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131I content in the human thyroid estimated from direct measurements of the inhabitants of Russian areas contaminated due to the Chernobyl accident.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature30700
Source
Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2003;105(1-4):623-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
2003
Author
A A Bratilova
I A Zvonova
M I Balonov
N G Shishkanov
V I Trushin
M. Hoshi
Author Affiliation
Institute of Radiation Hygiene, Mira st. 8, 197136, St Petersburg, Russia. bratilov@comset.net
Source
Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2003;105(1-4):623-6
Date
2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Accidents, Radiation
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Child
Child, Preschool
Computer simulation
Female
Humans
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Iodine Radioisotopes - analysis - pharmacokinetics
Male
Metabolic Clearance Rate
Middle Aged
Models, Biological
Power Plants
Radiation Dosage
Radioactive fallout - analysis
Radiometry - methods
Russia
Thyroid Gland - metabolism
Ukraine
Abstract
The method of processing and the results of measurements of 131I content in the thyroids of Russian people performed in May-June 1986 are presented. The contribution of radiation from Cs radionuclides in the human body was taken into account in the processing of measurement data with an SRP-68-01 device. The greatest individual 131I content was found in the thyroids of inhabitants of the Bryansk region, up to 250-350 kBq, and in the Tula and Orel regions, up to 100 kBq. The average 131I thyroid activity in the middle of May 1986 reached 80 kBq for inhabitants of some settlements in the Bryansk region, 5-8 kBq in the Tula region and 5 kBq in the Orel region.
PubMed ID
14527038 View in PubMed
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[Accumulation of radionuclides in food chains of the Yenisei River after the nuclear power plant shutdown at the mining-and-chemical enterprise].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature261756
Source
Radiats Biol Radioecol. 2014 Jul-Aug;54(4):405-14
Publication Type
Article
Author
T A Zotina
E A Trofimova
A D Karpov
A Ia Bolsunovskii
Source
Radiats Biol Radioecol. 2014 Jul-Aug;54(4):405-14
Language
Russian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Biota
Chemical Industry
Fishes - metabolism
Food chain
Industrial Waste - analysis
Mining
Muscle, Skeletal - radionuclide imaging
Nuclear Power Plants
Radiation Monitoring - methods
Radioisotopes - analysis - pharmacokinetics
Rivers - chemistry
Seasons
Siberia
Water Pollutants, Radioactive - analysis - pharmacokinetics
Abstract
Accumulation of artificial and natural radionuclides in the chains of food webs leading to non-predatory and piscivorous fish of the Yenisei River was investigated during one year before and three years after the shutdown of a nuclear power plant at the Mining-and-Chemical Combine (2009-2012). The activity of artificial radionuclides in the samples of biota ofthe Yenisei River (aquatic moss, gammarids, dace, grayling, pike) was estimated. The concentration of radionuclides with induced activity (51Cr, 54Mn, 58Co, 60Co, 65Zn, 141, 144Ce, 152, 154Eu, 239Np) decreased in the biomass of biota after the shutdown of the nuclear power plant; the concentration of 137Cs did not. Analysis of the accumulation factors (C(F)) allows us to expect the effective accumulation of 137Cs in the terminal level of the food web of the Yenisei River--pike (C(F) = 2.0-9.4), i.e. biomagnifications of radiocesium. Accumulation of artificial, radionuclides in non-predatory fish from gammarids was not effective (C(F)
PubMed ID
25775829 View in PubMed
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[A pharmacokinetic approach to studying the uptake of 137Cs by children following the reactor accident at Chernobyl]

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature37958
Source
Nuklearmedizin. 1989 Dec;28(6):243-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-1989
Author
U. Wellner
Author Affiliation
Institut für klinische und experimentelle Nuklearmedizin, Universitätzu Köln, BRD.
Source
Nuklearmedizin. 1989 Dec;28(6):243-6
Date
Dec-1989
Language
German
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Accidents
Body Burden
Cesium Radioisotopes - analysis - pharmacokinetics
Child
English Abstract
Germany, West
Humans
Models, Biological
Nuclear Reactors
Ukraine
Abstract
The course of 137Cs content of children after the reactor accident of Chernobyl measured by means of a whole-body counter could be reconstructed theoretically by a pharmacokinetic model. The children of the kindergarten of the hospital of the University of Cologne accumulated during the vegetation periods 1986/87 (I) 86.9, 1987/88 (II) 114.4 and 1988/89 (III) 24.4 Bq 137Cs per kg body weight.
PubMed ID
2608448 View in PubMed
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Assessment of doses to the offspring of the Techa River cohort due to intakes of radionuclides by the mother.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature183429
Source
Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2003;105(1-4):609-14
Publication Type
Article
Date
2003
Author
M O Degteva
E I Tolstykh
M I Vorobiova
Author Affiliation
Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine, Medgorodok, 454076, Chelyabinsk, Russia. marina@urcrm.chel.su
Source
Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2003;105(1-4):609-14
Date
2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Body Burden
Bone Marrow - embryology - metabolism
Cesium Radioisotopes - analysis - pharmacokinetics
Cohort Studies
Computer simulation
Female
Fetus - metabolism
Fresh Water - analysis
Humans
Maternal Exposure
Maternal-Fetal Exchange - physiology
Models, Biological
Pregnancy
Radiation Dosage
Radioactive Waste - analysis
Radioisotopes - analysis - pharmacokinetics
Radiometry - methods - standards
Russia
Strontium Radioisotopes - analysis - pharmacokinetics
Tissue Distribution
Water Pollutants, Radioactive - analysis - pharmacokinetics
Abstract
The Techa River was contaminated as a result of radioactive releases by the Mayak plutonium production facility in 1949-1956. The residents of riverside communities were exposed to internal irradiation from radionuclides ingested mainly with river water, and also to external gamma irradiation resulting from shoreline and flood-plain contamination. The most important role in population exposure was played by (89,90)Sr and 137Cs. The persons born after the onset of the contamination have been identified as the 'Techa River Offspring Cohort' (TROC). The TROC has the potential to provide direct data on health effects in progeny that resulted from exposure of a general population to chronic radiation. This report describes the results of the calculation of fetal doses due to intakes of radionuclides by their mothers. Particular attention has been given to fetal dose from 90Sr because this nuclide is the most significant in terms of population dose for the Techa River. The comparison of the fetal bone marrow doses evaluated using different approaches proposed in the literature has shown a large dispersal in dose values. The main cause of this is the difference in model assumptions simplifying some developmental aspects of fetal haematopoiesis and bone formation. This paper presents an analysis of these basic assumptions that could be useful for further improvements in fetal dosimetry.
PubMed ID
14527035 View in PubMed
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[Bone mineral density in residents living on radioactive territories of Cheliabinsk Region].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature139874
Source
Radiats Biol Radioecol. 2010 Jul-Aug;50(4):481-91
Publication Type
Article
Author
E I Tolstykh
N B Shagina
L M Peremyslova
M O Degteva
Source
Radiats Biol Radioecol. 2010 Jul-Aug;50(4):481-91
Language
Russian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Bone Density - radiation effects
Bone Marrow - radiation effects
Bone and Bones - metabolism - radiation effects
Female
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Radiation Dosage
Radiation Monitoring - methods
Radioactive Hazard Release
Siberia
Soil Pollutants, Radioactive - analysis - pharmacokinetics
Strontium Radioisotopes - analysis - pharmacokinetics
Young Adult
Abstract
Operation of "Mayak" plutonium production complex resulted in radioactive contamination of the part of Chelyabinsk Region in 1950-60s. Significant gas-aerosol emissions of 1311 occurred since 1948; in 1957, a radiation accident resulted in 90Sr contamination of large territories. This paper presents comparison of bone mineral density of persons lived on territories with different levels of soil 90Sr-contamination with a control group. It was found that in 1970-1975 the bone mineral density, estimated from mineral content in bone samples, in residents of contaminated areas born in 1936-1952 was significantly lower compared with the control group. For persons born in 1880-1935 such differences were not found. It was shown that the decrease in bone mineral density was not related to 90Sr exposure of osteogenic cells in the dose range from 0.1 to 1300 mGy: the coefficient of correlation between individual 90Sr-doses and bone mineral contents was not significant. The decrease in bone mineral density of persons born in 1936-1952 could be associated with exposure of thyroid and parathyroid glands (systemic regulators of calcium turnover) by 131I from gas-aerosol emissions from "Mayak". Maximum gas-aerosol emissions occurred in 1948-1954 and coincided with growth and development of thyroid gland, characterizing by intensive accumulation of 131I, and with growth and maturation of the skeleton of persons born in these calendar years.
PubMed ID
20968060 View in PubMed
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Effect of origin of radiocaesium on the transfer from fallout to reindeer meat.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature192752
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2001 Oct 20;278(1-3):171-81
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-20-2001
Author
B. Ahman
S M Wright
B J Howard
Author Affiliation
Department of Animal Breeding and Genetics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala. birgitta.ahman@hgen.slu.se
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2001 Oct 20;278(1-3):171-81
Date
Oct-20-2001
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Cesium Radioisotopes - analysis - pharmacokinetics
Environmental monitoring
Food chain
Food Contamination
Half-Life
Humans
Meat
Power Plants
Radioactive fallout - analysis
Radioactive Hazard Release
Reindeer
Seasons
Sweden
Time Factors
Ukraine
Abstract
Data on radiocaesium contamination of reindeer from five regions in Sweden have been used, together with interpolated radiocaesium deposition data, to quantify spatial variation in transfer to reindeer meat and to consider how it changes with time in different areas. Since the regions were contaminated to different extents by global and Chernobyl fallout, it was also possible to determine the influence of the origin or age of radiocaesium fallout on the transfer to reindeer meat. The regions differed significantly with regard to transfer of radiocaesium to reindeer meat. In two regions in the North of Sweden, where there was less Chernobyl 137Cs, aggregated transfer coefficients (Tag), estimated for the main slaughter period in the first year after the Chernobyl fallout, were low (0.15 and 0.36 m2 kg(-1) in January-April). Average Tag values calculated for the winter period (January-April) in two regions in the middle of Sweden, where deposition from Chernobyl dominated (83 and 94%, respectively, of the total deposition), were 0.78 and 0.84 m2 kg(-1), respectively with a maximum Tag for an individual reindeer of 1.87 m2 kg(-1). There was a threefold increase in Tag values from early autumn to late winter reflecting the change in the reindeer diet from less contaminated vascular plants to more contaminated lichens. The decline of 137Cs in reindeer meat from 1986 to 2000 differed between regions with longer effective half-lives (Tef) in the northerly regions (11.0 and 7.1 years, respectively) with less Chernobyl fallout, and shorter half-lives in the other three regions (3.5-3.8 years). This observation, together with a lack of a decline in early autumn in the region with least Chernobyl fallout, supports the theory of a gradual, but reversible, fixation of radiocaesium in the soil over the mid-long term. The results suggest that both the extent of transfer of 137Cs to reindeer meat, and its subsequent decline with time, are affected by the differing origins of radiocaesium and that previous contamination may substantially influence radiocaesium transfer in the event of a further accident.
PubMed ID
11669265 View in PubMed
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Elevated in vivo strontium-90 from nuclear weapons test fallout among cancer decedents: a case-control study of deciduous teeth.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature137067
Source
Int J Health Serv. 2011;41(1):137-58
Publication Type
Article
Date
2011
Author
Joseph J Mangano
Janette D Sherman
Author Affiliation
Radiation and Public Health Project, New York, USA. odiejoe@aol.com
Source
Int J Health Serv. 2011;41(1):137-58
Date
2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Case-Control Studies
Child
Child, Preschool
Female
Humans
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Male
Middle Aged
Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced - epidemiology - mortality
Nuclear Weapons
Ontario - epidemiology
Pregnancy
Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects
Radioactive Fallout - adverse effects
Single-Blind Method
Strontium Radioisotopes - analysis - pharmacokinetics
Tooth, Deciduous - metabolism
United States - epidemiology
Abstract
Risks to health from large-scale atmospheric nuclear weapons testing are still relatively unknown. A sample of 85,000 deciduous teeth collected from Americans born during the bomb-testing years assessed risk by in vivo measurement of residual strontium-90 (Sr-90) concentrations, using liquid scintillation spectrometry. The authors' analysis included 97 deciduous teeth from persons born between 1959 and 1961 who were diagrosed with cancer, and 194 teeth of matched controls. Average Sr-90 in teeth of persons who died of cancer was significantly greater than for controls (OR = 2.22; p
PubMed ID
21319726 View in PubMed
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Estimation of human exposure to natural radionuclides using in vivo skull measurements.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature183428
Source
Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2003;105(1-4):615-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
2003
Author
M. Muikku
T. Rahola
S. Pusa
L. Salonen
W. Wahl
P. Roth
T. Haninger
D. Kucheida
Author Affiliation
STUK-Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, P.O. Box 14, FIN-00881 Helsinki, Finland. maarit.muikku@stuk.fi
Source
Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2003;105(1-4):615-8
Date
2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Child
Environmental Exposure - analysis
Female
Finland
Humans
Lead Radioisotopes - analysis - pharmacokinetics - urine
Male
Radiation Dosage
Radiometry - methods
Skull - metabolism
Statistics as Topic
Uranium - analysis - pharmacokinetics - urine
Water Pollutants, Radioactive - analysis - pharmacokinetics
Abstract
In a preliminary study, in vivo skull measurements and in vitro urine measurements of 210Pb and nulU have been performed to find out the individual, chronic exposure to waterborne natural radionuclides of a small group of Finnish people. For their domestic water, the studied individuals use water from drilled wells containing elevated concentrations of natural uranium and its daughter nuclides ((234,235,238)U, 222Rn, (226,228)Ra, 210Po, 210Pb). Enhanced 210Pb and 235U activities were observed in several people. A positive correlation is observed between the U concentration in urine (microg d(-1)) and the number of counts (cpm) in the gamma ray energy peaks originating from the decay of 235U and 234Th respectively. Calibration of the detector set-up and the determination of background sources are in progress.
PubMed ID
14527036 View in PubMed
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[Evaluation of equivalent body burden in the thyroid for the people of Poland on results of 131I absorption after the disaster in Czernobyl. Determination of thyroid blockade with potassium iodide]

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature37441
Source
Endokrynol Pol. 1991;42(2):189-202
Publication Type
Article
Date
1991
Author
P. Krajewski
Author Affiliation
Centralne Laboratorium Ochrony Radiologicznej.
Source
Endokrynol Pol. 1991;42(2):189-202
Date
1991
Language
Polish
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Accidents, Radiation
Air Pollutants, Radioactive - analysis - pharmacokinetics
Body Burden
Child
Child, Preschool
English Abstract
Humans
Infant
Iodine Radioisotopes - analysis - pharmacokinetics
Maximum Allowable Concentration
Poland
Potassium Iodide - therapeutic use
Power Plants
Radiation Dosage
Thyroid Diseases - prevention & control
Thyroid Gland - metabolism - radiation effects
Ukraine
Abstract
An assessment of effectiveness of the administering of single dose of stable iodine in Poland on the reduction of 131I doses in thyroid has been performed. 5-compartment model of metabolism of iodine developed by Johnson has been used to evaluate predicted levels of stable iodine and 131I content in thyroid and commitment dose equivalent H50 for different doses of stable iodine and various age and sex group population. The measured values of 131I concentration in air and in milk and standard values for milk and food consumption and inhalation rate as well as metabolic parameters were used. Theoretical calculations showed that administering of stable iodine on 1986-04-28, 1986-04-29, 1986-04-30 and 1986-05-01 could have reduced committed dose equivalent H50 form ingestion with inhalation pathway by about 44%, 40%, 26%, 12% respectively. On the basis of measured 131I activity in the thyroid for inhabitants from different districts in Poland (1400 measurement) committed dose equivalents were determined and analysis of radiation hazard from 131I were performed. In the most contaminated regions of Poland average H50 doses for children 1-5 and 5-10 years old are close to 50 mSv (permissible level for population) and maximal doses exceed this limit four times. These maximal doses occurred for about from 5% inhabitants from these area. In the moderate and low contaminated regions of Poland the average doses are fivefold and tenfold less respectively.
PubMed ID
1364472 View in PubMed
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Factors that elevate the internal radionuclide and chemical retention, dose and health risks to infants and children in a radiological-nuclear emergency.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature150819
Source
Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2009 Jun;134(3-4):167-80
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2009
Author
Richard B Richardson
Author Affiliation
Radiation Biology and Health Physics Branch, Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL), Chalk River Laboratories, Chalk River, ON, Canada. richardr@aecl.ca
Source
Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2009 Jun;134(3-4):167-80
Date
Jun-2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Canada - epidemiology
Child
Child, Preschool
Computer simulation
Humans
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Male
Models, Biological
Nuclear Warfare - statistics & numerical data
Radiation Injuries - epidemiology
Radioactive Hazard Release - statistics & numerical data
Radioactive Pollutants - analysis - pharmacokinetics
Radioisotopes - analysis - pharmacokinetics
Risk assessment
Risk factors
Abstract
The factors that influence the dose and risk to vulnerable population groups from exposure and internal uptake of chemicals are examined and, in particular, the radionuclides released in chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear and explosive events. The paper seeks to identify the areas that would benefit from further research. The intake and body burdens of carbon and calcium were assessed as surrogates for contaminants that either act like or bind to hydrocarbons (e.g. tritium and (14)C) or bone-seeking radionuclides (e.g. (90)Sr and (239)Pu). The shortest turnover times for such materials in the whole body were evaluated for the newborn: 11 d and 0.5 y for carbon and calcium, respectively. However, their biokinetic behaviour is complicated by a particularly high percentage of the gut-absorbed dietary intake of carbon (approximately 16%) and calcium (approximately 100%) that is incorporated into the soft tissue and skeleton of the growing neonate. The International Commission on Radiological Protection dose coefficients (Sv Bq(-1)) were examined for 14 radionuclides, including 9 of concern because of their potential use in radiological dispersal devices. The dose coefficients for a 3-month-old are greater than those for adults (2-56 times more for ingestion and 2-12 times for inhalation). The age-dependent dose and exposure assessment of contaminant intakes would improve by accounting for gender and growth where it is currently neglected. Health risk is evaluated as the product of the exposure and hazard factors, the latter being about 10-fold greater in infants than in adults. The exposure factor is also approximately 10-fold higher for ingestion by infants than by adults, and unity for inhalation varying with the contaminant. Qualitative and quantitative physiological and epidemiological evidence supports infants being more vulnerable to cancer and neurological deficit than older children.
PubMed ID
19460847 View in PubMed
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24 records – page 1 of 3.