The effect of a selective 5-HT(1A) antagonist, 4-(2'-methoxy-)phenyl-1-[2'-(N-2"-pyridinyl)-p-iodobenzamino-]ethyl-piperazine (p-MPPI), on acute ethanol-induced hypothermia, sleep and suppression of acoustic startle reflex in C3H/He mice and Wistar rats was studied. Administration of p-MPPI at the doses of 0.4, 0.7 and 1.0 mg/kg reduced in a dose-dependent manner the ethanol-induced hypothermia and the sleep time and attenuated the ethanol-induced decrease of acoustic startle reflex magnitude in mice. Similar p-MPPI (0.4 mg/kg) effects on ethanol-induced sleep and hypothermia were obtained in rats. It was concluded that 5-HT(1A) receptors were involved in the mechanisms of the ethanol-induced hypothermia and sleep, and that 5-HT(1A) antagonist increased acute ethanol tolerance.
1. The O-dealkylation of seven 7-alkoxyquinoline derivatives by human hepatic and placental microsomes and the effect of maternal cigarette smoking on placental 7-alkoxyquinoline metabolism was studied. 2. None of several monoclonal antibodies to isoenzymes of cytochrome P450 had a clear effect on metabolism of the compounds by liver microsomes. 3. Maternal cigarette smoking induced the O-dealkylation of all of the 7-alkoxyquinoline derivatives, being greatest for 7-butoxy- and 7-benzyloxyquinoline. 4. Placental 7-alkoxyquinoline metabolism induced by smoking was partially inhibited by the monoclonal antibody 1-7-1 raised against 3-methylcholanthrene-induced rat liver P450. 5. None of the 7-alkoxyquinoline O-dealkylations could be assigned specifically to any known P450 isoenzyme in human liver or placenta.
Experiments on rats have shown an important role of hypercapnia in the development of condition of artificial hibernation in combination with influence of hypothermia, hypoxia and hypercapnia. It is proved that the joint action of hypothermia, hypoxia and hypercapnia has induced development of respiratory acidosis and hibernation in animals, while removal of the hypercapnia effect has induced development of acute metabolic acidosis and death of animals. It has been found that animals in the state of artificial hibernation have considerable changes in concentrations of main electrolytes (Na+, K+, Ca+, Mg2+, phosphates, Cl-) and metabolites (NH3, glutamine, urea) in blood as well as in activity of enzymes (glutamaldehydrogenase, glutaminase, arginase) in tissues of the liver and kidneys.
A course of silicic sapropel applications compared to calcareous sapropel induced a reversible fall of total lipid concentration in blood serum of intact rats. Sapropels of different kinds and of the same kind but obtained from different depths of the same deposit varied by their ability to correct hepatic function in rats with toxic hepatitis. The highest benefit was registered in application of carbonate sapropels taken from the depth of 1.5-2.5 m.
Selective increase of DNA-binding activity of constitutive androstane receptor was detected in rat and mouse liver in response to aminoazo dyes exhibiting hepatocarcinogenic activity for these species (ortho-aminoazotoluene for mice and 3'-methyl-4-dimethylaminobenzene for rats). Competition of azo dyes with 3H-5alpha-androst-16-ene-3alpha-ol (a well-known ligand of constitutive androstane receptor) for binding to liver cell cytosol proteins was studied. Ortho-aminoazotoluene and 3'-methyl-4-dimethylaminobenzene were better competitors for cytosol proteins from mouse and rat liver, respectively.
Intravenous pretreatment with kappa-opioid receptor antagonist (-)-U-50,488 (1 mg/kg) improved heart resistance to the arrhythmogenic effect of coronary occlusion and reperfusion. Selective kappa1-opioid receptor antagonist norbinaltorphimine and nonselective blocker of peripheral opioid receptors methylnaloxone abolished this antiarrhythmic effect. Preliminary blockade of protein kinase C with chelerythrine or inhibition of ATP-dependent K+ channels (K(ATP) channels) with glybenclamide abolished the antiarrhythmic effect of kappa-opioid receptor activation. Selective inhibitor of sarcolemmal K(ATP) channels did not modulate the kappa-opioid receptor-mediated increase in cardiac electrical stability. Our results suggest that protein kinase C and mitochondrial K(ATP) channels play an important role in the antiarrhythmic effect associated with activation of peripheral kappa-opioid receptors.
Intravenous injection of the selective mu-opiate receptor agonist DAMGO (0.1 mg/kg, 15 min before isolation of the heart) improved resistance of isolated perfused rat heart to ischemia (45 min) and reperfusion (60 min) damages. In vivo administration of DAMGO prevented reperfusion-induced damages to cardiomyocytes and decreased the content of conjugated dienes in the myocardium during ischemia-reperfusion in vitro. Furthermore, stimulation of mu-opiate receptors promoted recovery of myocardial contractility during reoxygenation, but had no effect on heart resistance to free radical-induced damages during perfusion of isolated heart with a solution containing Fe2+ and ascorbic acid.
Activation of peripheral delta2 opioid receptors increases cardiac tolerance to ischemia/reperfusion injury Involvement of protein kinase C, NO-synthase, KATP channels and the autonomic nervous system.
AIMS: This study aims to investigate the role of peripheral delta(2) opioid receptors in cardiac tolerance to ischemia/reperfusion injury and to examine the contribution of PKC, TK, K(ATP) channels and the autonomic nervous system in delta(2) cardioprotection. MAIN METHODS: Deltorphin II and various inhibitors were administered in vivo prior to coronary artery occlusion and reperfusion in a rat model. The animals were monitored for the development of arrhythmias, infarct development and the effects of selected inhibitors. KEY FINDINGS: Pretreatment with peripheral and delta(2) specific opioid receptor (OR) antagonists completely abolished the cardioprotective effects of deltorphin II. In contrast, the selective delta(1) OR antagonist 7-benzylidenenaltrexone (BNTX) had no effect. The protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor chelerythrine and the NO-synthase inhibitor L-NAME (N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester) also reversed both deltorphin II effects. The nonselective ATP-sensitive K+ (K(ATP)) channel inhibitor glibenclamide and the selective mitochondrial K(ATP) channel inhibitor 5-hydroxydecanoic acid only abolished the infarct-sparing effect of deltorphin II. Inhibition of tyrosine kinase (TK) with genistein, the ganglion blocker hexamethonium and the depletion of endogenous catecholamine storage with guanethidine reversed the antiarrhythmic action of deltorphin II but did not change its infarct-sparing action. SIGNIFICANCE: The cardioprotective mechanism of deltorphin II is mediated via stimulation of peripheral delta(2) opioid receptors. PKC and NOS are involved in both its infarct-sparing and antiarrhythmic effects. Infarct-sparing is dependent upon mitochondrial K(ATP) channel activation while the antiarrhythmic effect is dependent upon TK activation. Endogenous catecholamine depletion reduced antiarrhythmic effects but did not alter the infarct-sparing effect of deltorphin II.
Preliminary intravenous injection of cannabinoid receptor agonist HU-210 (0.05 mg/kg) reduced the incidence of ventricular arrhythmias during 10-min coronary occlusion and 10-min reperfusion in chloralose-anesthetized rats. Preliminary injection of type I cannabinoid receptor antagonist SR 141716A (3 mg/kg) had no effect on the antiarrhythmic effect of HU-210, while type II cannabinoid receptor antagonist SR 144528 (1 mg/kg) completely abolished the effect of HU-210. Preconditioning with glibenclamide (0.3 mg/kg), an inhibitor of ATP-dependent K(+)-channels, did not affect the antiarrhythmic activity of HU-210. These findings suggest that antiarrhythmic effect of HU-210 is mediated through activation of type II cannabinoid receptors rather than activation of K(+)-channels.
The influence of 0.01% sodium dodecyl sulphate, 1.5 and 6.0 M urea and 0.03 M hydrogen peroxide to the NAD(P)H: 2,6 dichlorphenolindophenol reductase activity in livers of adult and old Wistar rats during immobilizing stress was interested. Obtained results indicate that the NADPH--dependent reductase is more resistant to modulating effect of sodium dodecyl sulphate, hydrogen peroxide and urea than NADH-dependent enzyme. The significant decrease of NADH: 2.6 dichlorphenolindophenol reductase sensitivity to the action of all studied modulators occurs in old rats. The similar changes appears in the adult rats liver during stress. The old rats immobilization is accompanied by a decrease of this enzyme activity and the reduction of the influence of all studied modulators to NADH: 2.6 dichlorphenolindophenol reductase as compared with adult ones. These changes in the activity and properties of microsomal NADH: 2,6 dichlorphenolindophenol reductase promote more pronounced decrease of the substrate hydroxylation in the liver of old rats during stress compared to adult ones.