Active microbial communities of deep crystalline bedrock fracture water were investigated from seven different boreholes in Olkiluoto (Western Finland) using bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA, dsrB, and mcrA gene transcript targeted 454 pyrosequencing. Over a depth range of 296-798?m below ground surface the microbial communities changed according to depth, salinity gradient, and sulphate and methane concentrations. The highest bacterial diversity was observed in the sulphate-methane mixing zone (SMMZ) at 250-350?m depth, whereas archaeal diversity was highest in the lowest boundaries of the SMMZ. Sulphide-oxidizing e-proteobacteria (Sulfurimonas sp.) dominated in the SMMZ and ?-proteobacteria (Pseudomonas spp.) below the SMMZ. The active archaeal communities consisted mostly of ANME-2D and Thermoplasmatales groups, although Methermicoccaceae, Methanobacteriaceae, and Thermoplasmatales (SAGMEG, TMG) were more common at 415-559?m depth. Typical indicator microorganisms for sulphate-methane transition zones in marine sediments, such as ANME-1 archaea, a-, ß- and d-proteobacteria, JS1, Actinomycetes, Planctomycetes, Chloroflexi, and MBGB Crenarchaeota were detected at specific depths. DsrB genes were most numerous and most actively transcribed in the SMMZ while the mcrA gene concentration was highest in the deep methane rich groundwater. Our results demonstrate that active and highly diverse but sparse and stratified microbial communities inhabit the Fennoscandian deep bedrock ecosystems.
We investigated the effects of maternal gestational corticosteroid therapy on placental xenobiotic and steroid metabolizing enzymes at term in 20 glucocorticoid/betamethasone treated (with various doses) and control (n=10) women. A single dose of betamethasone (12 mg i.m. twice at a 24-h interval) was given to 15 mothers at risk of preterm delivery to prevent respiratory syndrome in their premature newborns. Five mothers were treated more than once. The gestation time in mothers receiving the glucocorticoid therapy varied from 22-38 gestational weeks.Compared with controls, a significant decrease in placental aromatase activity (53.6+/-18.0 pmol/mg/min versus 119+/-30 pmol/mg/min, P=0.0007) and placental CYP19 mRNA content (by 50 per cent ) was observed in mothers treated with glucocorticoids. Also the formation of androstenedione (13.2+/-8.1 pmol/mg/min, steroids versus 30.03+/-5.2 pmol/mg/min, controls, P
The orphan receptor APJ and its recently identified endogenous ligand, apelin, exhibit high levels of mRNA expression in the heart. However, the functional importance of apelin in the cardiovascular system is not known. In isolated perfused rat hearts, infusion of apelin (0.01 to 10 nmol/L) induced a dose-dependent positive inotropic effect (EC50: 33.1+/-1.5 pmol/L). Moreover, preload-induced increase in dP/dt(max) was significantly augmented (P
Diet regulates gene expression profiles by several mechanisms. The objective of this study was to examine gene expression in relation with dietary patterns.
Two hundred and fifty four participants from the greater Quebec City metropolitan area were recruited. Two hundred and ten participants completed the study protocol. Dietary patterns were derived from a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) by factor analysis. For 30 participants (in fasting state), RNA was extracted from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and expression levels of 47,231 mRNA transcripts were assessed using the Illumina Human-6 v3 Expression BeadChips®. Microarray data was pre-processed with Flexarray software and analysed with Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA).
Two dietary patterns were identified. The Prudent dietary pattern was characterised by high intakes of vegetables, fruits, whole grain products and low intakes of refined grain products and the Western dietary pattern, by high intakes of refined grain products, desserts, sweets and processed meats. When individuals with high scores for the Prudent dietary pattern where compared to individuals with low scores, 2,083 transcripts were differentially expressed in men, 1,136 transcripts in women and 59 transcripts were overlapping in men and women. For the Western dietary pattern, 1,021 transcripts were differentially expressed in men with high versus low scores, 1,163 transcripts in women and 23 transcripts were overlapping in men and women. IPA reveals that genes differentially expressed for both patterns were present in networks related to the immune and/or inflammatory response, cancer and cardiovascular diseases.
Gene expression profiles were different according to dietary patterns, which probably modulate the risk of chronic diseases.
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p14(ARF) tumor suppressor protein regulates p53 by interfering with mdm2-p53 interaction. p14(ARF) is activated in response to oncogenic stimuli but little is known of the responses of endogenous p14(ARF) to different types of cellular stress or DNA damage. Azidothymidine (AZT) is being tested in several clinical trials as an enhancer of anticancer chemotherapy. However, the knowledge of the relationship between AZT and cellular pathways, e.g. p53 pathway, is very limited. In this study, we show that AZT, cisplatin (CDDP) and docetaxel (DTX) all induce unique molecular responses in OVCAR-3 ovarian carcinoma cells carrying a mutated p53, while in A2780, ovarian carcinoma and MCF-7 breast carcinoma cells with wild type p53, all of these drugs cause similar p53 responses. We found that endogenous p14(ARF) protein in OVCAR-3 cells is down-regulated by DTX but induced by AZT and a short CDDP pulse treatment. In HT-29 colon carcinoma cells with a mutated p53, all treatments down-regulated p14(ARF) protein. Both CDDP and AZT increased the expression of p14ARF mRNA in OVCAR-3 cells. Differences in cell death induced by these drugs did not explain the differences in protein and mRNA expressions. No increase in the level of either c-Myc or H-ras oncoproteins was seen in OVCAR-3 cells after AZT or CDDP-treatment. These results suggest that p14(ARF) can respond to DNA damage without oncogene activation in cell lines without functional p53.
Reindeer inhabit a severe arctic or subarctic environment, with the young born in early spring under adverse weather conditions. The extreme northern climate imposes a major thermal challenge to the newborn, and in the present study we have examined fetal, neonatal, and young (from 2 wk before birth to 16 mo postpartum) semidomesticated reindeer from northern Finland for the presence of thermogenic brown adipose tissue. Adipose tissues were removed, mitochondria were prepared, and the proteins were separated by molecular weight and blotted onto nitrocellulose membranes. The membranes were then probed for the presence of the 32,000-relative molecular weight mitochondrial uncoupling protein (UCP) unique to brown fat by use of a rabbit anti-(ground squirrel UCP) serum. Immunoreactivity at the molecular weight characteristic of UCP was present in perirenal, abdominal, inter(pre)scapular, sternal, intralumbar, vertebral, tracheal, inguinal, and omental-mesenteral adipose tissues of newborn reindeer (0-2 days of age). No immunoreactivity was detected in coronary adipose tissue. UCP was found at high levels in interscapular and perirenal adipose tissues of fetal reindeer at 2 wk before birth. Although the protein was present during the first few days postpartum, little immunoreactivity was found at 1 mo of age, and none was evident by 2 mo. UCP and its mRNA were also apparent in perirenal adipose tissue of the newborn of another species of Cervidae, the red deer. It is concluded, on the basis of the immunologic identification of UCP, that most adipose tissues of newborn reindeer represent functional brown fat but that there is a subsequent conversion to white adipose tissue by the 2nd mo of life.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Calpainopathy or limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2A (LGMD2A) is generally recognized as the most prevalent form of recessive LGMD and is caused by mutations in the CAPN3 gene. Out of a cohort of 119 patients fulfilling clinical criteria for LGMD2, referred to our neuromuscular clinic, 46 were suspected to have LGMD2A, based on western blot results. Four of these patients were shown to have LGMD2I upon molecular analysis, whereas 16 of the remaining 42 patients harbored mutations in CAPN3 by both direct genomic sequencing and cDNA analyses. In 10 patients, we identified both mutant alleles. In three other, only one heterozygous mutation could be identified on the genomic level; however, CAPN3 cDNA analyses demonstrated homozygosity for the mutant allele, indicating the presence of an unidentified allele that somehow compromise correct CAPN3 RNA processing. In the three remaining patients, only a single heterozygous mutation could be identified both at the genomic level and on full-length CAPN3 cDNA. All three patients exhibited a highly abnormal western blot for calpain-3 and clinical characteristics of LGMD2A. Only three of the genetically confirmed LGMD2A patients were of Danish origin, indicating a five- to sixfold lower prevalence in Denmark compared to other European countries. A total of 16 different CAPN3 mutations were identified, of which 5 were novel. The present study demonstrates the value of cDNA analysis for CAPN3 in LGMD2A patients and indicates that calpainopathy is an uncommon cause of LGMD in the Denmark.
Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the tongue is the most common cancer in the oral cavity and has a high mortality rate. A total of 90 mobile tongue SCC samples were analysed for Bryne's malignancy scores, microvascular density, and thickness of the SCC sections. In addition, the staining pattern of cyclooxygenase-2, alphavbeta6 integrin, the laminin-5 gamma2-chain, and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) -2, -7, -8, -9, -20, and -28 were analysed. The expression of MMP-8 (collagenase-2) was positively associated with improved survival of the patients and the tendency was particularly prominent in females. No sufficient evidence for a correlation with the clinical outcome was found for any other immunohistological marker. To test the protective role of MMP-8 in tongue carcinogenesis, MMP-8 knockout mice were used. MMP-8 deficient female mice developed tongue SCCs at a significantly higher incidence than wild-type mice exposed to carcinogen 4-Nitroquinoline-N-oxide. Consistently, oestrogen-induced MMP-8 expression in cultured HSC-3 tongue carcinoma cells, and MMP-8 cleaved oestrogen receptor (ER) alpha and beta. According to these data, we propose that, contrary to the role of most proteases produced by human carcinomas, MMP-8 has a protective, probably oestrogen-related role in the growth of mobile tongue SCCs.
BACKGROUND: CYP2J2 is responsible for the production of 5,6 8,9 11,12 and 14,15-epoxyeicosatrienoic acids, vasodilator and anti-inflammatory substances. It is abundantly expressed in human heart and also present in kidney and vasculature. Carriers of a common polymorphism, the CYP2J2 -50G>T, rs890293, have reduced expression of CYP2J2 mRNA level in the heart putatively through the interference with a binding site for a transcription factor with consequently reduced circulating levels of CYP2J2 epoxygenase metabolites in vivo. AIM: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of this functional polymorphism on blood pressure (BP) levels, hypertension prevalence, and risk of incident cardiovascular events in middle-aged Swedes. METHODS: The CYP2J2 polymorphism was genotyped in 5740 participants of the cardiovascular cohort of the 'Malmö Diet and Cancer' study. The incidence of cardiovascular events (coronary events, n = 261; ischemic stroke, n = 185) was monitored over 10 years of follow-up. RESULTS: In the whole population the polymorphism had no effect on BP and hypertension prevalence and no interaction was found between the polymorphism and sex, age or body mass index. Before and after adjustment for major cardiovascular risk factors, the hazard ratio for incident ischemic stroke and coronary events was not significantly different in carriers of different genotypes. CONCLUSIONS: Our data do not support a major role for the CYP2J2 -50G>T variant in determining BP level and incident ischemic events. Other studies are needed to elucidate if other polymorphisms in the same gene could have a role in BP homeostasis or incidence of cardiovascular events.