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120 records – page 1 of 12.

Adler hantavirus, a new genetic variant of Tula virus identified in Major's pine voles (Microtus majori) sampled in southern European Russia.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature265932
Source
Infect Genet Evol. 2015 Jan;29:156-63
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2015
Author
Evgeniy A Tkachenko
Peter T Witkowski
Lukas Radosa
Tamara K Dzagurova
Nataliya M Okulova
Yulia V Yunicheva
Ludmila Vasilenko
Vyacheslav G Morozov
Gennadiy A Malkin
Detlev H Krüger
Boris Klempa
Source
Infect Genet Evol. 2015 Jan;29:156-63
Date
Jan-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Arvicolinae - classification - virology
Black Sea
DNA, Mitochondrial - genetics
Evolution, Molecular
Genetic Variation
Hantavirus - classification - genetics - isolation & purification
Humans
Phylogeny
Phylogeography
RNA, Viral - analysis
Russia
Sequence Analysis, RNA
Abstract
Although at least 30 novel hantaviruses have been recently discovered in novel hosts such as shrews, moles and even bats, hantaviruses (family Bunyaviridae, genus Hantavirus) are primarily known as rodent-borne human pathogens. Here we report on identification of a novel hantavirus variant associated with a rodent host, Major's pine vole (Microtus majori). Altogether 36 hantavirus PCR-positive Major's pine voles were identified in the Krasnodar region of southern European Russia within the years 2008-2011. Initial partial L-segment sequence analysis revealed novel hantavirus sequences. Moreover, we found a single common vole (Microtusarvalis) infected with Tula virus (TULV). Complete S- and M-segment coding sequences were determined from 11 Major's pine voles originating from 8 trapping sites and subjected to phylogenetic analyses. The data obtained show that Major's pine vole is a newly recognized hantavirus reservoir host. The newfound virus, provisionally called Adler hantavirus (ADLV), is closely related to TULV. Based on amino acid differences to TULV (5.6-8.2% for nucleocapsid protein, 9.4-9.5% for glycoprotein precursor) we propose to consider ADLV as a genotype of TULV. Occurrence of ADLV and TULV in the same region suggests that ADLV is not only a geographical variant of TULV but a host-specific genotype. High intra-cluster nucleotide sequence variability (up to 18%) and geographic clustering indicate long-term presence of the virus in this region.
PubMed ID
25433134 View in PubMed
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Aichi virus infection in children with acute gastroenteritis in Finland.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature146937
Source
Epidemiol Infect. 2010 Aug;138(8):1166-71
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2010
Author
S. Kaikkonen
S. Räsänen
M. Rämet
T. Vesikari
Author Affiliation
Vaccine Research Centre, University of Tampere Medical School, Biokatu 10, Tampere, Finland. saija.kaikkonen@uta.fi
Source
Epidemiol Infect. 2010 Aug;138(8):1166-71
Date
Aug-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acute Disease - epidemiology
Child, Preschool
Cohort Studies
Feces - virology
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Gastroenteritis - epidemiology - virology
Humans
Incidence
Infant
Kobuvirus - genetics - isolation & purification
Male
Phylogeny
Picornaviridae Infections - epidemiology - virology
RNA, Viral - analysis
Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
Abstract
Aichi virus has been proposed as a novel causative agent of acute gastroenteritis. In addition to several Asian countries, South America and Africa, Aichi virus has also recently been found in Europe. Our objective was to study the causative role of Aichi virus in children with acute gastroenteritis in Finland. We analysed 595 stool specimens from infants in an efficacy trial of rotavirus vaccine and 468 stool specimens from children in a hospital-based epidemiological and aetiological study of acute gastroenteritis. The screening was done by nested reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction amplifying a 519-bp segment and a 223-bp segment in the 3CD junction region of non-structural proteins. Aichi virus was detected in five stool samples (0.5%), of which four were co-infections with other gastroenteritis viruses. Two Aichi virus genotypes, A and B, were found. Aichi virus appears to be rare in children with acute gastroenteritis in Finland.
PubMed ID
19961643 View in PubMed
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Alternative EBNA1 expression in organ transplant patients.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature29709
Source
J Med Virol. 2005 Jul;76(3):378-85
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2005
Author
Malin A M Berggren
Asa Isaksson
Ulrica Larsson
Folke Nilsson
Ulla Nyström
Tor Ekman
Jane Löfvenmark
Anne Ricksten
Author Affiliation
Institute of Laboratory Medicine, Department of Clinical Chemistry and Transfusion Medicine, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Göteborg University, Gothenburg, Sweden.
Source
J Med Virol. 2005 Jul;76(3):378-85
Date
Jul-2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
5' Untranslated Regions
Adolescent
Adult
Alternative Splicing
Blotting, Western
Cell Line
Child
Child, Preschool
Epstein-Barr Virus Nuclear Antigens - biosynthesis - genetics
Exons
Female
Herpesvirus 4, Human - genetics
Humans
Infant
Leukocytes - virology
Male
Middle Aged
Organ Transplantation
RNA, Messenger - analysis - genetics
RNA, Viral - analysis
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
Sweden
Transfection
Abstract
In order to identify patients at risk for developing post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD), a sensitive nested RT-PCR method for detection of EBNA1 gene expression in peripheral blood cells was used. EBNA1 expression in peripheral blood samples from 60 organ recipients was analyzed and compared with 24 healthy controls in a retrospective study. Overall, EBNA1-positive samples were detected at least once in 43% of the transplant patients with post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease, in 18% of the other transplant patients and in none of the healthy controls. The odds ratio for EBNA1 expression in patients with post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease was 3.42 (95% CI=1.02-11.54) compared to other transplant recipients. Together with normal EBV Q promoter initiated EBNA1 transcripts, an alternatively spliced form was expressed in peripheral blood cells in the above-mentioned transplant patients. This transcript lacks the U leader exon in the 5'-untranslated region (UTR). We have previously identified and characterized a functional internal ribosome entry site, the EBNA IRES, in the untranslated U leader exon of EBNA1. Transfection experiments with EBNA1 coding plasmids followed by Western blot showed that the EBNA IRES promotes cap-independent translation and increases the EBNA1 protein level. The alternative EBNA1 transcript lacking this function is expressed in the majority of the investigated EBNA1-positive patient samples as well as in some EBV-positive B-cell lines. Alternative splicing in this form gives EBV potential to regulate the translation of EBNA1 by modifying the 5' UTR. These findings indicate a new mechanism for EBNA1 expression in vivo.
PubMed ID
15902706 View in PubMed
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Amplicor HIV monitor, NASBA HIV-1 RNA QT and quantiplex HIV RNA version 2.0 viral load assays: a Canadian evaluation.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature203199
Source
J Clin Virol. 1998 Dec;11(3):189-202
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-1998
Author
I T Prud'homme
J E Kim
R G Pilon
T. Minkus
N. Hawley-Foss
W. Cameron
E W Rud
Author Affiliation
National Laboratory for HIV Reference Services, Bureau of HIV/AIDS, STD and TB, LCDC, HPB, Health Canada, Tunney's Pasture, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.
Source
J Clin Virol. 1998 Dec;11(3):189-202
Date
Dec-1998
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
CD4 Lymphocyte Count
Canada
Female
Flow Cytometry
HIV Infections - blood - diagnosis - virology
HIV Seropositivity
HIV-1 - isolation & purification
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Predictive value of tests
RNA, Viral - analysis
Reagent kits, diagnostic
Viral Load
Virology - methods
Abstract
HIV-1 viral load quantitation is now recognized as a useful tool to monitor the efficiency of antiviral treatment and a powerful predictor of disease outcome. Three HIV-1 viral load quantitation methods have been currently available as commercial kits in Canada since 1996.
To evaluate the ability to quantify HIV-1 RNA in plasma of the Amplicor HIV Monitor Test, the NASBA HIV-1 RNA QT Assay and the Quantiplex HIV RNA Assay, version 2.0, at comparable lower detection limits.
Blood was collected from 50 HIV-1-infected patients at various stages of infection and therapy. CD4+ cell count were estimated by flow cytometry. Plasma was isolated and tested in duplicate on four occasions using viral load kits from a single lot. HIV RNA data, performance, sensitivity and intra- and inter-assay variability were compared.
RNA could be quantified in 33 patients by each technique. An inverse correlation was observed between viral load level and CD4+ cell counts in patients with counts below 200. Monitor could detect RNA in 94% of patients, but it showed the greatest variability and failure rate. Quantiplex 2.0 could detect HIV-1 RNA in 78%, and NASBA in 88% of the patients at theoretically equivalent lower detection limits, suggesting that the detection limit of Quantiplex 2.0 may be higher than 500 HIV-1 RNA copies per ml. NASBA had the fewest invalid tests and good reproducibility, comparable to that of Quantiplex 2.0. The mean values from NASBA and Monitor were the most similar but the best correlation was observed between Monitor and Quantiplex 2.0 results.
Monitor, NASBA and Quantiplex results were comparable, although those obtained by Quantiplex were significantly lower. Performing this study at comparable detection limits showed that the detection limit of Quantiplex 2.0 may be higher than stated by the manufacturer.
PubMed ID
9949955 View in PubMed
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Analytical and clinical sensitivity of West Nile virus RNA screening and supplemental assays available in 2003.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature175360
Source
Transfusion. 2005 Apr;45(4):492-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2005
Author
M P Busch
L H Tobler
J. Saldanha
S. Caglioti
V. Shyamala
J M Linnen
J. Gallarda
B. Phelps
R I F Smith
M. Drebot
S H Kleinman
Author Affiliation
Blood Systems Research Institute, San Francisco, California, USA. mpbusch@itsa.ucsf.edu
Source
Transfusion. 2005 Apr;45(4):492-9
Date
Apr-2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Blood Banks
Canada
Humans
Mass Screening - methods
RNA, Viral - analysis
Sensitivity and specificity
United States
Viral Load
Viremia - blood - diagnosis
West Nile Fever - blood - diagnosis
West Nile virus - genetics - isolation & purification
Abstract
Transfusion-transmitted West Nile virus (WNV) infections were first reported in 2002, which led to rapid development of investigational nucleic acid amplification tests (NAT). A study was conducted to evaluate sensitivities of WNV screening and supplemental NAT assays first employed in 2003.
Twenty-five member-coded panels were distributed to NAT assay manufacturers. Panels included five pedigreed WNV standards (1, 3, 10, 30, and 100 copies/mL), 15 or 16 donor units with very-low-level viremia identified through 2003 screening, and four or five negative control samples. Samples were tested neat in 10 replicates by all assays; for NAT screening assays, 10 replicates were also performed on dilutions consistent with minipool (MP)-NAT. The viral load distribution for 142 MP-NAT yield donations was characterized, relative to the analytical sensitivity of MP-NAT systems.
Analytical sensitivities (50% limits of detection [LoD] based on Poisson model of detection of WNV standards) for screening NAT assays ranged from 3.4 to 29 copies per mL; when diluted consistent with MP pool sizes, the 50 percent LoD of screening NAT assays was reduced to 43 to 309 copies per mL. Analytical sensitivity of supplemental assays ranged from 1.5 to 7.7 copies per mL (50% LoD). Detection of RNA in donor units varied consistent with analytical LoD of assays. Detection of low-level viremia after MP dilutions was particularly compromised for seropositive units, probably reflecting lower viral loads in the postseroconversion phase. Based on the viral load distribution of MP-NAT yield donations (median, 3519 copies/mL; range,
Notes
Comment In: Transfusion. 2005 Apr;45(4):460-215819662
PubMed ID
15819668 View in PubMed
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Analytical performance of norovirus real-time RT-PCR detection protocols in Canadian laboratories.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature139366
Source
J Clin Virol. 2011 Feb;50(2):109-13
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2011
Author
Kirsten Mattison
Elsie Grudeski
Brian Auk
Julie Brassard
Hugues Charest
Kerry Dust
Jonathan Gubbay
Todd F Hatchette
Alain Houde
Julie Jean
Tineke Jones
Bonita E Lee
Hiroshi Mamiya
Ryan McDonald
Oksana Mykytczuk
Xiaoli Pang
Astrid Petrich
Daniel Plante
Gordon Ritchie
Julie Wong
Tim F Booth
Author Affiliation
Bureau of Microbial Hazards, Health Canada, Ottawa, ON, Canada.
Source
J Clin Virol. 2011 Feb;50(2):109-13
Date
Feb-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Base Sequence
Caliciviridae Infections - diagnosis - virology
Canada
Feces - virology
Gastroenteritis - diagnosis - virology
Genotype
Humans
Limit of Detection
Norovirus - genetics - isolation & purification
Open Reading Frames
RNA, Viral - analysis - genetics
Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction - methods
Abstract
Noroviruses (NoVs) are the leading cause of infectious gastroenteritis worldwide. Real-time reverse transcription PCR (real-time RT-PCR) is the preferred method of NoV detection for the majority of testing laboratories. Although the accepted target region for molecular detection assays is the conserved ORF1/ORF2 junction, multiple variations have been published with differences in primers, probes, reagents, multiplexing, etc.
We assessed the detection limit for GII.4 NoV real-time RT-PCR assays as well as the ability to detect the non-GII.4 NoV genotypes in each participating laboratory.
A panel of 25 RNA samples was circulated to 18 testing laboratories for comparison of their real-time RT-PCR procedures for NoV detection.
Multiple protocols with slight differences in reagents or conditions successfully detected 10 genome equivalents or fewer of NoV per reaction. Multiplex procedures were significantly associated (p=0.04) with false negative results, particularly for a GI.2 strain. Sensitive detection was associated with false positive results (p=0.03).
Overall, the data indicate that comparable results are produced under slightly different assay conditions.
PubMed ID
21071266 View in PubMed
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Antiretroviral treatment outcomes among foreign-born and Aboriginal peoples living with HIV/AIDS in northern Alberta.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature261556
Source
Can J Public Health. 2014 Jul-Aug;105(4):e251-7
Publication Type
Article
Author
Megan E Lefebvre
Christine A Hughes
Yutaka Yasui
L Duncan Saunders
Stan Houston
Source
Can J Public Health. 2014 Jul-Aug;105(4):e251-7
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Alberta
Anti-HIV Agents - therapeutic use
CD4 Lymphocyte Count - statistics & numerical data
Emigrants and Immigrants - statistics & numerical data
Female
HIV Infections - drug therapy - ethnology
Humans
Indians, North American - statistics & numerical data
Logistic Models
Male
Middle Aged
RNA, Viral - analysis
Retrospective Studies
Treatment Outcome
Viral Load - statistics & numerical data
Young Adult
Abstract
The HIV/AIDS epidemic disproportionately involves socially vulnerable populations. Since 2001, the proportion of foreign-born patients served by the Northern Alberta HIV Program has increased. Our study aimed to evaluate antiretroviral therapy (ART) outcomes among HIV-infected foreign-born patients in northern Alberta, Canada, prescribed once-daily ART.
We utilized a two-part retrospective cohort study to compare ART outcomes of foreign-born and Canadian-born Aboriginal patients compared to Canadian-born non-Aboriginal patients. Part 1 utilized logistic regression to compare the odds of experiencing initial virological suppression of foreign-born (40%) and Canadian-born Aboriginal patients (27%) compared with Canadian-born non-Aboriginal patients (33%). Part 2 used survival analysis to compare the rate of ART failure by country of origin among patients who achieved initial virological suppression in Part 1.
Our study sample included 322 treatment-naïve patients (122 foreign-born). For Part 1, 261 patients achieved initial virological suppression within six months of initiating ART. After controlling for age, treatment regimen, HIV risk exposure, and calendar year compared to Canadian-born non-Aboriginal patients, the odds of achieving initial virological suppression were significantly lower for Canadian-born Aboriginal patients (OR=0.44, 95%?CI: 0.20-0.96); and similar for foreign-born patients (OR=0.76, 95% CI: 0.33-1.73). Part 2 included 261 patients who were followed for 635.1?person-years. Adjusting for age, sex, baseline CD4 cell count, and drug regimen, compared to Canadian-born non-Aboriginal patients, Canadian-born Aboriginal and foreign-born patients had similar rates of virological failure after achieving initial virological suppression (HR=1.54, 95%?CI: 0.38-6.18; HR=0.49, 95% CI: 0.11-2.20, respectively).
Our study indicated that ART outcomes among Alberta-based foreign-born patients are similar to those among Canadian-born non-Aboriginal patients. Our results, however, suggested that Canadian-born Aboriginal patients had poorer treatment outcomes compared to Canadian-born non-Aboriginal patients. It is imperative, therefore, that clinicians, researchers and community members better understand reasons for poor ART outcomes among Canadian-born Aboriginal patients in northern Alberta.
PubMed ID
25166126 View in PubMed
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[Antiviral therapy of HIV infection in adults]

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature7408
Source
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2001 Nov 30;121(29):3414-20
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-30-2001
Author
V. Ormaasen
J N Bruun
Author Affiliation
Infeksjonsmedisinsk avdeling Medisinsk divisjon Ullevål sykehus 0407 Oslo. vidar.ormaasen@ioks.uio.no
Source
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2001 Nov 30;121(29):3414-20
Date
Nov-30-2001
Language
Norwegian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Anti-HIV Agents - administration & dosage - adverse effects
Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active - adverse effects - methods
CD4 Lymphocyte Count
Drug Interactions
Drug Resistance, Viral
English Abstract
HIV Infections - drug therapy - immunology
HIV Seropositivity - drug therapy - immunology
Humans
Protease Inhibitors - administration & dosage - adverse effects
RNA, Viral - analysis
Randomized Controlled Trials
Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors - administration & dosage - adverse effects
Abstract
BACKGROUND: Great progress has been made in antiviral treatment of HIV disease over the last few years. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The paper is based on relevant literature and our own experience in the largest HIV clinic in Norway. RESULTS AND INTERPRETATION: Generally speaking, therapy with at least three active drugs is necessary in order to obtain maximum viral suppression. It is not established what constitutes the best starting-point for therapy, or what combination of drugs is the most efficacious. Treatment should be initiated before clinical immunodeficiency develops. All patients with CD4 counts
PubMed ID
11826789 View in PubMed
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120 records – page 1 of 12.