Little is known about whether the accuracy of tools for assessment of sexual offender recidivism risk holds across ethnic minority offenders. I investigated the predictive validity across ethnicity for the RRASOR and the Static-99 actuarial risk assessment procedures in a national cohort of all adult male sex offenders released from prison in Sweden 1993-1997. Subjects ordered out of Sweden upon release from prison were excluded and remaining subjects (N = 1303) divided into three subgroups based on citizenship. Eighty-three percent of the subjects were of Nordic ethnicity, and non-Nordic citizens were either of non-Nordic European (n = 49, hereafter called European) or African Asian descent (n = 128). The two tools were equally accurate among Nordic and European sexual offenders for the prediction of any sexual and any violent nonsexual recidivism. In contrast, neither measure could differentiate African Asian sexual or violent recidivists from nonrecidivists. Compared to European offenders, AfricanAsian offenders had more often sexually victimized a nonrelative or stranger, had higher Static-99 scores, were younger, more often single, and more often homeless. The results require replication, but suggest that the promising predictive validity seen with some risk assessment tools may not generalize across offender ethnicity or migration status. More speculatively, different risk factors or causal chains might be involved in the development or persistence of offending among minority or immigrant sexual abusers.
Hospital-based partner assault clinics are a relatively recent addition to the community response to partner violence. In this study, 66% of 111 women attending hospital clinics for partner assault were physically injured and 43% reported death threats. Few concurrently used other services (shelters or police) and most relied on female friends and relatives for help. Many participants who currently lived with the perpetrator were contemplating leaving but only a third had made plans to do so. Participants faced an unusually high risk of future assault, according to both victim interview using the ODARA actuarial risk assessment and their own perceptions. Findings imply an important role for partner assault clinics and the feasibility of the victim service sector's using the same actuarial risk assessments as the criminal justice system.
There are a limited number of scales available in the Spanish language that can be used to detect burden among individuals who care for a dependent family member. The purpose of this work was to adapt and validate the Caregiver Risk Screen (CRS) scale developed by Guberman et al. (2001) (Guberman, N., Keefe, J., Fancey, P., Nahmiash, D. and Barylak, L. (2001). Development of Screening and Assessment Tools for Family Caregivers: Final Report. Montreal, Canada: Health Transition Fund).
The sample was made up of 302 informal caregivers of dependent family members (average age 57.3 years, and 78.9% were women). Scale structure was subjected to a confirmatory factor analysis. Concurrent and convergent validity were assessed by correlation with validated questionnaires for measuring burden (Zarit Burden Inventory (ZBI)) and psychological health (SCL-90-R).
The results show a high level of internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.86), suitable fit of the one-dimensional model tested via confirmatory factor analysis (GFI = 0.91; CFI = 0.91; RMSEA = 0.097), and appropriate convergent validity with similar constructs (r = 0.77 with ZBI; and r-values between 0.45 and 0.63 with SCL-90-R dimensions).
The findings are promising in terms of their adaptation of the CRS to Spanish, and the results enable us to draw the conclusion that the CRS is a suitable tool for assessing and detecting strain in family caregivers. Nevertheless, new research is required that explores all the psychometric features on the scale.
Despite assumed similarities in Canadian and US dietary habits, some differences in food availability and nutrient fortification exist. Food-frequency questionnaires designed for the USA may therefore not provide the most accurate estimates of dietary intake in Canadian populations. Hence, we undertook to evaluate and modify the National Cancer Institute's Diet History Questionnaire (DHQ) and nutrient database.
Of the foods queried on the DHQ, those most likely to differ in nutrient composition were identified. Where possible these foods were matched to comparable foods in the Canadian Nutrient File. Nutrient values were examined and modified to reflect the Canadian content of minerals (calcium, iron, zinc) and vitamins (A, C, D, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, B6, folate and B12). DHQs completed by 13 181 Alberta Cohort Study participants aged 35-69 years were analysed to estimate nutrient intakes using the original US and modified versions of the DHQ databases. Misclassification of intake for meeting the Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) was determined following analysis with the US nutrient database.
Twenty-five per cent of 2411 foods deemed most likely to differ in nutrient profile were subsequently modified for folate, 11% for vitamin D, 10% for calcium and riboflavin, and between 7 and 10% for the remaining nutrients of interest. Misclassification with respect to meeting the DRI varied but was highest for folate (7%) and vitamin A (7%) among men, and for vitamin D (7%) among women over 50 years of age.
Errors in nutrient intake estimates owing to differences in food fortification between the USA and Canada can be reduced in Canadian populations by using nutrient databases that reflect Canadian fortification practices.
The Patient Assessment of Chronic Illness Care (PACIC) 20-item questionnaire measures how chronic care patients perceive their involvement in care. We aimed to adapt the measure into Danish and to assess data quality, internal consistency and the proposed factorial structure.
The PACIC was translated by a standardised forward-backward procedure, and filled in by 560 patients receiving type 2 diabetes care. Data quality was assessed by mean, median, item response, missing values, floor and ceiling effects, internal consistency (Cronbach's a and average inter-item correlation), item-rest correlations and factorial structure was assessed by confirmatory factor analysis (CFA).
The item response was high (missing answers: 0.5-2.9%). Floor effect was 2.7-69.2%, above 15% for 17 items. Ceiling effect was 4.0-40.4%, above 15% for 12 items. The subscales had average inter-item correlations over 0.30 and CFA showed high factor loadings (range 0.67-0.77). All had a over 0.7 and included items with both high and low loadings. The CFA model fit was good for two indices out of six (TLI and SRMR).
Danish PACIC is now available and validated in primary care in a type 2 diabetes population. The psychometric properties were satisfactory apart from ceiling and floor effects. We endorse the proposed five scale structure. All the subscales showed good model fit, and may be used for separate sum scores.
OBJECTIVE: The Psoriatic Arthritis Quality of Life (PsAQoL) questionnaire is the first disease-specific patient-derived instrument for assessing QoL in patients with PsA and has been extensively validated in this population. The aim of the adaptation process reported here was to develop a Swedish version of the PsAQoL that was equivalent to, and met the same psychometric and acceptability standards as, the original instrument, which was developed in the UK. METHOD:Translation of the original questionnaire into Swedish was performed by a professional and a lay panel. Field testing for face and content validity was performed by interviewing 13 patients. Finally, 123 patients with PsA were included in a test-retest postal survey designed to test reproducibility and construct validity. The PsAQoL was administered on two occasions approximately 2 weeks apart. The Nottingham Health Profile (NHP) was used as a comparator instrument. RESULTS: The Swedish version of the PsAQoL questionnaire showed good reliability at both time points and, as expected, correlated with the NHP. The scale was able to distinguish between groups based on self-reported general health and flare-up. Patients with active symptoms of both arthritis and psoriasis had worse QoL. The results also indicated that duration of disease has a progressive impact on PsAQoL scores. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides evidence that the adapted PsAQoL can be used for clinical studies in Swedish patients. The instrument provides valuable information on the long-term effects of PsA on QoL.
The 10-item Pregnancy-Related Anxiety Questionnaire-Revised (PRAQ-R) is a widely used instrument to assess and identify pregnancy-specific anxiety in nulliparous women. It has good psychometric values and predictive validity for birth and childhood outcomes. Nonetheless, the PRAQ-R is not designed for use in parous women, as particularly one item of the questionnaire is not relevant for women who gave birth before. We tested the factorial and scalar invariance of a modified PRAQ-R2 across nulliparous and parous women with an adapted item to fit both groups of pregnant women. A longitudinal study among 1144 pregnant women (n = 608 nulliparous and n = 536 parous) with two repeated measures of the PRAQ-R2 was used to test for measurement invariance of the instrument. Results show metric and scalar invariance, indicating that the PRAQ-R2 measures similar constructs on the same scale for all pregnant women at two different times during pregnancy. We conclude that the PRAQ-R2 can be used, compared, or combined in a sample of nulliparous and parous women.
Cites: J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2002 Sep;41(9):1078-8512218429
We aim to compare four different weighting methods to adjust for non-response in a survey on drinking habits and to examine whether the problem of under-coverage of survey estimates of alcohol use could be remedied by these methods in comparison to sales statistics.
The data from a general population survey of Finns aged 15-79 years in 2016 ( n=2285, response rate 60%) were used. Outcome measures were the annual volume of drinking and prevalence of hazardous drinking. A wide range of sociodemographic and regional variables from registers were available to model the non-response. Response propensities were modelled using logistic regression and random forest models to derive two sets of refined weights in addition to design weights and basic post-stratification weights.
Estimated annual consumption changed from 2.43 litres of 100% alcohol using design weights to 2.36-2.44 when using the other three weights and the estimated prevalence of hazardous drinkers changed from 11.4% to 11.4-11.8%, correspondingly. The use of weights derived by the random forest method generally provided smaller estimates than use of the logistic regression-based weights.
The use of complex non-response weights derived from the logistic regression model or random forest are not likely to provide much added value over more simple weights in surveys on alcohol use. Surveys may not catch heavy drinkers and therefore are prone for under-reporting of alcohol use at the population level. Also, factors other than sociodemographic characteristics are likely to influence participation decisions.
Results obtained from administering the Adolescent Menstrual Attitude Questionnaire to 860 pre- and 1,013 postmenarcheal girls from 49 randomly selected schools in a large western Canadian city are reported. Scores obtained for both the pre- and the postmenarcheal versions of the total scale and the subscales are presented by age and by grade. In addition, for postmenarcheal girls, the self-report of menstrual symptoms gives insight into the prevalence of symptoms and the perception of symptom severity. Correlations between self-reported symptoms with the Menstrual Symptoms subscale score and the total scale score add validity to the scale. These data may be used by clinicians for comparison when administering the scale to individuals or to groups.
This article describes psychometric testing of an Icelandic adaptation of the Adult Reading History Questionnaire (ARHQ), designed to detect a history of reading difficulties indicative of dyslexia. Tested in a large and diverse sample of 2,187 adults, the Icelandic adaptation demonstrated internal consistency reliability (Cronbach's alpha = .92) and test-retest reliability (r = .93). Validity was established by comparing scores of adults who as children received ICD-10 diagnoses of specific reading disorder (F81.0; n = 419) to those of adults defined as nondyslexics (n = 679). ROC curve analysis resulted in an area under the curve of .92 (95% CI = .90, .93, p