The purpose of this study was to examine the pulse wave velocity, aortic augmentation index corrected for heart rate 75 (AIx@75), and central systolic and diastolic blood pressure during 24-hour monitoring in normotensive volunteers. Overall, 467 subjects (206 men and 261 women) were recruited in this study. Participants were excluded from the study if they were less than 19 years of age, had blood test abnormalities, had a body mass index greater than 2 7.5 kg/m(2), had impaired glucose tolerance, or had hypotension or hypertension. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) with the BPLab(®) device was performed in each subject. ABPM waveforms were analyzed using the special automatic Vasotens(®) algorithm, which allows the calculation of pulse wave velocity, AIx@75, central systolic and diastolic blood pressure for "24-hour", "awake", and "asleep" periods. Circadian rhythms and sex differences in these indexes were identified. Pending further validation in prospective outcome-based studies, our data may be used as preliminary diagnostic values for the BPLab ABPM additional index in adult subjects.
The objective of this study is to compare arterial stiffness between those with spinal cord injury (SCI) and able-bodied (AB) individuals when matched for habitual level of physical activity.
A total of 17 SCI and 17 AB individuals were matched for sex, age, weight, blood pressure, and levels of self-reported habitual physical activity (Godin-Shephard). Measures included central pulse wave velocity (PWV) (carotid-femoral PWV (cfPWV)) and lower limb PWV (femoral--toe PWV(ftPWV)) as well as large and small arterial compliance.
The cfPWV was significantly elevated (7.3 ± 2.1 vs. 5.7 ± 1.4 m·s, P
The aim of the study was to estimate arterial stiffness and bone mineral density (BMD) in women with coronary heart disease (CHD) and concomitant osteoporosis. It included 120 patients (mean age 68.5 ± 8.7 years) divided into 2 groups matched for age and CHD duration. Group I was comprised of 74 women with CHD and severe osteoporosis, group 2 consisted of 46 women with isolated CHD. Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity and central pulse wave were subjected to contour analysis by applanation tonometry using a SphygmoCor AtCor Medical apparatus (Australia). BMD was measured in lumbar vertebrae and proximal part of the femur by X-ray densitometer (XRD). Statistical treatment of the data obtained was performed with the use of Statistica 6.0 package, Wald-Wolfovitz criterion, and multifactorial regressive analysis; differences were considered statistically significant when the calculated P value was less than 0.05. Women with CHD and osteoporosis had higher arterial (diastolic/systolic) pressure, mean aortic pressure, and pulse wave velocity than patients with isolated CHD. The independent determinants of carotid-femoral segment stffness were age (ß = 0.3, 95% CI 0.08-0.11, p = 0.027), BMD in the proximal part of the femur based on Z criterion (ß = 5.02, 95% CI 8.4-10.6, p = 0.0059), BMD in the Wards area based on T criterion ß = 5.07, 95% CI 6.0-8.1, p = 0.005). It is concluded that women with CHD and osteoporosis have elevated parameters of arterial stiffness including carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity, augmentation index, central pulse pressure, BMD in lumbar vertebrae and proximal part of the femur. Age and BMD in the proximal part of the femur are independent factors affecting arterial stiffness.
Aim of the study was assessment of arterial stiffness in patients with chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD) with or without ischemic heart disease (IHD). We included in this open study 130 COPD patients older than 40 years (mean age 60.2+/-8.3 years). Patients with clinical signs of exacerbation of other severe chronic diseases were not included. Control group comprised 18 practically healthy volunteers older than 50years (mean age 56.9+/-7.2 years). Tensioclinic arteriograph was used for evaluation of arterial wall stiffness. The study revealed increase of pulse wave propagation velocity associated with elevation of augmentation indexes in COPD patients both with and without IHD as well as in patients with different degrees of 10-year risk of cardiovascular death. These changes can be considered as systemic manifestations of COPD possibly underlining interrelationships between COPD and cardiovascular diseases.
Background Early changes in the large muscular arteries are already associated with risk factors as hypertension and obesity in adolescence and young adulthood. The present study examines the association between arterial stiffness measurements, pulse wave velocity and augmentation index and lifestyle-related factors, body composition and cardiorespiratory fitness, in young, healthy, Swedish adults. Design This study used a population-based cross-sectional sample. Methods The 834 participants in the study were self-reported healthy, non-smoking, age 18-25 years. Augmentation index and pulse wave velocity were measured with applanation tonometry. Cardiorespiratory fitness was measured by ergometer bike test to estimate maximal oxygen uptake. Body mass index (kg/m2) was calculated and categorised according to classification by the World Health Organisation. Results Young Swedish adults with obesity and low cardiorespiratory fitness have significantly higher pulse wave velocity and augmentation index than non-obese young adults with medium or high cardiorespiratory fitness. The observed U-shaped association between pulse wave velocity and body mass index categories in women indicates that it might be more beneficial to be normal weight than underweight when assessing the arterial stiffness with pulse wave velocity. The highest mean pulse wave velocity was found in overweight/obese individuals with low cardiorespiratory fitness. The lowest mean pulse wave velocity was found in normal weight individuals with high cardiorespiratory fitness. Cardiorespiratory fitness had a stronger effect than body mass index on arterial stiffness in multiple regression analyses. Conclusions The inverse association between cardiorespiratory fitness and arterial stiffness is observed already in young adults. The study result highlights the importance of high cardiorespiratory fitness, but also that underweight individuals may be a possible risk group that needs to be further studied.
Limited data are available regarding the relationship of thyrotropin (TSH) and arterial pulse wave velocity (PWV) at population level. Therefore, we conducted the present study to determine whether TSH is related to PWV assessed in young adulthood.
The study population consisted of 1598 Finnish white young adults (aged 30-45 years, 47.4% males) who had TSH, traditional cardiovascular risk factors, and PWV measured in 2007. PWV measurements were performed using a whole-body impedance cardiography device.
In bivariate association analyses, TSH level was significantly associated with body mass index (BMI), smoking, diastolic blood pressure, triglyceride and insulin levels (p
The primary aim of this population-based study was to determine if arterial stiffness is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor clustering and physical activity in youth 12-14 years old. We hypothesized that arterial stiffness would be positively associated with CVD risk factor clustering and negatively associated with physical activity in a dose-response manner in this cohort of youth.
This was a cross sectional study of 485 youth recruited from the 1995 Manitoba birth cohort. The primary outcome, arterial stiffness, was assessed noninvasively using conventional pulse wave analysis and velocity. The primary exposure variables included 1) a measure of cardiometabolic risk, defined as a composite of novel and traditional risk factors for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes and 2) self-reported physical activity.
Neither cardiometabolic risk factor clustering, nor physical activity were associated with either measure of arterial stiffness in this cohort of youth 12-14 years. Cardiometabolic risk decreased with increasing levels of vigorous physical activity, (P
To increase our knowledge on the effects of previous and current physical activity on cardiovascular health, we studied a group of Finnish male former elite athletes (endurance, n?=?49; power, n?=?50) and their 49 age and area-matched controls, aged 64-89 years. Body mass index (BMI), fasting serum glucose, lipids, blood pressure, and ultrasonography of cardiac and carotid artery structure and function were measured. Former endurance athletes smoked less, had lower prevalence of hypertension, and had higher intensity and volume of leisure time physical activity (LTPA) than the controls. No difference was detected in cardiac or carotid artery structure and function between these groups. Former athletes performing high-intensity LTPA were slightly younger (possible selection bias), had lower BMI and waist circumference, lower use of antihypertensives, lower prevalence of diabetes, lower pulse wave velocity, and higher carotid artery elasticity than former athletes not performing high-intensity LTPA. In conclusion, former athletes had a higher intensity and volume of LTPA than the controls. Athletes performing vigorous LTPA had more elastic arteries than athletes performing moderately or no LTPA. Vigorous LTPA through the whole lifetime associates with good cardiovascular health, although the previous medical history may play an important role.
We sought to investigate associations between central hemodynamic parameters (estimated from radial pulse wave analyses (PWAs)), cardiovascular disease (CVD), and albuminuria in type 1 diabetes.
We conducted an observational study of 636 type 1 diabetes patients. Central hemodynamics were measured by PWA as central aortic systolic pressure (CASP), central aortic pulse pressure (CPP), central aortic diastolic pressure (CADP), and subendocardial viability ratio (SEVR). CVD included revascularization, myocardial infarction, peripheral arterial disease, and stroke. Albuminuria was urinary albumin excretion rate =30 mg/24 hours. We computed standardized odds ratios (ORs) adjusted for sex, age, mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate, height, estimated glomerular filtration rate, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) total cholesterol, antihypertensive medication, and smoking. At follow-up, development of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and mortality was traced through electronic medical records.
Patients were aged a mean of 54±13 years, and 289 (45%) were women. The mean ± SD was 118±17 mm Hg for CASP, 75±10 mm Hg for CADP, 43±14 mm Hg for CPP, and 150±32 for SEVR. In fully adjusted models, increased CASP and CPP and decreased CADP and SEVR were associated with presence of CVD (n = 132; P = 0.02) and presence of albuminuria (n = 335; P
Increasing evidence supports the importance of socioeconomic factors in the development of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. However, the association of childhood socioeconomic status (SES) with arterial stiffness in adulthood has not been reported. Our aim was to determine whether higher childhood family-level SES is associated with lower arterial stiffness in adulthood. The analyses were performed using data gathered within the longitudinal Young Finns Study. The sample comprised 2566 participants who had data concerning family SES at ages 3 to 18 years in 1980 and arterial pulse wave velocity and carotid artery distensibility measured 21 or 27 years later in adulthood. Higher family SES in childhood was associated with lower arterial stiffness in adulthood; carotid artery distensibility being higher (ß value±SE, 0.029±0.0089%/10 mm Hg; P=0.001) and pulse wave velocity lower (ß value±SE, -0.062±0.022 m/s; P=0.006) among those with higher family SES in a multivariable analysis adjusted with age, sex, and conventional childhood cardiometabolic risk factors. The association remained significant after further adjustment for participant's SES in adulthood (ß value±SE, 0.026±0.010%/10 mm Hg; P=0.01 for carotid artery distensibility and ß value±SE, -0.048±0.023 m/s; P=0.04 for pulse wave velocity) but attenuated after adjustment for adulthood cardiometabolic risk factors (ß value±SE, 0.015±0.008%/10 mm Hg; P=0.08 for carotid artery distensibility and ß value±SE, -0.019±0.02 m/s; P=0.38 for pulse wave velocity). In conclusion, we observed an association between higher family SES in childhood and lower arterial stiffness in adulthood. Our findings suggest that special attention could be paid to children from low SES families to prevent cardiometabolic diseases primordially.