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123 records – page 1 of 13.

3D simulation as a tool for improving the safety culture during remediation work at Andreeva Bay.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature265458
Source
J Radiol Prot. 2014 Dec;34(4):755-73
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2014
Author
K. Chizhov
M K Sneve
I. Szoke
I. Mazur
N K Mark
I. Kudrin
N. Shandala
A. Simakov
G M Smith
A. Krasnoschekov
A. Kosnikov
I. Kemsky
V. Kryuchkov
Source
J Radiol Prot. 2014 Dec;34(4):755-73
Date
Dec-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Decontamination - methods
Hazardous Waste Sites
Imaging, Three-Dimensional - methods
Models, organizational
Norway
Organizational Culture
Radiation Monitoring - methods
Radiation Protection - methods
Radioactive Waste - prevention & control
Russia
Safety Management - organization & administration
Abstract
Andreeva Bay in northwest Russia hosts one of the former coastal technical bases of the Northern Fleet. Currently, this base is designated as the Andreeva Bay branch of Northwest Center for Radioactive Waste Management (SevRAO) and is a site of temporary storage (STS) for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and other radiological waste generated during the operation and decommissioning of nuclear submarines and ships. According to an integrated expert evaluation, this site is the most dangerous nuclear facility in northwest Russia. Environmental rehabilitation of the site is currently in progress and is supported by strong international collaboration. This paper describes how the optimization principle (ALARA) has been adopted during the planning of remediation work at the Andreeva Bay STS and how Russian-Norwegian collaboration greatly contributed to ensuring the development and maintenance of a high level safety culture during this process. More specifically, this paper describes how integration of a system, specifically designed for improving the radiological safety of workers during the remediation work at Andreeva Bay, was developed in Russia. It also outlines the 3D radiological simulation and virtual reality based systems developed in Norway that have greatly facilitated effective implementation of the ALARA principle, through supporting radiological characterisation, work planning and optimization, decision making, communication between teams and with the authorities and training of field operators.
PubMed ID
25254659 View in PubMed
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[Accumulation of radionuclides in food chains of the Yenisei River after the nuclear power plant shutdown at the mining-and-chemical enterprise].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature261756
Source
Radiats Biol Radioecol. 2014 Jul-Aug;54(4):405-14
Publication Type
Article
Author
T A Zotina
E A Trofimova
A D Karpov
A Ia Bolsunovskii
Source
Radiats Biol Radioecol. 2014 Jul-Aug;54(4):405-14
Language
Russian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Biota
Chemical Industry
Fishes - metabolism
Food chain
Industrial Waste - analysis
Mining
Muscle, Skeletal - radionuclide imaging
Nuclear Power Plants
Radiation Monitoring - methods
Radioisotopes - analysis - pharmacokinetics
Rivers - chemistry
Seasons
Siberia
Water Pollutants, Radioactive - analysis - pharmacokinetics
Abstract
Accumulation of artificial and natural radionuclides in the chains of food webs leading to non-predatory and piscivorous fish of the Yenisei River was investigated during one year before and three years after the shutdown of a nuclear power plant at the Mining-and-Chemical Combine (2009-2012). The activity of artificial radionuclides in the samples of biota ofthe Yenisei River (aquatic moss, gammarids, dace, grayling, pike) was estimated. The concentration of radionuclides with induced activity (51Cr, 54Mn, 58Co, 60Co, 65Zn, 141, 144Ce, 152, 154Eu, 239Np) decreased in the biomass of biota after the shutdown of the nuclear power plant; the concentration of 137Cs did not. Analysis of the accumulation factors (C(F)) allows us to expect the effective accumulation of 137Cs in the terminal level of the food web of the Yenisei River--pike (C(F) = 2.0-9.4), i.e. biomagnifications of radiocesium. Accumulation of artificial, radionuclides in non-predatory fish from gammarids was not effective (C(F)
PubMed ID
25775829 View in PubMed
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Activity concentrations of 226Ra and 228Ra in drilled well water in Finland.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature168789
Source
Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2006;121(4):406-12
Publication Type
Article
Date
2006
Author
P. Vesterbacka
T. Turtiainen
S. Heinävaara
H. Arvela
Author Affiliation
STUK-Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, PO Box 14, 00881 Helsinki, Finland. pia.vesterbacka@stuk.fi
Source
Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2006;121(4):406-12
Date
2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Background Radiation
Body Burden
Environmental Exposure - analysis
Finland
Humans
Radiation Dosage
Radiation Monitoring - methods
Radiation Protection - methods
Radon - analysis
Relative Biological Effectiveness
Water Pollutants, Radioactive - analysis
Water Supply - analysis
Abstract
The activity concentrations of (226)Ra and (228)Ra in drinking water were determined in water samples from 176 drilled wells. (226)Ra activity concentrations were in the range of
PubMed ID
16777909 View in PubMed
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[Age specific formation of doses in children exposed to radioactive caesium following the accident in the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant]

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature87036
Source
Radiats Biol Radioecol. 2007 Nov-Dec;47(6):741-5
Publication Type
Article
Author
Konstantinov Iu O
Korelina N F
Lebedev O V
Novikova O V
Source
Radiats Biol Radioecol. 2007 Nov-Dec;47(6):741-5
Language
Russian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Age Factors
Body Burden
Cesium Radioisotopes - analysis
Chernobyl Nuclear Accident
Child
Child, Preschool
Humans
Infant
Radiation Dosage
Radiation Monitoring - methods
Radioactive Pollutants - analysis
Russia
Ukraine
Abstract
Individual measurement data on radiological surveillance of people residing in the territories most radioactively contaminated following the Chernobyl accident are analyzed to provide a comparison of doses from caesium radionuclides to children and adults. The external doses to children does not exceed those to adult inhabitants of the same settlement. By the results of surveillance in 1986 more than 80 thousand inhabitants of the western areas of Bryansk region, a specific activity of caesium radionuclides and corresponding internal radiation dose rate in a number of settlements appeared at children age under 3 years old exceeding the appropriate parameters for adult inhabitants. Among persons evacuated from the contaminated areas, such excess in day of departure from an area averaged 3.8 for surveyed pairs the child-parent.
PubMed ID
18380335 View in PubMed
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[Algorithm for complex control and radiation-hygienic evaluation of the quality of underground drinking water in the Moscow region].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature107502
Source
Gig Sanit. 2013 Mar-Apr;(2):11-5
Publication Type
Article
Author
N V Klochkova
I P Korenkov
T N Lashchenova
Source
Gig Sanit. 2013 Mar-Apr;(2):11-5
Language
Russian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Algorithms
Drinking Water - standards
Environmental Monitoring - methods
Groundwater - standards
Humans
Moscow
Radiation Monitoring - methods
Abstract
On the basis of assessing the quality of underground drinking water in the Moscow region, selected and justified in the process of radiation-ecological monitoring of water quality control criteria of the underground water sources in the region are encouraged to develop an algorithm for complete monitoring and assessing the quality of underground drinking water in the Moscow region on indicators of radiation and chemical safety, presented in a scheme.
PubMed ID
24003690 View in PubMed
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An algorithm to evaluate solar irradiance and effective dose rates using spectral UV irradiance at four selected wavelengths.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature17596
Source
Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2004;111(3):239-50
Publication Type
Article
Date
2004
Author
A. Anav
C. Rafanelli
I. Di Menno
M. Di Menno
Author Affiliation
CNR-Istituto di Scienze dell'Atmosfera e del Clima, Area della Ricerca Roma Tor-Vergata, via del Fosso del Cavaliere, 100 00133 Rome, Italy.
Source
Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2004;111(3):239-50
Date
2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Algorithms
Body Burden
Comparative Study
Humans
Radiation Dosage
Radiation Monitoring - methods
Radiation Protection - methods
Relative Biological Effectiveness
Reproducibility of Results
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Sensitivity and specificity
Spectrum Analysis - methods
Sunlight
Ultraviolet Rays
Abstract
The paper shows a semi-analytical method for environmental and dosimetric applications to evaluate, in clear sky conditions, the solar irradiance and the effective dose rates for some action spectra using only four spectral irradiance values at selected wavelengths in the UV-B and UV-A regions (305, 320, 340 and 380 nm). The method, named WL4UV, is based on the reconstruction of an approximated spectral irradiance that can be integrated, to obtain the solar irradiance, or convoluted with an action spectrum to obtain an effective dose rate. The parameters required in the algorithm are deduced from archived solar spectral irradiance data. This database contains measurements carried out by some Brewer spectrophotometers located in various geographical positions, at similar altitudes, with very different environmental characteristics: Rome (Italy), Ny Alesund (Svalbard Islands, Norway) and Ushuaia (Tierra del Fuego, Argentina). To evaluate the precision of the method, a double test was performed with data not used in developing the model. Archived Brewer measurement data, in clear sky conditions, from Rome and from the National Science Foundation UV data set in San Diego (CA, USA) and Ushuaia, where SUV 100 spectroradiometers operate, were drawn randomly. The comparison of measured and computed irradiance has a relative deviation of about +/-2%. The effective dose rates for action spectra of Erythema, DNA and non-Melanoma skin cancer have a relative deviation of less than approximately 20% for solar zenith angles
PubMed ID
15266087 View in PubMed
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Analysis of urine for pure beta emitters: methods and application.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature133385
Source
Health Phys. 2011 Aug;101(2):159-69
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2011
Author
Xiaolin Hou
Author Affiliation
Risø National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark, NUK-202, DK-4000, Roskilde, Denmark. xiho@risoe.dtu.dk
Source
Health Phys. 2011 Aug;101(2):159-69
Date
Aug-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adsorption
Beta Particles
Carbon Radioisotopes - urine
Charcoal - chemistry
Denmark
Humans
Nuclear Reactors
Occupational Exposure - analysis
Radiation Monitoring - methods - standards
Radioisotopes - urine
Scintillation Counting
Sensitivity and specificity
Time Factors
Tritium - urine
Abstract
Bioassay for individual radionuclides is an essential and first step in estimation of radiation risk to nuclear facilities workers and people who are exposed to the contaminated environment in the event of a nuclear accident or radiological attack. Urine is a frequently used biological sample for this purpose. Tritium and (14)C are important radionuclides for workers in nuclear reactors and radiopharmaceutical laboratories. A method for the determination of tritium and (14)C in organic and inorganic forms in urine has been developed. It involves activated charcoal absorption of organic matter followed by combustion to separate tritiated water from organically-bound tritium. Inorganic (14)C from organically-bound (14)C, the separated tritium and (14)C were measured using liquid scintillation counting. Iodine-129, a long-lived beta emitter, is normally released to the atmosphere during the operation of nuclear facilities, especially in reprocessing plants. The high concentration of iodine in the thyroid makes this radionuclide an important source of exposure to exposed populations. A simple method has been developed in this work for the determination of (129)I in urine by anion exchange preconcentration, extraction purification and liquid scintillation counting. Using accelerator mass spectrometry, urine samples can be analyzed for low level (129)I in both organic and inorganic forms after active charcoal adsorption and solvent extraction separation. Condensed water collected daily from the reactor hall in a Danish research reactor and monthly urine samples from the staff working in the reactor building were collected from 2003-2010 and analyzed using this method, and the results are presented and discussed.
PubMed ID
21709504 View in PubMed
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[Analytical-equipment method for the estimation of the organism health condition and all it's systems after radiation].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature168122
Source
Med Tekh. 2006 May-Jun;(3):7-10
Publication Type
Article
Author
R V Stavitskii
L A Lebedev
V N Vasil'ev
A V Mikheechev
S G Mikheenko
A M Ian
R M Bukhrudarov
M V Kravchenko
D P Lobov
V V Ivanova
E N Lobova
Source
Med Tekh. 2006 May-Jun;(3):7-10
Language
Russian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Blood Chemical Analysis - methods
Chemistry, Analytic - instrumentation - methods
Chernobyl Nuclear Accident
Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation
Humans
Occupational Exposure
Power Plants
Radiation Monitoring - methods
Radioactive Hazard Release
Reference Values
Russia
Software
Ukraine
Abstract
Software for estimation of the health state of human body and its systems on the basis of blood parameters is described. The software uses ACS-ENOFIT analytical model based on image recognition theory and cluster analysis. This analytical method makes it possible to assess the state of patient's health and the state of each of the 10 body systems. Thus, prophylactic X-ray examination based on measurement of blood parameters makes it possible to reveal various disorders at different stages of development.
PubMed ID
16875136 View in PubMed
Less detail

An assessment of cumulative external doses from Chernobyl fallout for a forested area in Russia using the optically stimulated luminescence from quartz inclusions in bricks.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature158263
Source
J Environ Radioact. 2008 Jul;99(7):1154-64
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2008
Author
V. Ramzaev
L. Bøtter-Jensen
K J Thomsen
K G Andersson
A S Murray
Author Affiliation
St Petersburg Institute of Radiation Hygiene, Mira Street 8, 197101 St Petersburg, Russia. v.ramzaev@mail.ru
Source
J Environ Radioact. 2008 Jul;99(7):1154-64
Date
Jul-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Air pollution, radioactive - analysis
Chernobyl Nuclear Accident
Construction Materials
Ecosystem
Environmental Exposure - analysis
Humans
Quartz - analysis
Radiation Monitoring - methods
Russia
Trees - growth & development
Abstract
Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) has been used for estimation of the accumulated doses in quartz inclusions obtained from two fired bricks, extracted in July 2004 from a building located in the forested surroundings of the recreational area Novie Bobovichi, the Bryansk Region, Russia. The area was significantly contaminated by Chernobyl fallout with initial (137)Cs ground deposition level of approximately 1.1 MBq m(-2). The accumulated OSL doses in sections of the bricks varied from 141 to 207 mGy, of which between 76 and 146 mGy are attributable to Chernobyl fallout. Using the OSL depth-dose profiles obtained from the exposed bricks and the results from a gamma-ray-survey of the area, the Chernobyl-related cumulative gamma-ray dose for a point detector located in free air at a height of 1m above the ground in the study area was estimated to be ca. 240 mGy for the time period starting on 27 April 1986 and ending on 31 July 2004. This result is in good agreement with the result of deterministic modelling of the cumulative gamma-ray dose in free air above undisturbed ground from the Chernobyl source in the Bryansk Region. Over the same time period, the external Chernobyl-related dose via forest pathway for the most exposed individuals (e.g., forest workers) is estimated to be approximately 39 mSv. Prognosis for the external exposure from 1986 to 2056 is presented and compared with the predictions given by other investigators of the region.
PubMed ID
18342414 View in PubMed
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The application and adaptation of ICRP internal dosimetry models to the calculation of bone marrow tissue doses from 90Sr for epidemiological studies of Techa River populations.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature166320
Source
Radiats Biol Radioecol. 2006 Sep-Oct;46(5):625-34
Publication Type
Article
Author
A W Phipps
E I Tolstykh
N B Shagina
J D Harrison
M O Degteva
Author Affiliation
Health Protection Agency, Radiation Protection Division, CRCE, Chilton, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0RQ, UK. alan.phipps@hpa-rp.org.uk
Source
Radiats Biol Radioecol. 2006 Sep-Oct;46(5):625-34
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Bone Marrow - radiation effects
Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation
Epidemiologic Studies
Female
Food contamination, radioactive
Humans
Infant
Maternal Exposure
Maternal-Fetal Exchange
Milk, Human
Models, Biological
Pregnancy
Radiation Monitoring - methods
Radiometry
Rivers
Russia - epidemiology
Strontium Radioisotopes - toxicity
Water Pollutants, Radioactive - toxicity
Abstract
The operation of the Mayak Production Association in the Southern Urals region of Russia, resulted in releases of large amounts of radioactive effluent into the Techa River during the period 1949-1956. The residents of the riverside communities were thus exposed to both external radiation, and internal radiation following ingestion of contaminated water and foodstuffs. One of the most important radionuclides for internal exposure was 90Sr. This paper gives a brief overview of the models provided by International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), which are of interest for assessing internal doses from 90Sr. The application of these models to the calculation of red bone marrow doses for the fetus and infant from 90Sr intakes by the mother and the infant is illustrated by an example. A hypothetical individual born in 1951 is used as an example for dose calculations. The following doses due to intakes of 90Sr are taken into account: received in utero due to maternal intakes during pregnancy; received after birth from 90Sr accumulated by the fetus in utero; from intakes in breast milk; from intakes in the infant's diet after weaning. It is shown that doses to the fetus following maternal ingestion and subsequent transfer to the fetus via the placenta dominate the doses received for this particular individual for the first two years of life. Doses to the infant from intakes in breast milk are substantially lower but do make significant contributions to total doses in the first two years after birth. By about the age of two years residual 90Sr from placental transfer still contributes about the same dose as do intakes by the infant, but in later years doses from intakes by the infant dominate.
PubMed ID
17133731 View in PubMed
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123 records – page 1 of 13.