This study assessed the intrapersonal and interpersonal functioning of a three-couple expedition group that included a 2 1/2-year-old child which was ice-locked on a boat in the High Arctic during a major portion of the expedition. Personality assessment indicated that team members were generally well adjusted, scoring relatively higher on well-being and achievement and relatively lower on stress reactivity. Weekly mood ratings showed that the group exhibited significantly higher positive than negative affect. Reported negative events were relatively most frequent at the beginning of the Arctic stay and toward the end of the darkness period and were lowest during the initial darkness interval. The period of darkness had both a salutary and negative impact. A highly important means of coping with stress was seeking emotional support from one's partner. Selection of couples with strong bonds with their partner appears to be one viable approach for crew selection for long-duration missions.
The ß(2) -adrenergic receptor (ADRB2) is located on smooth muscle cells and is an important regulator of smooth muscle tone. The Thr164Ile polymorphism (rs1800888) in the ADRB2 gene is rare but has profound functional consequences on receptor function and could cause lifelong elevated smooth muscle tone. We tested the hypothesis that Thr164Ile is associated with increased blood pressure, increased frequency of hypertension and increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD).
A total of 66 750 individuals from two large Danish general population studies were genotyped, and 1943 Thr164Ile heterozygotes and 16 homozygotes were identified.
Thr164Ile genotype was associated with increased systolic and diastolic blood pressure in women (trend: P = 0.04 and 0.02): systolic and diastolic blood pressure increased by 5% and 2%, respectively, in female homozygotes compared with female noncarriers. All female Thr164Ile homozygotes had hypertension compared with 58% of female heterozygotes and 54% of female noncarriers (chi-square: P = 0.001). Female Thr164Ile homozygotes and heterozygotes had odds ratios for ischaemic heart disease (IHD) of 2.93 (0.56-15.5) and 1.28 (1.03-1.61), respectively, compared with female noncarriers (trend: P = 0.007). These differences were not observed in men. Furthermore, Gly16Arg (rs1042713) and Gln27Glu (rs1042714) in the ADRB2 gene were not associated with blood pressure, hypertension or CVD either in the population overall or in women and men separately.
ADRB2 Thr164Ile is associated with increased blood pressure, increased frequency of hypertension and increased risk of IHD amongst women in the general population. These findings, particularly for homozygotes, are novel.
The aim was to investigate triggering factors and insulin pump usage (continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion, CSII) at diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). Data from 1999 and 2000 were collected retrospectively from Sweden. In 1999 and 2000, 7.4 and 11.0%, respectively, of children with diabetes used CSII. One hundred and forty-two episodes of DKA (pH
To compare the 1-year (previously published) and 3-year objective and subjective cure rates, and complications, related to the use of a collagen-coated transvaginal mesh for anterior vaginal wall prolapse against a conventional anterior repair.
Randomised controlled study.
Six departments of obstetrics and gynaecology in Norway, Sweden, Finland, and Denmark.
A total of 138 women, of 55 years of age or older, admitted for stage =2 anterior vaginal wall prolapse.
The women scheduled for primary anterior vaginal wall prolapse surgery were randomised between conventional anterior colporrhaphy and surgery with a collagen-coated prolene mesh. All patients were evaluated using the Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification (POP-Q) assessment before and after surgery. Symptoms related to pelvic organ prolapse were evaluated using the Pelvic Floor Impact Questionnaire (PFIQ-7) and the Pelvic Floor Distress Inventory (PFDI-20).
INTRODUCTION: Publications on prospective follow-up studies of Danish child psychiatric cohorts are scarce. Such studies are necessary in order to be able to inform patients about the natural course and prognosis of child psychiatric disorders. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Baseline data is obtained from 110 children, ie. 91 boys and 19 girls (4-13 years old) assessed in 2 child and adolescent psychiatric outpatient clinics in Denmark. As part of the baseline assessment, the children were clinically diagnosed and covered most of the child psychopathological spectrum. Baseline information included demographic data, assessment of symptom-load by means of The Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and a global function score. The children in the cohort were assessed once a year using the CBCL and the Teachers Report Form (TRF). RESULTS: The symptom-load is declining, although still high during the follow-up period. The decline in total behaviour problem scores was greater in the group of children diagnosed with emotional and behavioural disorders compared to those with neuropsychiatric disorders (Attention deficits and Autism spectrum disorders). CONCLUSION: In spite of the relatively small sample size, this follow-up study identifies important issues of prognostic value in this clinical child psychiatric outpatient population. The material may be useful as a 'treatment as usual' group in future clinical outcome studies.
Information is sparse concerning the incidence and prognosis of headache in children from the general population, especially of tension-type headache. In this study, headache diagnoses and symptoms were reassessed in 122 out of 130 schoolchildren after 3 years. Nearly 80% of those with headache at first evaluation still reported headache at follow-up. Although the likelihood of experiencing the same headache diagnosis and symptoms was high, about one-fifth of children with tension-type headache developed migraine and vice versa. Female gender predicted migraine and frequent headache episodes predicted overall headache at follow-up. The estimated average annual incidence was 81 and 65 per 1000 children, for tension-type headache and migraine, respectively. We conclude that there is a considerable risk of developing and maintaining headache during childhood. Headache diagnoses should be reassessed regularly and treatment adjusted. Girls and children with frequent headache have a poorer prognosis and therefore intervention is particularly important in these groups.
The objective was to investigate the 3-year course of secondary chronic headaches (?15days per month for at least 3months) in the general population. An age and gender stratified random sample of 30,000 persons aged 30-44years from the general population received a mailed questionnaire. All with self-reported chronic headache, 517 in total, were interviewed by neurological residents. The questionnaire response rate was 71%. The rate of participation in the initial and follow-up interview was 74% (633/852) and 87% (83/95) respectively. The International Classification of Headache Disorders was used, and then in the next step the Cervicogenic Headache International Study Group and American Academy of Otolaryngology criteria were used in relation to cervicogenic headache (CEH) and headache attributed to chronic rhinosinusitis (HACRS). Of those followed-up, 40 had headache attributed to head and/or neck trauma (chronic posttraumatic headache), 0 had CEH and 0 had HACRS according to the ICHD-II criteria, while 18 had CEH according to the Cervicogenic Headache International Study Group's criteria, and 37 had HACRS according to the criteria of the American Academy of Otolaryngology. The headache index (frequency×intensity×duration) was significantly reduced from baseline to follow-up in chronic posttraumatic headache and HACRS, but not in CEH. We conclude that secondary chronic headaches seem to have various course dependent of subtype. Recognizing the different types of secondary chronic headaches is of importance because it might have management implications.
Indoor climate of two new blocks of flats was investigated. The case building was built for people with respiratory diseases by following the instructions of the Finnish Classification of Indoor Climate, Construction and Finishing Materials, while the control building was built using conventional building technology. The main indoor air parameters (temperature, relative humidity and levels of CO, CO2, ammonia, total volatile organic compounds, total suspended particles, fungal spores, bacteria and cat, dog and house dust mite allergens) were measured in six apartments of both the buildings on five occasions during the 3-year occupancy. In addition, a questionnaire to evaluate symptoms of the occupants and their satisfaction with their home environment was conducted in connection with indoor air quality (IAQ) measurements. The levels of indoor air pollutants in the case building were, in general, lower than those in the control building. In addition, the asthmatic occupants informed that their symptoms had decreased during the occupancy in the case building. This case study showed that high IAQ is possible to reach by careful design, proper materials and equipment and on high-quality construction with reasonable additional costs. In addition, the study indicated that good IAQ can also be maintained during the occupancy, if sufficient information on factors affecting IAQ and guidance on proper use and care of equipment are available for occupants.