to evaluate the association between 2D:4D finger length ratios (representing the prenatal environment, i.e., early androgen exposure) and reproductive indices, such as age at menarche, menopausal age, and length of reproductive period.
Retrospective data on age at menarche and menopausal age as well as x-rays of both hands were obtained from 674 Chuvashian women aged 18-70 years (mean 46.32?±?15.42). Finger and metacarpal length ratios as well as visual classification of finger ratio types, were estimated from the x-rays.
We found that a low 2D:4D ratio (radiologically evaluated), a masculine 2D:4D ratio type (visually evaluated), and a putative bioassay for prenatal androgen exposure, were associated with a later menarche and a shorter reproductive period. No association was found with menopausal age.
CONCLUSION: The preoperative three-dimensional (3D) modeling of the pituitary adenoma together with pituitary gland, optic nerves, carotid arteries, and the sphenoid sinuses was adopted for routine use in our institution for all pituitary surgery patients. It gave the surgeon a more profound orientation to the individual surgical field compared with the use of conventional 2D images only. OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate the feasibility of 3D surgical planning for pituitary adenoma surgery using readily available resources. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data of 40 consecutive patients with pituitary adenoma were used to construct 3D models to be used in preoperative planning and during the surgery. A freely available, open source program (3D Slicer) downloaded to a conventional personal computer (PC) was applied. RESULTS: The authors present a brief description of the 3D reconstruction-based surgical planning workflow. In addition to the preoperative planning the 3D model was used as a 'road map' during the operation. With the 3D model the surgeon was more confident when opening the sellar wall and when evacuating the tumor from areas in contact with vital structures than when using only conventional 2D images.
The aim of the present 5-year follow-up was to clarify the nature of occlusal support status and radiographic changes in condyles of the elderly, and the association between these two variables.
The present study is part of a comprehensive medical survey of a random sample born in 1904, 1909, and 1914. A total of 364 subjects living in Helsinki participated in the dental part of the examination during 1990 to 1991, and after 5 years a total of 103 were reexamined. Comprehensive data on occlusal support status were available for 94 subjects, and radiographic data were available for 88 subjects. Occlusal support status was assessed on the basis of the Eichner index, radiographic changes were assessed from panoramic radiographs, and symptoms of temporomandibular disorders were assessed using Helkimo's anamnestic index.
The most frequent radiographic finding in the mandibular joint was flattening of the articular surface of the condyle associated with osteoarthrosis, found at baseline in 17% and during follow-up in 13% of the subjects. During the 5-year follow-up, Eichner index for natural dentition remained unaltered in 94% of the subjects and in 85% of the subjects when removable dentures were included. There were no radiographic changes in 92% of the cases. No differences based on age or gender were found. A logistic regression model revealed associations between the selected baseline factors. The odds ratio for baseline Helkimo's anamnestic index was 4.1, 5.7 for Eichner index with the support of removable dentures, and 356 for radiographic findings.
Radiographic changes in condyles of elderly people were small during the 5-year follow-up, but baseline radiographic findings, Helkimo's anamnestic index, and Eichner index with removable dentures were risk factors for radiographic findings at the end of the follow-up.
The aim was to clarify the associations among subjective symptoms, clinical signs of temporomandibular disorders (TMD), and radiographic findings in the mandibular condyles of elderly people during a 5-year follow-up.
As part of a comprehensive medical survey of a random sample born in 1904, 1909, and 1914 (Helsinki Aging Study), 364 subjects living in Helsinki participated in the dental part of the examination during 1990 and 1991; after 5 years, 103 of these were reexamined. Comprehensive data on TMD were available for 94 subjects, and radiographic data were available for 88. TMD were assessed by Helkimo's anamnestic and clinical indices, and radiographic status was assessed by panoramic radiographs.
During the 5-year follow-up, reported anamnestic symptoms of TMD for men changed little (9%); among women, the change from baseline was 42%. When the unchanged indices were compared, the gender difference was obvious. At baseline, 5% of the women, but no men, had severe signs (clinical index III) of TMD. At the end of follow-up, none showed severe signs. Comparison of radiographic findings between baseline and follow-up showed no differences, nor did differences appear in associations between radiographic findings and anamnestic or clinical indices.
During the 5-year follow-up, signs and symptoms of TMD in these elderly individuals became milder or vanished. The radiographic status of the condyles remained stable, and no association appeared between radiographic findings and signs and symptoms of TMD.
The treatment-mix, treatment time, and dental status of 268 male industrial workers entitled to employer-provided dental care were studied. The data were collected from treatment records of the covered workers over the 5-year period 1989-93. Treatment time was based on clinical treatment time recorded per patient visit, and the treatment procedure codes were reclassified into a treatment-mix according to American Dental Association categories, with a modification combining endodontics and restorative treatment. The mean number of check-ups followed by prescribed treatment (treatment courses) during the 5 years was 3.7 among those who had entered the in-house dental care program prior to the monitored period (old attenders). Their treatment time was stable, 57-63 min per year, while the first-year mean treatment time (170 min) of those who had entered the program during the study period (new attenders) was significantly higher (P
The purpose of this study was to compare the diagnostic performance of a digital radiography system that uses 6- and 8-bit displays with conventional D-speed film for the detection of simulated periodontal bone lesions. Eleven human hemimandibles were used as specimens. Simulated lesions were created at the buccal cortical plate in the marginal bone area with the use of a round bur 1.4 mm in diameter. Lesions were created in a defined sequence to preclude visual cues as to the depth of the lesions. Lesion size progressed in 0.5 mm increments. At each stage the mandibles were imaged with a Sens-A-Ray system (REGAM Medical Systems AB, Sundsvall, Sweden) and D-speed film. Exposure parameters for each specimen/receptor combination were standardized by either the mean optical density or mean gray value at the approximal crestal bone area. Film images and digital images displayed with 64 and 256 gray levels were presented to six observers for evaluation. Observers were ask to rate their confidence as to the presence or absence of a lesion using a 5-point confidence scale. A total of 96 lesion sites and 96 control sites were presented to the observers. Receiver operating characteristic curves were generated for each system. The area under the curve was used as the index of diagnostic accuracy. The mean receiver operating characteristic areas for 6-bit and 8-bit displays and D-speed film were 0.746 +/- 0.043, 0.717 +/- 0.056 and 0.742 +/- 0.059, respectively. Analysis of variance was used to compare the means. No statistical difference was found between any of the three image displays (p > 0.05).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)