 8.6 mg/ml). However, when AM from SD rats were transferred into AM-depleted BN rats, airway responsiveness (64.0 +/- 11.3 mg/ml) was reduced to the level of naïve rats (54.4 +/- 3.7 mg/ml) in a dose-dependent manner. Interestingly, transfer of AM from BN rats into SD rats did not modulate airway responsiveness. To our knowledge, this is the first direct evidence showing that AM may protect against the development of airway hyperresponsiveness.
Notes
Comment In: Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2004 Jul;31(1):1-215208095
Comment In: Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2004 Jul;31(1):3-715208096
PubMed ID
14962974 View in PubMed
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Age changes in processing speed as a leading indicator of cognitive aging.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature84576
Source
Psychol Aging. 2007 Sep;22(3):558-68
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2007
Author
Finkel Deborah
Reynolds Chandra A
McArdle John J
Pedersen Nancy L
Author Affiliation
Department of Psychology, Indiana University Southeast, 5201 Grant Line Road, New Albany, IN 47150, USA. dfinkel@ius.edu
Source
Psychol Aging. 2007 Sep;22(3):558-68
Date
Sep-2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adoption
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Aging - psychology
Aptitude
Cognition
Cohort Studies
Female
Humans
Intelligence
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Middle Aged
Models, Statistical
Neuropsychological Tests
Reaction Time
Social Environment
Sweden
Twins - psychology
Abstract
Bivariate dual change score models were applied to longitudinal data from the Swedish Adoption/Twin Study of Aging to compare the dynamic predictions of 2-component theories of intelligence and the processing speed theory of cognitive aging. Data from up to 5 measurement occasions covering a 16-year period were available from 806 participants ranging in age from 50 to 88 years at the first measurement wave. Factors were generated to tap 4 general cognitive domains: verbal ability, spatial ability, memory, and processing speed. Model fitting indicated no dynamic relationship between verbal and spatial factors, providing no support for the hypothesis that age changes in fluid abilities drive age changes in crystallized abilities. The results suggest that, as predicted by the processing speed theory of cognitive aging, processing speed is a leading indicator of age changes in memory and spatial ability, but not verbal ability.
PubMed ID
17874954 View in PubMed
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226 records – page 1 of 23.