The activity of the pituitary-gonadal axis (PG axis) in pre-migratory and homing chum salmon was examined because endocrine mechanisms underlying the onset of spawning migration remain unknown. Pre-migratory fish were caught in the central Bering Sea in June, July and September 2001, 2002 and 2003, and in the Gulf of Alaska in February 2006. They were classified into immature and maturing adults on the basis of gonadal development. The maturing adults commenced spawning migration to coastal areas by the end of summer, because almost all fish in the Bering Sea were immature in September. In the pituitaries of maturing adults, the copy numbers of FSHbeta mRNA and the FSH content were 2.5- to 100-fold those of the immature fish. Similarly, the amounts of LHbeta mRNA and LH content in the maturing adults were 100- to 1000-fold those of immature fish. The plasma levels of testosterone, 11-ketotestosterone and estradiol were higher than 10 nmol l(-1) in maturing adults, but lower than 1.0 nmol l(-1) in immature fish. The increase in the activity of the PG-axis components had already initiated in the maturing adults while they were still in the Gulf of Alaska in winter. In the homing adults, the pituitary contents and the plasma levels of gonadotropins and plasma sex steroid hormones peaked during upstream migration from the coast to the natal hatchery. The present results thus indicate that the seasonal increase in the activity of the PG axis is an important endocrine event that is inseparable from initiation of spawning migration of chum salmon.
PURPOSE: The paper presents links between iodine provision and selected acute phase proteins' (APP) serum concentrations as well as their glycosylations profiles (investigated with the use of affinity immunoelectrophoresis with Concanavalin A as ligand) in children. MATERIAL AND METHOD: 116 children (58 girls and 58 boys) were enrolled. Iodine level was measured in the morning (7:30-8:30) urine portion, using Cr-As method. According to iodine level children were divided into two groups. The first one consisted of 56 children with decreased iodine level (lower than 100 micrograms/L), second--60 children with iodine level higher than 100 micrograms/L. In serum the concentration of ferritin, beta2-microglobulin (beta2-MG), thyroxin (T4), triiodothyronin (T3), thyrotrophic hormone (TSH) were measured by radioimmunoassay (BELORIS, Belarus). Concentrations of APP: C-reactive protein (CRP), alphal-acid glycoprotein (AGP), alphal-antichymotrypsin (ACT), alphal-antitrypsin (AT), haptoglobin (Hp), alpha2-macroglobulin (A2-M), ceruloplasmin (Cp) and transferrin (Tf) were measured in sera samples by rocket immunoelectrophoresis acc. to Laurell with antibodies and standard from DakoCytomation, Denmark. Microheterogeneity of AGP, ACT and Tf was estimated using affinity immunoelectrophoresis with ConA as a ligand, acc. to Bøg-Hansen. RESULTS: It was established, that CRP level was lower than upper limit of normal range. Levels of other investigated proteins were reliably dependent on the level of iodine. Especially for AGP lower level was observed for children of the group with low iodine level. In children with low iodine level along with the decrease of serum AGP concentration altered glycosylations profile was observed, namely decrease in the content of variant non-reactive to ConA (W0) and increase in content of weakly reactive (W1) and reactive (W2) variants content, which resulted in increase of the reactivity coefficient (AGP-RC). Similar tendency in alterations of distinctly glycosylated variants in relation to iodine level could be shown for ACT. Serum concentration of any investigated protein was not dependent on the concentration of the hormones of pituitary-thyroid system. CONCLUSIONS: It seems that the influence of the iodine level is direct, not via thyroid hormones. It could be suggested that in euthyroid children with low iodine excretion with urine a hidden iodine deficiency is already registered by the regulatory mechanisms and a kind of acute phase reaction is started, may be in order to increase iodine uptake and storage.
Serum samples from people born between the years 1895 and 1970 were collected and tested for antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs) by passive haemagglutination (PHA) and radioimmunoassay (RIA), and for antibody to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc) by immunoelectroosmophoresis (IEOP). Neither anti-HBs nor anti-HBc was detected in the serum from anyone under 15 years of age. The prevalence of anti-HBs and anti-HBc showed peaks of 9.2 and 8.3 per cent, respectively, in the age group of 40-49 years. The distribution of antibody was equal between men and women. Eighty per cent of the sera with anti-HBs were also positive for anti-HBc. All sera positive for anti-HBc also contained anti-HBs.
alpha-Neoendorphin-like immunoreactivities (alpha-NE-IR) were demonstrated in tissues from three patients with medullary carcinoma of the thyroid (MCT). A large amount of alpha-NE-IR was detected in the extracts of primary tumors and metastatic lymphatic tissues by a highly sensitive and specific radioimmunoassay (RIA). Gel filtration analyses showed two different molecular-weight forms of the alpha-NE-IR: One eluted at the void fraction and the other at the position of [125I]-alpha-NE on Sephadex (Pharmacia Fine Chemical, Uppsala, Sweden) G-50 chromatography. Immunohistochemical examination revealed the presence of alpha-NE-IR in the C-cell carcinoma. These data presumably reflect that alpha-NE, the opioid peptide derived from preproenkephalin B, is synthesized in the MCT.
Analyses of the aminoterminal propeptide of type III procollagen (PIIINP) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of 55 children and five young adults without any structural central nervous system (CNS) lesion are reported. The concentration was age-dependent, in that infants and small children had quite high values, whereas the concentration remained relatively constant after the age of 1.5 years. The concentrations of PIIINP in the CSF of 44 children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) were prospectively determined at the time of diagnosis and during treatment, since deposition of type III collagen is known to occur during fibroproliferative responses triggered by inflammation. Chemical arachnoiditis is known to be associated with intrathecal methotrexate therapy in children with leukemia. The mean concentration in these children at diagnosis (5.8 micrograms/l +/- SD 2.8 micrograms/l) did not differ from that in age-matched controls (6.7 micrograms/l +/- SD 3.2 micrograms/l). Depending on type of the disease, the children were treated according to two different protocols. PIIINP concentrations were significantly higher during the therapy phases which included intrathecally administered methotrexate (P less than 0.001) than at diagnosis of the disease. Corticosteroid treatments were always associated with a significant decrease in PIIINP concentrations (P less than 0.01 and P less than 0.001 in the two groups, respectively), irrespective of the therapy phase. The results suggest that an increase in PIIINP concentration in the CSF of children with ALL is an indicator of a fibroproliferative response in the arachnoid. Corticosteroids may repress this response and possibly also prevent the development of adhesions in the arachnoid.
All new cases of insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) in children below 15 years of age were recorded prospectively during a 21-year period 1964-1984 in a defined uptake area with a relatively constant child population. The total number of children recorded was 222-111 boys and 111 girls. The number of new cases varied between 4 cases in 1968 and 20 in 1984; in 1983 seventeen new cases were recorded. Specific IgM antibodies against Coxsackie B virus (CBV), types 1-5 were measured by a reverse radioimmunoassay (RIA) technique in 24 consecutive patients collected during the period March 1982-January 1984, some of whom represented the recent period of a very high incidence of diabetes. Sixteen patients (67%) exhibited CBV IgM responses, strongly suggesting a current or recent CBV infection. The titres declined during the first few months of diabetes and seemed to be absent after the first half-year period. Among age-matched non-diabetic children scheduled for elective procedures during the same period, no cases with CBV-IgM antibodies were detected. Only three of the 16 IgM-RIA-positive patients showed a significant rise in the neutralising antibody titre against the same Coxsackie B type. It is concluded that CBV may play a pathogenetic role in induction of IDDM, and possibly more frequently so during periods with a high incidence of diabetes, at least in children below 15 years of age.
We have measured antibodies to gliadin (AGA), bovine beta-lactoglobulin, and chicken egg ovalbumin with a four-layer solid phase radioimmunoassay (RIA) in 62 children and adolescents with coeliac disease and in 36 healthy controls. The geometric mean titre of IgG AGA in patients at initial diagnosis was more than 100-fold that of controls (p less than 0.0001). Even patients on gluten-free diet had significantly higher IgG AGA titres than the controls (p = 0.0001), the difference being more than 5-fold. All the 42 patients with active disease (30 at initial diagnosis and 12 after gluten challenge) had their IgG AGA titre above 1,000, as compared with 2 (5.7%) of the 35 controls (p less than 0.0001). Both IgG and IgA AGA were quite sensitive and specific in identifying children with coeliac disease; the sensitivities for IgG and IgA AGA were 100% and 95.2%, the specificities 94.3% and 97.2%, respectively. We conclude that determination of IgG and IgA AGA with RIA is suitable for monitoring dietary compliance in children with coeliac disease, and the method is sensitive and specific for screening for coeliac disease in children.
During the last decade, several studies of serologic markers of hepatitis B virus infections in hospital personnel have demonstrated an increased prevalence of antibodies to hepatitis B virus (anti-HB) compared with the general population. Norway has a very low incidence rate of hepatitis B as seen on a global scale, and this study was performed to evaluate the infection risk by hospital workers in such environments. The employees, 2,546 (94.7% of the population), in the 800-bed National Hospital in Oslo were tested for antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs) in serum. Five per cent (128 persons) were anti-HBs-positive; this was only slightly higher than that in the general Norwegian population. Male employees were more often positive than females (7.0% vs. 4.4%). Staff more than 50 years of age or with 16 or more years of employment in the health services had a rate twice as high as the rest of the employees. Staff in the porter services (mostly men) had a higher rate than others, whereas the rates in the different professional groups showed no statistical differences. Contrary to many other studies, significant differences in prevalence according to frequency of patient contact or blood handling were not found.
The anti-phlogistic effect of dietary vitamin E supplementation on the acute inflammation observed in experimental lens-induced uveitis in Brown Norway rats was studied. The effects of vitamin E were examined using histopathologic parameters as well as by measuring the levels of arachidonic acid metabolites. Histologic examination of the eyes revealed that the vitamin E-deficient animals had the most severe destruction of the retina, while those animals receiving the vitamin E-supplemented diet exhibited the best preservation of the retinal architecture. Levels of arachidonic acid metabolites, as determined by radioimmunoassay, were significantly higher in vitamin E deficient rats as compared with rats on a normal diet.