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Age-related reductions in brain cholinergic and dopaminergic indices in two rat strains differing in longevity.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature12595
Source
Brain Res. 1987 Apr 7;408(1-2):247-50
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-7-1987
Author
G M Gilad
V H Gilad
Source
Brain Res. 1987 Apr 7;408(1-2):247-50
Date
Apr-7-1987
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acetylcholine - metabolism
Aging - metabolism
Animals
Brain - metabolism
Choline - metabolism
Choline O-Acetyltransferase - metabolism
Comparative Study
Dopamine - metabolism
Longevity
Male
Rats
Rats, Inbred BN
Rats, Inbred WKY
Species Specificity
Synaptosomes - metabolism
Abstract
We have recently reported that inbred Wistar-Kyoto rats which are highly reactive to stressful stimuli, have a much shorter mean life-span (21.5) compared to the less reactive Brown-Norway rats (31.0 +/- 4.5 months). In the present study we found a reduction in forebrain cholinergic neurotransmission indices in 24-month-old Wistar-Kyotos but not in Brown-Norways as compared to their respective young (3-month-old) counterparts. Also only in Wistar-Kyotos dopamine uptake was reduced in the aged striatum, but in the septum it remained unchanged in both strains. In Brown-Norways, age-related changes were observed only in choline acetyltransferase activity and only in brain regions known to contain mainly cholinergic nerve cell bodies. We conclude that at 24 months of age, reductions in brain cholinergic and dopaminergic neurotransmission are more prominent in the highly stress-reactive and shorter-lived Wistar-Kyoto strain, and may be genetically determined.
PubMed ID
3594213 View in PubMed
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Aging and in vitro vascular responses to endothelin-1 in several rat strains.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature11658
Source
Pharmacol Res. 1993 Oct-Nov;28(3):193-202
Publication Type
Article
Author
A. Filippelli
A. Palla
E. Lampa
F. Rossi
Author Affiliation
Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Medicine and Surgery, 2nd University of Naples, Italy.
Source
Pharmacol Res. 1993 Oct-Nov;28(3):193-202
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aging - physiology
Animals
Aorta, Thoracic - drug effects
Blood Pressure - drug effects - physiology
Endothelins - pharmacology
Hyperlipidemia - blood - physiopathology
In Vitro
Lipids - blood
Muscle, Smooth, Vascular - drug effects
Norepinephrine - pharmacology
Rats
Rats, Inbred BN
Rats, Inbred SHR
Rats, Inbred Strains
Rats, Inbred WKY
Species Specificity
Abstract
The endothelins are a recently discovered family of potent contractile peptides produced by endothelial cells. These peptides have been suggested to play an important role in the pathogenesis of hypertension, myocardial infarction, cardiogenic shock, and so on. The aim of our study was to compare the responses to endothelin-1 (ET-1) with those to L-noradrenaline (NA) in aortic rings from rats of different strains and ages. Thoracic aorta rings from spontaneously hypertensive (SHR), Wistar Kyoto (WKY), Brown Norway (BN) and spontaneously hyperlipemic (Yoshida, YOS) rats 2-4 (young), 6-8 (adult) and 20-25 (old) months old were used. There were no changes in the pD2 values for ET-1 and NA between WKY and SHR rats at the ages studied. The ET-1 and NA Emax in adult SHR rats was significantly lower than in the age-matched WKY animals. Old age reduced the ET-1 and NA Emax in both SHR and WKY rats abolishing the difference observed at 6-8 months in the same groups. The reactivity to ET-1 and NA of BN and YOS rats was modified only in young rats. In YOS strain aging did not modify the ET-1 and NA responses as the pD2 and Emax values remained unchanged. Our findings demonstrate that ET-1 is a more potent vasoconstrictor than NA and that this potency remains unchanged throughout the ages and the pathologies studied. In contrast, the pD2 of NA decreases with old age in SHR and WKY rats. We conclude that rat strain but not hypertension or hyperlipemia can modify the response to ET-1 or NA in old age. We suppose that this functional change may involve alterations in the responsiveness of vascular smooth muscle.
PubMed ID
8108309 View in PubMed
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Apelin, the novel endogenous ligand of the orphan receptor APJ, regulates cardiac contractility.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature9913
Source
Circ Res. 2002 Sep 6;91(5):434-40
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-6-2002
Author
István Szokodi
Pasi Tavi
Gábor Földes
Sari Voutilainen-Myllylä
Mika Ilves
Heikki Tokola
Sampsa Pikkarainen
Jarkko Piuhola
Jaana Rysä
Miklós Tóth
Heikki Ruskoaho
Author Affiliation
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Biocenter Oulu, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland.
Source
Circ Res. 2002 Sep 6;91(5):434-40
Date
Sep-6-2002
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Animals, Genetically Modified
Calcium Channels - physiology
Carrier Proteins - genetics - metabolism - pharmacology
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
Endothelin-1 - pharmacology
Gene Expression Regulation
Heart Ventricles - cytology - drug effects - physiology
In Vitro
Isoproterenol - pharmacology
Ligands
Male
Membrane Potentials - drug effects
Myocardial Contraction - drug effects
Peptides - pharmacology
Potassium Channels - physiology
RNA, Messenger - genetics - metabolism
Rats
Rats, Inbred SHR
Rats, Inbred WKY
Rats, Sprague-Dawley
Receptors, Dopamine D2 - genetics - metabolism
Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Sodium-Calcium Exchanger - metabolism
Sodium-Hydrogen Antiporter - metabolism
Stress, mechanical
Time Factors
Abstract
The orphan receptor APJ and its recently identified endogenous ligand, apelin, exhibit high levels of mRNA expression in the heart. However, the functional importance of apelin in the cardiovascular system is not known. In isolated perfused rat hearts, infusion of apelin (0.01 to 10 nmol/L) induced a dose-dependent positive inotropic effect (EC50: 33.1+/-1.5 pmol/L). Moreover, preload-induced increase in dP/dt(max) was significantly augmented (P
PubMed ID
12215493 View in PubMed
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Are Wistar-Kyoto rats a genetic animal model of depression resistant to antidepressants?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature46371
Source
Eur J Pharmacol. 1997 Oct 22;337(2-3):115-23
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-22-1997
Author
A. Lahmame
C. del Arco
A. Pazos
M. Yritia
A. Armario
Author Affiliation
Departament de Biologia Cellular i Fisiologia, Facultat de Ciències, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Spain.
Source
Eur J Pharmacol. 1997 Oct 22;337(2-3):115-23
Date
Oct-22-1997
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Antidepressive Agents, Tricyclic - administration & dosage - blood - pharmacology
Comparative Study
Depression - drug therapy - physiopathology
Drug resistance
Eating - drug effects
Imipramine - administration & dosage - blood - pharmacology
Male
Motor Activity - drug effects
Rats
Rats, Inbred WKY
Rats, Sprague-Dawley
Receptors, Adrenergic, beta - drug effects
Receptors, Serotonin - drug effects
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Abstract
Wistar-Kyoto rats are reported to be very passive in the forced swimming test. In addition, they did not respond to acute administration of either desipramine or 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin (8-OH-DPAT). In the present experiment, it was studied whether or not they respond to acute and chronic administration of imipramine and the possible relationship to down-regulation of beta-adrenoceptors and 5-HT1 and 5-HT2 receptors. Sprague-Dawley and Brown-Norway rats were included in the study as it has been previously demonstrated that the two strains respond to acute desipramine and 8-OH-DPAT administration. Whereas acute administration of imipramine (15 mg/kg, three times in a 24 h period) significantly increased struggling and reduced immobility in Sprague-Dawley and Brown Norway rats, Wistar-Kyoto rats failed to respond to the drug. After chronic treatment with imipramine (13 days plus the acute imipramine treatment at the end of the treatment period), the three strains showed a positive response that was always significantly greater than the response to acute administration, but which was much lower in Wistar-Kyoto than in the other two strains. Down-regulation of both beta-adrenoceptors and 5-HT2 receptors was observed 24 h after the forced swimming test in acutely and chronically imipramine-treated rats of the three strains, except that in Sprague-Dawley rats beta-adrenoceptors did not change after acute imipramine. No significant decrease in 5-HT1 binding sites was observed in any strain. Acute imipramine administration caused a similar anorexia in Wistar-Kyoto as in the other strains and at least the same level of down-regulation of beta-adrenoceptors and 5-HT2 receptors. In addition, serum imipramine levels on the day after the last drug administration were higher in Wistar-Kyoto than in the other two strains. All these data suggest that the subsensitivity to imipramine observed in Wistar-Kyoto rats: (i) can not be primarily explained by pharmacokinetic differences, and (ii) does not appear to be related to the monoaminergic systems. Wistar-Kyoto rats might be therefore not only a good animal model of depressive-like (passive) behavior, but also a model of resistance to antidepressants which could be used to investigate the neurobiological basis of such resistance, which is also observed in some depressed patients.
PubMed ID
9430405 View in PubMed
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Arrhythmogenic peroxynitrite-induced alterations in mammalian heart contractility and its prevention with quercetin-filled liposomes.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature53663
Source
Cardiovasc Toxicol. 2002;2(2):129-39
Publication Type
Article
Date
2002
Author
A. Soloviev
A. Stefanov
A. Parshikov
A. Khromov
A. Moibenko
L. Kvotchina
G. Balavoine
Yu Geletii
Author Affiliation
Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Academy of Medical Sciences, 03057 Kiev, Ukraine. s.a.pharm@naverex.kiev.ua
Source
Cardiovasc Toxicol. 2002;2(2):129-39
Date
2002
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Arrhythmia - chemically induced - physiopathology - prevention & control
Blood Pressure - drug effects
Comparative Study
Coronary Vessels - physiopathology
Disease Models, Animal
Dogs
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
Drug Evaluation
Heart Ventricles - physiopathology
Incidence
Liposomes
Models, Cardiovascular
Myocardial Contraction - drug effects
Myocardial Ischemia - chemically induced - physiopathology - prevention & control
Myocardial Reperfusion Injury - chemically induced - physiopathology - prevention & control
Papillary Muscles - drug effects - physiopathology
Peroxynitrous Acid - adverse effects
Quercetin - administration & dosage
Rats
Rats, Inbred WKY
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Severity of Illness Index
Ventricular Pressure - drug effects
Abstract
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of quercetin-filled phosphatidylcholine liposomes (PCLs) on peroxynitrite (ONOO-)-induced cardiac arrhythmias. Experiments were done using different experimental models, including isolated rat papillary muscle, Langendorff perfused rat hearts, and anesthetized animals. Being exogenously applied in a concentration greater than 50 microM, ONOO- caused inhibition of isometric twitch amplitude in isolated papillary muscles and led to an appearance of arrhythmias. Decomposed ONOO- had no similar effects and reversibly increased twitch amplitude. Authentic nitric oxide (NO, 100 microM) did not produce arrhythmias and had no significant effect on twitch amplitude. Verapamil and ruthenium red were with-out effect on ONOO- -induced arrhythmias, whereas tetrodotoxin and nicorandil effectively prevented arrhythmias development. Ouabain increased the arrhythmogenic effect of ONOO-. ONOO- significantly decreased coronary perfusion pressure (CPP) and mean left-ventricular pressure (MLVP) in the Langendorff perfused rat heart and produced severe arrhythmias. Authentic nitric oxide (NO) decreased CPP and MLVP insignificantly and resulted in a low incidence of arrhythmias. The NO donor SIN-1 in doses greater than 50 microM led to the appearance of low-incidence arrhythmias in anesthetized rats. Intraventricular injection of ONOO- promotes the appearance of a high incidence of arrhythmias in anesthetized rats and decreased MLVP. PCLs filled with the antioxidant quercetin restored normal cardiac contractility in both isolated tissues and anesthetizes animals. In conclusion, we hypothesized that ONOO-, but not its decomposed products, can initiate membrane lipid peroxidation and damage the phospholipid environment of ionic channels in myocardial cell plasma membranes inducing abnormal cardiac action potentials, arrhythmogenesis, and contractile dysfunction. Quercetin-filled PCL provide reliable protection against peroxynitrite-induced myocardial injury in isolated cardiac tissues and anesthetized animals primarily as a result of the decomposition of endogenously formed ONOO-.
PubMed ID
12271156 View in PubMed
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Brain corticotropin-releasing factor immunoreactivity and receptors in five inbred rat strains: relationship to forced swimming behaviour.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature46408
Source
Brain Res. 1997 Mar 7;750(1-2):285-92
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-7-1997
Author
A. Lahmame
D E Grigoriadis
E B De Souza
A. Armario
Author Affiliation
Departament de Biologia Cellular i de Fisiologia, Facultat de Ciències, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Spain.
Source
Brain Res. 1997 Mar 7;750(1-2):285-92
Date
Mar-7-1997
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Brain - metabolism
Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone - metabolism
Depression
Hippocampus - metabolism
Medulla Oblongata - metabolism
Organ Specificity
Pons - metabolism
Prefrontal Cortex - metabolism
Rats
Rats, Inbred BN
Rats, Inbred F344
Rats, Inbred Lew
Rats, Inbred SHR
Rats, Inbred WKY
Receptors, Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone - metabolism
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Restraint, Physical
Species Specificity
Stress, Psychological
Swimming
Abstract
In the present work we studied the relationship between behaviour in the forced swimming test (FST), a test that presumably measures depressive-like behaviour in rodents, and central corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) concentration and binding in five strains of rats. The strains were: Brown-Norway (BN), Fisher (FIS) 344, Lewis (LEW), spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY). The FST data corresponding to the pretest showed significant inter-strain differences in both struggling and immobility: BN and WKY rats displayed lower levels of struggling and longer periods of immobility, LEW and SHR rats showed intermediate levels, and FIS rats were the most active. The results of the pretest were roughly similar to those observed in the test, the activity of WKY being extremely low. The CRF binding revealed significant inter-strain differences in prefrontal cortex and hippocampus, but not in cerebellum, pons-medulla or hypothalamus: in the prefrontal cortex, BN and FIS rats showed greater CRF binding than LEW, SHR and WKY rats; in the hippocampus BN rats showed higher levels of CRF binding than the other strains. The study of CRF content in various brain areas revealed inter-strain differences in prefrontal cortex and pons-medulla, but not in parietal-temporal cortex or in hypothalamus (CRF concentrations in the hippocampus were not detectable): CRF content in the prefrontal cortex was higher in BN than in the other strains, although the differences with FIS were not statistically significant; in the pons-medulla, FIS and LEW showed significantly higher CRF content than the other strains. From the present results it appears that BN and WKY rats were more prone to adopt passive strategies in the FST, but they did not show higher brain CRF immunoreactivity or down-regulation of CRF receptors. Hence, although there were inter-strains differences in all variables studied, no evidence for a relationship between the FST behaviour and central CRF activity was found.
PubMed ID
9098554 View in PubMed
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Brain natriuretic peptide in plasma, atria, and ventricles of vasopressin- and phenylephrine-infused conscious rats.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature11547
Source
Endocrinology. 1994 Jun;134(6):2505-15
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-1994
Author
J. Magga
M. Marttila
P. Mäntymaa
O. Vuolteenaho
H. Ruskoaho
Author Affiliation
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology and Physiology, University of Oulu, Finland.
Source
Endocrinology. 1994 Jun;134(6):2505-15
Date
Jun-1994
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Argipressin - pharmacology
Heart Atria - metabolism
Heart Ventricles - metabolism
Hypertension - metabolism
Male
Myocardium - metabolism
Natriuretic Peptide, Brain
Nerve Tissue Proteins - blood - genetics - metabolism
Phenylephrine - pharmacology
RNA, Messenger - metabolism
Rats
Rats, Inbred SHR
Rats, Inbred WKY
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Abstract
To evaluate the mechanisms of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) gene expression, we determined the effect of acute cardiac overload (from 30 min to 4 h) on atrial and ventricular BNP mRNA levels in normal and hypertrophied myocardium. Arginine8 vasopressin (AVP; 0.05 microgram/kg.min) and l-phenylephrine (PHE; 20 micrograms/kg.min) were infused iv to increase cardiac workload in conscious spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats. At the age of 10-22 months, during the established phase of ventricular hypertrophy, baseline BNP synthesis was increased in the hypertrophic ventricular cells of SHR, as reflected by about 2-fold (P
PubMed ID
8194476 View in PubMed
Less detail

Catecholamines in pericardial fluid of normotensive, spontaneously hypertensive and reserpine-treated rats.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature10702
Source
Acta Physiol Scand. 1999 Mar;165(3):293-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-1999
Author
R. Klemola
P. Huttunen
M. Laine
M. Weckström
J. Hirvonen
Author Affiliation
Department of Physiology, University of Oulu, Finland.
Source
Acta Physiol Scand. 1999 Mar;165(3):293-7
Date
Mar-1999
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Antihypertensive Agents - pharmacology
Heart - physiopathology
Hypertension - drug therapy - metabolism - physiopathology
Male
Norepinephrine - blood - metabolism - secretion
Pericardial Effusion - metabolism - physiopathology
Rats
Rats, Inbred SHR
Rats, Inbred WKY
Rats, Sprague-Dawley
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Reserpine - pharmacology
Abstract
In this study our aims were to investigate the presence and source of catecholamines in pericardial fluid of normotensive, reserpine-treated and spontaneously hypertensive rats. We found that noradrenaline is the only detectable catecholamine present in rat pericardial fluid. The effect of reserpine 6, 12, and 214 h after pre-treatment with 5 mg kg(-1) (8.2 micromol kg(-1)) i.p. shows that the concentration of noradrenaline in pericardial fluid reflects the amount of noradrenaline released within the heart rather than the amount of noradrenaline in plasma. Using spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) as a model for primary hypertension we could show that the level of pericardial noradrenaline is approximately threefold in the pericardial fluid of the SHRs when compared to respective values of age-matched normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY), suggesting that there was an increased noradrenaline overflow in the hearts of the SHRs. In conclusion, determination of the noradrenaline concentration in the pericardial fluid might provide a new method for estimating the release of noradrenaline in the heart.
PubMed ID
10192179 View in PubMed
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[Changes in vasodilator responses of vascular smooth muscles and nitric oxide system in experimental diabetes mellitus]

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature47349
Source
Fiziol Zh. 2003;49(4):24-32
Publication Type
Article
Date
2003
Author
V F Sahach
M M Tkachenko
O D Prysiazhna
A V Kotsiuruba
O F Mehed'
Author Affiliation
A.A. Bogomoletz Institute of Physiology, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine.
Source
Fiziol Zh. 2003;49(4):24-32
Date
2003
Language
Ukrainian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Aorta, Thoracic - enzymology - metabolism - physiology
Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental - metabolism - physiopathology
English Abstract
Male
Muscle, Smooth, Vascular - enzymology - metabolism - physiology
Myocardium - enzymology - metabolism
Nitrates - analysis
Nitric Oxide - biosynthesis
Nitric Oxide Synthase - metabolism
Nitrites - analysis
Rats
Rats, Inbred WKY
Vasodilation - physiology
Abstract
The experimental data of endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent responses of vascular smooth muscles of isolated preparations of the thoracic aorta of rats with experimental diabetes mellitus (streptozotocin-induced diabetes) and a control group of animals are presented in the article. It has been shown that at diabetes mellitus endothelium-dependent vasodilation was deteriorated to the most extent. It resulted from dysfunction of the endothelium due to a reduce in the synthesis of NO. This conclusion was based on the data of the parameters of the contents of steady metabolites of nitric oxide (NO2- and NO3-), as well as activities of inducible and constitutive NO-synthases (iNOS and cNOS) in heart, aorta, erythrocytes and blood plasma in diabetic and control animals.
PubMed ID
14509924 View in PubMed
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Differential regulation of cardiac adrenomedullin and natriuretic peptide gene expression by AT1 receptor antagonism and ACE inhibition in normotensive and hypertensive rats.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature54153
Source
J Hypertens. 1999 Nov;17(11):1543-52
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-1999
Author
J. Magga
J. Kalliovalkama
H. Romppanen
O. Vuolteenaho
I. Pörsti
M. Kähönen
J P Tolvanen
H. Ruskoaho
Author Affiliation
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Oulu, Finland.
Source
J Hypertens. 1999 Nov;17(11):1543-52
Date
Nov-1999
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors - pharmacology
Animals
Atrial Natriuretic Factor - genetics
Blood Pressure - drug effects
Cardiomegaly - pathology
Enalapril - pharmacology
Gene Expression - drug effects
Heart - physiopathology
Hypertension - genetics - physiopathology
Losartan - pharmacology
Male
Natriuretic Peptide, Brain
Peptides - genetics
Rats
Rats, Inbred SHR
Rats, Inbred WKY
Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 1
Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 2
Receptors, Angiotensin - antagonists & inhibitors
Reference Values
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To study the effects of long-term treatment with the type 1 angiotensin (AT1) receptor antagonist losartan and the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor enalapril, on cardiac adrenomedullin (ADM), atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) gene expression. METHODS: Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats were given losartan (15 mg/kg per day) or enalapril (4 mg/kg per day) orally for 10 weeks. The effects of drugs on systolic blood pressure, cardiac hypertrophy, ANP, BNP and ADM mRNA and immunoreactive-ANP (IR)-ANP, IR-BNP and IR-ADM levels in the left ventricle and atria were compared. RESULTS: Losartan and enalapril treatments completely inhibited the increase of systolic blood pressure occurring with ageing in SHR. The ratio of heart to body weight was reduced in both losartan- and enalapril-treated SHR and WKY rats. Treatment with losartan or enalapril reduced left ventricular ANP mRNA and IR-ANP in both strains, and ventricular BNP mRNA levels in SHR rats. Inhibition of ACE, AT1 receptor antagonism, changes in blood pressure or cardiac mass had no effect on left ventricular ADM gene expression in SHR and WKY rats. In addition, atrial IR-ANP and IR-ADM levels increased in SHR whereas IR-BNP levels decreased in WKY and SHR rats in response to drug treatments. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that ventricular ADM synthesis is an insensitive marker of changes in haemodynamic load or cardiac hypertrophy. Furthermore, the expression of ADM, ANP and BNP genes is differently regulated both in the left ventricle and atria in response to AT1 receptor antagonism and ACE inhibition.
PubMed ID
10608466 View in PubMed
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43 records – page 1 of 5.