The effect of chewing gum containing xylitol on the incidence and progression of dental caries was tested in a sample of 274 children, aged eight and nine years, of low socio-economic status and high caries rate. They were divided into two experimental groups (15% and 65% xylitol chewing gum distributed three times a day at school) and one control group (without chewing gum). The three groups were exposed to the same basic preventive program. Children who chewed gum had a significantly lower net progression of decay (progressions-reversals) over a 24-month period than did the controls. Results for the two groups chewing gum were similar. Chewing xylitol gum had a beneficial effect on the caries process for all types of tooth surfaces, and especially for bucco-lingual surfaces. The two experimental groups had a DMF(S) increment of 2.24 surfaces, compared with 6.06 surfaces for the control group. For this indicator, there was no difference between the two experimental groups. Results for the plaque index were in agreement with those of the DMF(S) increment and the net progression of decay.
Fibromyalgia (FM) is a pain condition with associated symptoms contributing to distress. The Fibromyalgia Survey Diagnostic Criteria and Severity Scale (FSDC) is a patient-administered questionnaire assessing diagnosis and symptom severity. Locations of body pain measured by the Widespread Pain Index (WPI), and the Symptom Severity scale (SS) measuring fatigue, unrefreshing sleep, cognitive and somatic complaints provide a score (0-31), measuring a composite of polysymptomatic distress. The reliability and validity of the translated French version of the FSDC was evaluated.
The French FSDC was administered twice to 73 FM patients, and was correlated with measures of symptom status including: Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ), Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ), McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ), and a visual analogue scale (VAS) for global severity and pain. Test-retest reliability, internal consistency, and construct validity were evaluated.
Test-retest reliability was between .600 and .888 for the 25 single items of the FSDC, and .912 for the total FSDC, with all correlations significant (p?
Cites: Qual Life Res. 2002 Sep;11(6):583-9212206579
Area-based socio-economic status (SES) measures are frequently used in epidemiology. Such an approach assumes socio-economic homogeneity within an area. To quantify the agreement between area-based SES measures and SES assessed at the individual level, we conducted a cross-sectional study of 943 children who resided in 155 small enumeration areas and 117 census tracts from 18 schools in Montreal, Quebec. We used street address information together with 1986 census data and parental occupation to establish area-based and individual level SES indicators, respectively. As compared with the SES score determined at the level of the individual, 13 different area-based SES indices classified the children within the same quintile 28.7% (+/- 2.8%) of the time. The discrepancy was within one quintile in 35.3% (+/- 2.3%) of cases, two quintiles in 20.6% (+/- 3.6%), three quintiles in 11.3% (+/- 4.2%) and four quintiles in 4.1% (+/- 0.2%). In conclusion, we observed a substantial discrepancy between area- based SES measures and SES assessed at the individual level. Caution should therefore be used in designing or interpreting the results of studies in which area-based SES measures are used to test hypotheses or control for confounding.
This paper proposes an indicator of needs for regional resource allocation in public health in Quebec. In the literature, the only reported measure of needs for regional resource allocation in public health has two parameters: size of population and Potential Years of Life Lost for preventable causes of death (APVP-EV). We verified whether APVP-EV were associated with various indices of socioeconomic conditions and lifestyle, preventive behaviours, satisfaction with social life, healthy life expectancy and some clienteles specific to public health. Our analysis indicates that the rate of Potential Years of Life Lost by avoidable causes is significantly related to all variables except satisfaction with social life. We therefore propose using size of population and its rate of APVP-EV to determine regional allocation of resources in public health.
Inherited deficiency of medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) is a severe, sometimes fatal disorder. A single mutation in the MCAD gene, 985A>G, is involved in approximately 90% of cases. To evaluate the relevance of implementing a systematic population-based screening program in the province of Quebec using a biochemical test, we measured the prevalence of this mutation in a set of anonymous newborn samples from the Quebec City area, a region where the majority of its inhabitants are French-Canadians. An allele-specific polymerase chain reaction assay was designed and used to detect the mutation in 7143 DNA samples obtained from consecutive anonymous newborns. Pools of eight DNA samples were genotyped in parallel for the same mutation to validate this pooling strategy. The allelic frequency of the MCAD 985A>G mutation was found to be 0.71% and the carrier frequency 1:71 (95% confidence interval 1:55 to 1:98). This estimate predicts a homozygous frequency of 1:19,837. Ninety-nine heterozygous carriers and one homozygous individual were identified out of 7143 samples. There was 100% concordance between the individual and pooled analyses, and the pooling strategy reduced the total genotyping costs by approximately 70%. The carrier frequency estimated for this population is similar to other northwestern European populations and would support implementation of systematic newborn screening (such as tandem mass spectrometry screening) for this disease. Pooling DNA samples followed by genotyping appears to be cost-effective for estimating prevalence of rare mutations.
This study examined the relationship between objectively measured nocturnal hot flashes and objectively measured sleep in breast cancer survivors with insomnia. Twenty-four women who had completed treatment for non-metastatic breast cancer participated. All were enrolled in a study of cognitive-behavioral treatment for chronic insomnia. Nocturnal hot flashes and sleep were measured by skin conductance and polysomnography, respectively. The 10-minute periods around hot flashes were found to have significantly more wake time, and more stage changes to lighter sleep, than other 10-minute periods during the night. Nights with hot flashes had a significantly higher percentage of wake time, a lower percentage of Stage 2 sleep, and a longer REM latency compared to nights without hot flashes. Overall, hot flashes were found to be associated with less efficient, more disrupted sleep. Nocturnal hot flashes, or their underlying mechanisms, should be considered as potential contributors to sleep disruption in women with breast cancer who report poor sleep.
The purposes of this article were to review the mammographic and sonographic features of breast masses yielding atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH) at sonographically guided biopsy, evaluate the surgical pathology outcome of these lesions, and determine whether clinical or imaging features can be used to predict upgrade to malignancy.
Among 6325 sonographically guided biopsies (2003- 2010) (14-gauge cores), 56 yielded the diagnosis of ADH (0.9%). Six patients were excluded (lost to follow-up). Fifty lesions were surgically excised in 45 patients. Mammographic and sonographic features were analyzed in consensus by two radiologists using the BI-RADS lexicon.
Contradictory results were published from two studies in the late 1990s about the effects of long half-life benzodiazepine use on the risk of motor vehicle crashes (MVCs) in the elderly. The use of different study designs could explain the differences observed in these studies.
The results of an unmatched case-control study were compared to those of a case-crossover study using the same prescription claims database to determine whether the current use of benzodiazepines increased the risk of MVCs.
There were 5579 cases and 12 911 controls identified between the years 1990 and 1993 in the province of Quebec, Canada. The case-control approach demonstrated an increased rate of injurious MVC associated with the current use of long-acting benzodiazepines [odds ratio (OR) 1.45; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.12-1.88]. The case-crossover approach applied to all cases did not show any association [OR 0.99; 95%CI: 0.83-1.19]. However, among the cases restricted to subjects with four or less prescriptions filled in the previous year, corresponding more to transient exposures, the OR was elevated [OR 1.53; 95%CI: 1.08-2.16].
Differences in study design and analysis may explain some of the discrepancies in previous results. Both study designs provide evidence that long-acting benzodiazepines appear to be associated with an increased risk of MVC.
Comment In: Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf. 2007 Aug;16(8):850-317636552
The absence of ongoing surveillance for childhood asthma in Montreal, Quebec, prompted the present investigation to assess the validity and practicality of administrative databases as a foundation for surveillance.
To explore the consistency between cases of asthma identified through physician billings compared with hospital discharge summaries.
Rates of service use for asthma in 1998 among Montreal children aged one, four and eight years were estimated. Correspondence between the two databases (physician billing claims versus medical billing claims) were explored during three different time periods: the first day of hospitalization, during the entire hospital stay, and during the hospital stay plus a one-day margin before admission and after discharge ('hospital stay +/- 1 day').
During 1998, 7.6% of Montreal children consulted a physician for asthma at least once and 0.6% were hospitalized with a principal diagnosis of asthma. There were no contemporaneous physician billings for asthma 'in hospital' during hospital stay +/- 1 day for 22% of hospitalizations in which asthma was the primary diagnosis recorded at discharge. Conversely, among children with a physician billing for asthma 'in hospital', 66% were found to have a contemporaneous in-hospital record of a stay for 'asthma'.
Both databases of hospital and medical billing claims are useful for estimating rates of hospitalization for asthma in children. The potential for diagnostic imprecision is of concern, especially if capturing the exact number of uses is more important than establishing patterns of use.
Cites: Annu Rev Public Health. 2001;22:213-3011274519
Cites: Can J Public Health. 2001 May-Jun;92(3):228-3211496637
In 1977, the World Health Organization (WHO) proposed a new index, the community periodontal index of treatment needs (CPITN) to evaluate the periodontal treatment needs of populations. The aim of this study is to compare different approaches of recording and presenting the CPITN.
A sample of 2110 subjects aged 35-44 years were examined between September 1994 and July 1995, throughout the province of Quebec, Canada. For each tooth (3rd molars excluded), the presence of bleeding and calculus, the level of epithelial attachment, and the depth of periodontal pockets were measured. Periodontal pocket depths were measured from the edge of the free gingiva, at 2 sites (mesiovestibular and vestibular), as well as all around the tooth.
Only 8.5% of adults had at least one tooth with a 6 mm or deeper periodontal pocket when probing on 2 sites, whereas if probing is done all around the tooth, this percentage is 2.5x higher (21.4%). The partial recording of pocket depths (10 index teeth recommended by WHO, or 2 quadrants chosen at random) resulted in an underestimation of the prevalence of subjects with at least one tooth with a periodontal pocket (CPITN score 3 and 4). Among subjects with at least one tooth with a 6 mm or deeper periodontal pocket, 12% were not detected with the 10 index teeth recording, and 25% go undetected with the measure on 2 quadrants. Finally, using the % of subjects with periodontal pockets overestimates the prevalence of deep pockets compared with using sextants. Indeed, close to 30.0% of sextants have no treatment needs, whereas only 5.2% of subjects are in this category. Similarly, 7.7% of sextants have at least one tooth with a 6 mm or deeper periodontal pocket, yet there are 3x more subjects in this category (21.4%).