Bronchial responsiveness to inhaled acetylcholine (ACh) and inflammatory cell recruitment in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were studied in inbred Brown-Norway rats actively sensitized to, and later exposed to, ovalbumin (OA). We examined animals 21 days after initial sensitization at 18 to 24 hours, or 5 days after a single challenge, or after the last of seven repeated exposures administered every 3 days. BALF was examined as an index of inflammatory changes within the lung. Animals repeatedly exposed to OA aerosols had an increased baseline lung resistance and a significant increase in bronchial responsiveness to inhaled ACh compared to control animals at both 18 to 24 hours and 5 days after the last OA exposure. Sensitized animals receiving a single OA aerosol also demonstrated bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) to inhaled ACh (p less than 0.01) at 18 to 24 hours of a similar order as the multiple-exposed group. There was a significant increase in eosinophils, lymphocytes, and neutrophils in BALF at 18 to 24 hours but not at 5 days after single or multiple exposure to OA aerosol in the sensitized groups. Control animals demonstrated no changes in bronchial responsiveness, although a small but significant increase in inflammatory cells was observed compared to saline-only treated animals. There was a significant correlation between bronchial responsiveness and eosinophil counts in the BALF in the single allergen-exposed group (Rs = 0.68; p less than 0.05). We conclude that (1) BHR after allergen exposure in sensitized rats is associated with the presence of pulmonary inflammation but persists despite the regression of inflammatory cells in BALF after multiple OA exposures, and (2) this rat model has many characteristics of human allergen-induced BHR.
Sym 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH)-induced colon tumorigenesis was studied in immunologically different strains of rat: the Brown--Norway which is known to be immunologically a low-responder and the Fischer a high-responder. Brown--Norway rats received a total dose of 75, 150 or 225 mg DMH/kg or vehicle and Fischer rats received 150 mg DMH/kg or vehicle over a 3-week period. Rats were killed 5 months after the final treatment. Lymphocytes were isolated from the spleen and colon from rats treated with 150 mg DMH/kg or vehicle. Natural killer (NK) cell activity and the autologous mixed lymphocyte response (AMLR) as well as colon tumor incidence were compared between the two strains. Splenic and colonic intraperithelial lymphocytes (IEL) from the Brown--Norway strain demonstrated low NK activity and reduced splenic T lymphocyte proliferation in response to autologous non-T lymphocytes. As well, colonic lamina propria lymphocyte (LPL) proliferation was low and Brown--Norway rats had a low incidence of DMH-induced colon neoplasms (7%). In comparison, the Fischer rats had more effective splenic and IEL NK killing, enhanced splenic AMLR, enhanced LPL proliferation and a higher incidence of colon tumors (20%).
The decline of maternal antibodies to the fraciton I antigen of Yersinia pestis was investigated in newly weaned Rattus norvegicus obtained from dams vaccinated with strain EV76(51F) of Y. pestis. IHA titre decreased by 50% each 7-3 days and CF titre declined 50% each 10-0 days in young rats. An analysis of available data indicated that maternal IHA and CF antibodies could persist to 3 months of age. Therefore, positive serologic reactions in young R. norvegicus, detected in the course of serological surveys, could be the result either of active immunization after exposure to the plague bacillus or of transient passive immunization (i.e. maternal antibody).
BACKGROUND: Recent studies in a few industries have shown that the likelihood of IgE-mediated sensitization increases with increasing exposure. The shape of the exposure-response relationships and modification by age, sex, and smoking habit has hardly been studied. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine exposure sensitization relationships for rat sensitization and to evaluate the influence of atopy, smoking habits, and sex. METHODS: Data from 3 cross-sectional studies in The Netherlands, the United Kingdom, and Sweden were used and involved 1062 animal laboratory workers. Selection criteria were harmonized, and this resulted in a study population of 650 animal laboratory workers (60.6% female) with less than 4 years of exposure. Air allergen levels were assessed previously and converted on the basis of an interlaboratory allergen analysis comparison. Available sera were analyzed for the presence of specific antibodies against common allergens (house dust mite, cat, dog, and grass and birch pollen) and work-related allergens (rat and mouse urinary proteins). Questionnaire items on work-related respiratory symptoms, hours worked with rats per week, job performed, smoking habits, and sex were used in this analysis RESULTS: The prevalence of work-related sensitization to rat urinary allergens (IgE >0.7 KU/L) was 9.7 % (n = 63). Thirty-six of the sensitized workers had work-related symptoms (asthma or rhinitis). Two hundred forty-eight workers (38.2%) were atopic (defined as specific IgE to 1 of the common allergens). The sensitization rate increased with increasing air allergen exposure. Atopic workers exposed to low levels of allergen had a more than 3-fold increased sensitization risk compared with nonexposed atopic workers. For atopic subjects, the risk increased little with increasing exposure, whereas for nonatopic subjects, a steadily increasing risk was observed. Smoking and sex did not modify the sensitization risk. CONCLUSION: Rat urinary allergen-sensitization risk increased with increasing exposure intensity. Workers who were atopic had a clearly elevated sensitization risk at low allergen exposure levels.
BACKGROUND: The cysteinyl leukotrienes are known important mediators in bronchial asthma. OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to evaluate the effect of zafirlukast on the late-phase reaction, bronchial hyper-responsiveness (BHR) and T cell-related cytokine mRNA expression in ovalbumin (OA)-sensitized brown Norway rats (BNRs). METHODS: Thirty BNRs were equally divided into three groups. Group I and II animals were sensitized and then provoked with OA. Zafirlukast was given intraperitoneally (i.p.) to group I animals prior to provocation. Group II animals received i.p. normal saline. Group III animals (controls) were not sensitized and breathed aerosolized saline. After OA provocation, the animals were anaesthetized. Pulmonary function tests (PFT) were performed at baseline and after varying doses of acetylcholine. Thereafter, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was performed and the lungs were examined histologically. Total RNA was extracted from lung tissue and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was performed using primers for IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-alpha, IFN-gamma, iNOS and beta-actin. RESULTS: Group II OA-treated BNRs had worse PFT results, more severe bronchoconstriction in response to acetylcholine, and more severe inflammation in lung tissue than the other two groups. Group II had higher IL-2, IL-4, IL-10 and IFN-gamma cytokine levels in BAL fluid and higher IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha and iNOS mRNA levels when compared with group I. CONCLUSION: Zafirlukast is effective in preventing late-phase bronchoconstriction and BHR, reducing inflammatory response, and decreasing IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10 and IFN-gamma and iNOS mRNA expression.