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3D simulation as a tool for improving the safety culture during remediation work at Andreeva Bay.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature265458
Source
J Radiol Prot. 2014 Dec;34(4):755-73
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2014
Author
K. Chizhov
M K Sneve
I. Szoke
I. Mazur
N K Mark
I. Kudrin
N. Shandala
A. Simakov
G M Smith
A. Krasnoschekov
A. Kosnikov
I. Kemsky
V. Kryuchkov
Source
J Radiol Prot. 2014 Dec;34(4):755-73
Date
Dec-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Decontamination - methods
Hazardous Waste Sites
Imaging, Three-Dimensional - methods
Models, organizational
Norway
Organizational Culture
Radiation Monitoring - methods
Radiation Protection - methods
Radioactive Waste - prevention & control
Russia
Safety Management - organization & administration
Abstract
Andreeva Bay in northwest Russia hosts one of the former coastal technical bases of the Northern Fleet. Currently, this base is designated as the Andreeva Bay branch of Northwest Center for Radioactive Waste Management (SevRAO) and is a site of temporary storage (STS) for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and other radiological waste generated during the operation and decommissioning of nuclear submarines and ships. According to an integrated expert evaluation, this site is the most dangerous nuclear facility in northwest Russia. Environmental rehabilitation of the site is currently in progress and is supported by strong international collaboration. This paper describes how the optimization principle (ALARA) has been adopted during the planning of remediation work at the Andreeva Bay STS and how Russian-Norwegian collaboration greatly contributed to ensuring the development and maintenance of a high level safety culture during this process. More specifically, this paper describes how integration of a system, specifically designed for improving the radiological safety of workers during the remediation work at Andreeva Bay, was developed in Russia. It also outlines the 3D radiological simulation and virtual reality based systems developed in Norway that have greatly facilitated effective implementation of the ALARA principle, through supporting radiological characterisation, work planning and optimization, decision making, communication between teams and with the authorities and training of field operators.
PubMed ID
25254659 View in PubMed
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Activity concentrations of 226Ra and 228Ra in drilled well water in Finland.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature168789
Source
Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2006;121(4):406-12
Publication Type
Article
Date
2006
Author
P. Vesterbacka
T. Turtiainen
S. Heinävaara
H. Arvela
Author Affiliation
STUK-Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, PO Box 14, 00881 Helsinki, Finland. pia.vesterbacka@stuk.fi
Source
Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2006;121(4):406-12
Date
2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Background Radiation
Body Burden
Environmental Exposure - analysis
Finland
Humans
Radiation Dosage
Radiation Monitoring - methods
Radiation Protection - methods
Radon - analysis
Relative Biological Effectiveness
Water Pollutants, Radioactive - analysis
Water Supply - analysis
Abstract
The activity concentrations of (226)Ra and (228)Ra in drinking water were determined in water samples from 176 drilled wells. (226)Ra activity concentrations were in the range of
PubMed ID
16777909 View in PubMed
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An algorithm to evaluate solar irradiance and effective dose rates using spectral UV irradiance at four selected wavelengths.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature17596
Source
Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2004;111(3):239-50
Publication Type
Article
Date
2004
Author
A. Anav
C. Rafanelli
I. Di Menno
M. Di Menno
Author Affiliation
CNR-Istituto di Scienze dell'Atmosfera e del Clima, Area della Ricerca Roma Tor-Vergata, via del Fosso del Cavaliere, 100 00133 Rome, Italy.
Source
Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2004;111(3):239-50
Date
2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Algorithms
Body Burden
Comparative Study
Humans
Radiation Dosage
Radiation Monitoring - methods
Radiation Protection - methods
Relative Biological Effectiveness
Reproducibility of Results
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Sensitivity and specificity
Spectrum Analysis - methods
Sunlight
Ultraviolet Rays
Abstract
The paper shows a semi-analytical method for environmental and dosimetric applications to evaluate, in clear sky conditions, the solar irradiance and the effective dose rates for some action spectra using only four spectral irradiance values at selected wavelengths in the UV-B and UV-A regions (305, 320, 340 and 380 nm). The method, named WL4UV, is based on the reconstruction of an approximated spectral irradiance that can be integrated, to obtain the solar irradiance, or convoluted with an action spectrum to obtain an effective dose rate. The parameters required in the algorithm are deduced from archived solar spectral irradiance data. This database contains measurements carried out by some Brewer spectrophotometers located in various geographical positions, at similar altitudes, with very different environmental characteristics: Rome (Italy), Ny Alesund (Svalbard Islands, Norway) and Ushuaia (Tierra del Fuego, Argentina). To evaluate the precision of the method, a double test was performed with data not used in developing the model. Archived Brewer measurement data, in clear sky conditions, from Rome and from the National Science Foundation UV data set in San Diego (CA, USA) and Ushuaia, where SUV 100 spectroradiometers operate, were drawn randomly. The comparison of measured and computed irradiance has a relative deviation of about +/-2%. The effective dose rates for action spectra of Erythema, DNA and non-Melanoma skin cancer have a relative deviation of less than approximately 20% for solar zenith angles
PubMed ID
15266087 View in PubMed
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[An evaluation of the efficacy of protective measures in the late period after the accident at the Chernobyl Atomic Electric Power Station].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature204966
Source
Radiats Biol Radioecol. 1998 May-Jun;38(3):354-66
Publication Type
Article
Author
S V Fesenko
N I Sanzharova
R M Aleksakhin
Author Affiliation
All-Russian Research Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, Obninsk, Russia. acr@wdc.meteo.ru
Source
Radiats Biol Radioecol. 1998 May-Jun;38(3):354-66
Language
Russian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Agriculture
Animal Feed - analysis - radiation effects
Animal Husbandry
Animals
Cesium Radioisotopes - analysis
Crops, Agricultural - chemistry - radiation effects
Humans
Power Plants
Radiation Protection - methods
Radioactive Hazard Release
Russia
Soil Pollutants, Radioactive - adverse effects
Ukraine
Abstract
Results from a comparative analysis of the efficiency of countermeasures in agriculture in a long term after the ChNPP accident are presented. Based on criteria such as reduction factor for 137Cs transfer to plants, averted dose and cost of 1 manSv relative ratings of countermeasures are given. Using one of the farms, located in the contaminated area as an example radiological justification of the optimal systems of countermeasures application is provided.
PubMed ID
9682728 View in PubMed
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The annual effective dose from natural sources of ionising radiation in Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature181012
Source
Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2004;108(3):215-26
Publication Type
Article
Date
2004
Author
R L Grasty
J R LaMarre
Author Affiliation
Gamma-Bob Inc., 3924 Shirley Avenue, Ottawa, Ontario K1V 1H4, Canada. grasty@rogers.com
Source
Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2004;108(3):215-26
Date
2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Background Radiation
Body Burden
Canada - epidemiology
Environmental Exposure - analysis - statistics & numerical data
Environmental Monitoring - methods - statistics & numerical data
Epidemiological Monitoring
Geography - methods
Humans
Radiation Dosage
Radiation Protection - methods
Radiation, Ionizing
Radiometry - methods - statistics & numerical data
Radon - analysis
Relative Biological Effectiveness
Risk Assessment - methods
Risk factors
Time Factors
Abstract
A review and analysis of published information combined with the results of recent gamma ray surveys were used to determine the annual effective dose to Canadians from natural sources of radiation. The dose due to external radiation was determined from ground gamma ray surveys carried out in the cities of Toronto, Ottawa, Montreal and Winnipeg and was calculated to be 219 microSv. A compilation of airborne gamma ray data from Canada and the United States shows that there are large variations in external radiation with the highest annual outdoor level of 1424 microSv being found in northern Canada. The annual effective inhalation dose of 926 microSv from 222Rn and 220Rn was calculated from approximately 14,000 measurements across Canada. This value includes a contribution of 128 microSv from 222Rn in the outdoor air together with 6 microSv from long-lived uranium and thorium series radionuclides in dust particles. Based on published information, the annual effective dose due to internal radioactivity is 306 microSv. A program developed by the Federal Aviation Administration was used to calculate a population-weighted annual effective dose from cosmic radiation of 318 microSv. The total population-weighted average annual effective dose to Canadians from all sources of natural background radiation was calculated to be 1769 microSv but varies significantly from city to city, largely due to differences in the inhalation dose from 222Rn.
PubMed ID
15031443 View in PubMed
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Assessment of effective dose and dose to the lens of the eye for the interventional cardiologist.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature153883
Source
Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2008;132(3):313-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
2008
Author
Øydis Østbye Lie
Gudrun Uthaug Paulsen
Tor Wøhni
Author Affiliation
Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, Postboks, Østerås, Norway. oydis.ostbye.lie@radiumhospitalet
Source
Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2008;132(3):313-8
Date
2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Algorithms
Angioplasty, Balloon, Coronary
Cardiology - methods
Coronary Angiography
Fluoroscopy
Humans
Lens, Crystalline - radiation effects
Norway
Occupational Exposure - statistics & numerical data
Physicians - statistics & numerical data
Radiation Dosage
Radiation Injuries
Radiation Protection - methods
Radiography, Interventional - methods - statistics & numerical data
Thermoluminescent Dosimetry - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
This study investigates the relationship between personal dosemeter (PD) reading, effective dose and dose to the lens of the eye for interventional cardiologists in Norway. Doses were recorded with thermoluminescence dosemeters (TLD-100) for 14 cardiologists, and the effective doses were estimated using the Niklason algorithm. The procedures performed were coronary angiography and percutaneous coronary intervention, and all the hospitals (eight) in Norway, which are performing these procedures, were included in the study. Effective dose per unit dose-area product varied by a factor of 5, and effective dose relative to PD reading varied between 4 and 39%. Eye lens doses ranged from 39 to 138% of the dosemeter reading. On the basis of an estimated annual workload of 900 procedures, the annual effective doses ranged from 1 to 11 mSv. The estimated annual doses to the unprotected eye ranged from 9 to 210 mSv. According to the ICRP dose limits, the results indicate that the eye could be the limiting organ.
PubMed ID
19056809 View in PubMed
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Assessment of occupational exposure to uranium by indirect methods needs information on natural background variations.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature165079
Source
Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2007;125(1-4):492-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
2007
Author
M. Muikku
T. Heikkinen
M. Puhakainen
T. Rahola
L. Salonen
Author Affiliation
Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, P.O. Box 14, FIN-00881 Helsinki, Finland. maarit.muikku@stuk.fi
Source
Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2007;125(1-4):492-5
Date
2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Algorithms
Background Radiation
Biological Assay - methods
Computer simulation
Finland
Humans
Internationality
Models, Biological
Occupational Exposure - analysis
Radiation Dosage
Radiation Monitoring - methods
Radiation Protection - methods
Reproducibility of Results
Sensitivity and specificity
Uranium - analysis - pharmacokinetics
Abstract
Urine monitoring is the preferred method to determine exposure to soluble compounds of uranium in workplaces. The interpretation of uranium contents in workers bioassay samples requires knowledge on uranium excretion and its dependence on intake by diet. Exceptionally high concentrations of natural uranium in private drinking water sources have been measured in the granite areas of Southern Finland. Consequently, high concentrations of natural uranium have been observed in the urine and hair samples of people using water from their own drilled wells. Natural uranium content in urine and hair samples of family members, who use uranium-rich household water, have been analyzed by using ICP-MS. The uranium concentrations both in urine and hair samples of the study subjects were significantly higher than the world-wide average values. In addition, gammaspectrometric methods have been tested for determining uranium in hair samples. This method can be used only for samples with highly elevated uranium concentrations.
PubMed ID
17309870 View in PubMed
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Be aware of neutrons outside short mazes from 10-MV linear accelerators X-rays in radiotherapy facilities.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature272304
Source
Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2015 Jul;165(1-4):464-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2015
Author
S. Brockstedt
H. Holstein
L. Jakobsson
A. Tomaszewicz
T. Knöös
Source
Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2015 Jul;165(1-4):464-7
Date
Jul-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Environmental Exposure
Equipment Design
Hospital Design and Construction
Humans
Neutrons
Occupational Exposure
Particle Accelerators
Radiation Dosage
Radiation Monitoring - methods
Radiation Protection - methods
Radiotherapy - instrumentation - methods
Sweden
X-rays
Abstract
During the radiation survey of a reinstalled 10-MV linear accelerator in an old radiation treatment facility, high dose rates of neutrons were observed. The area outside the maze entrance is used as a waiting room where patients, their relatives and staff other than those involved in the actual treatment can freely pass. High fluence rates of neutrons would cause an unnecessary high effective dose to the staff working in the vicinity of such a system, and it can be several orders higher than the doses received due to X-rays at the same location. However, the common knowledge appears to have been that the effect of neutrons at 10-MV X-ray linear accelerator facilities is negligible and shielding calculations models seldom mention neutrons for this operating energy level. Although data are scarce, reports regarding this phenomenon are now emerging. For the future, it is advocated that contributions from neutrons are considered already during the planning stage of new or modified facilities aimed for 10 MV and that estimated dose levels are verified.
PubMed ID
25802465 View in PubMed
Less detail

A biosphere assessment of high-level radioactive waste disposal in Sweden.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature268794
Source
Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2015 Apr;164(1-2):103-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2015
Author
Ulrik Kautsky
Tobias Lindborg
Jack Valentin
Source
Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2015 Apr;164(1-2):103-7
Date
Apr-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Computer simulation
Ecosystem
Models, Theoretical
Radiation Monitoring - methods
Radiation Protection - methods
Radioactive Waste - prevention & control
Safety Management - methods
Sweden
Waste Disposal Facilities
Waste Management - methods
Abstract
Licence applications to build a repository for the disposal of Swedish spent nuclear fuel have been lodged, underpinned by myriad reports and several broader reviews. This paper sketches out the technical and administrative aspects and highlights a recent review of the biosphere effects of a potential release from the repository. A comprehensive database and an understanding of major fluxes and pools of water and organic matter in the landscape let one envisage the future by looking at older parts of the site. Thus, today's biosphere is used as a natural analogue of possible future landscapes. It is concluded that the planned repository can meet the safety criteria and will have no detectable radiological impact on plants and animals. This paper also briefly describes biosphere work undertaken after the review. The multidisciplinary approach used is relevant in a much wider context and may prove beneficial across many environmental contexts.
PubMed ID
25431486 View in PubMed
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Canada's efforts in developing capabilities in radiological population monitoring.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature133386
Source
Health Phys. 2011 Aug;101(2):112-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2011
Author
Chunsheng Li
Ruth Wilkins
Xiongxin Dai
Baki Sadi
Raymond Ko
Gary H Kramer
Author Affiliation
Radiation Protection Bureau, Health Canada, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1A 1C1. li.chungsheng@hc-sc.gc.ca
Source
Health Phys. 2011 Aug;101(2):112-7
Date
Aug-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Biological Assay
Canada
Civil Defense
Humans
Radiation Monitoring - instrumentation - methods - standards
Radiation Protection - methods - standards
Radiometry
Risk Assessment - methods - standards
Abstract
Population monitoring is an important component of radiological and nuclear emergency preparedness and response. Since 2002, Canada has been investing in developing national capabilities in radiological population monitoring. This paper summarizes Canada's efforts in developing methods and techniques in biological dosimetry and in vivo and in vitro bioassay techniques. There are still many gaps to fill that require further efforts. Integration of different monitoring methods and techniques in order to have the best assessment of radiation dose to support medical management and integration of Canada's efforts with international efforts are recommended.
PubMed ID
21709496 View in PubMed
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76 records – page 1 of 8.