Limited data, especially from longitudinal studies, are available regarding vascular health assessment in childhood. In this study, we performed longitudinal and cross-sectional studies in healthy children and adolescents to investigate age- and sex-related differences in vascular functions and vascular response to mental stress.
Pulse wave velocity (PWV) was measured by tonometry. Endothelial function and vascular response to mental arithmetic test were assessed using a peripheral artery tonometry device. Data were obtained in 162 adolescents (mean age of 17 years, 94 girls) in a 3-year follow-up study and 241 children (mean age of 10 years, 115 girls) in a first-time investigation. Physical activity was assessed in adolescents by a self-report questionnaire.
Our 3-year follow-up study revealed that the increased PWV was greater in male adolescents (0.79±0.79m/s) than in females (0.27±0.89m/s, p
Arterial pulse wave velocity in relation to carotid intima-media thickness, brachial flow-mediated dilation and carotid artery distensibility: the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study and the Health 2000 Survey.
Increased arterial pulse wave velocity (PWV) is a strong predictor of cardiovascular events and mortality. The data regarding the relationships between PWV and other indices of vascular damage is limited and partly controversial. We conducted the present study to examine PWV in relation to non-invasive measures of early atherosclerosis (brachial flow-mediated dilation [FMD], carotid intima-media thickness [IMT]) and local arterial stiffness (carotid artery distensibility [Cdist]).
The study population consisted of 1754 young adults (aged 30-45 years, 45.5% males) participating in the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study (YFS), and of 336 older adults (aged 46-76 years, 43.2% males) participating in the Health 2000 Survey. FMD was measured only in the YFS cohort. FMD, IMT and Cdist were assessed by ultrasound, and PWV was measured using the whole-body impedance cardiography device.
In young adults, FMD and IMT were not associated with PWV independently of cardiovascular risk factors. Moreover, FMD status was not found to modulate the association between cardiovascular risk factors and PWV. In older adults, PWV and IMT were directly and independently associated (?=1.233, p=0.019). In both cohorts, PWV was inversely related with Cdist, and this relation remained significant (p
Arterial compliance and endothelium-dependent vasodilation are two characteristics of the vessel wall. In the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) study we studied the relationships between arterial compliance and endothelium-dependent vasodilation versus the Ankle-Brachial index (ABI), a clinically used index of peripheral artery disease.
In the population-based PIVUS study (all aged 70), arterial compliance was determined by ultrasound as the distensibility of the carotid artery and the stroke volume to pulse pressure (SV/PP) ratio by echocardiography, while endothelium-dependent vasodilation was assessed by the invasive forearm technique with acetylcholine (EDV) and brachial artery ultrasound (FMD) in 519 subjects in whom the Ankle-Brachial index was investigated.
After adjustments for gender and Framingham risk score, distensibility in the carotid artery and the SV/PP ratio were significantly reduced in subjects with a reduced ABI (
Aortic stiffness increases with age and vascular risk factor exposure and is associated with increased risk for structural and functional abnormalities in the brain. High ambient flow and low impedance are thought to sensitize the cerebral microcirculation to harmful effects of excessive pressure and flow pulsatility. However, haemodynamic mechanisms contributing to structural brain lesions and cognitive impairment in the presence of high aortic stiffness remain unclear. We hypothesized that disproportionate stiffening of the proximal aorta as compared with the carotid arteries reduces wave reflection at this important interface and thereby facilitates transmission of excessive pulsatile energy into the cerebral microcirculation, leading to microvascular damage and impaired function. To assess this hypothesis, we evaluated carotid pressure and flow, carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity, brain magnetic resonance images and cognitive scores in participants in the community-based Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility--Reykjavik study who had no history of stroke, transient ischaemic attack or dementia (n = 668, 378 females, 69-93 years of age). Aortic characteristic impedance was assessed in a random subset (n = 422) and the reflection coefficient at the aorta-carotid interface was computed. Carotid flow pulsatility index was negatively related to the aorta-carotid reflection coefficient (R = -0.66, P
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that severe placental insufficiency and a rise in fetal systemic venous pressure are associated with fetal myocardial cell damage, which in turn leads to increased neonatal troponin T levels. STUDY DESIGN: Sixty-six neonates born after uncomplicated pregnancy and delivery were included in the control group. Study groups 1 and 2 consisted of 32 and 5 neonates, respectively, born to women with hypertensive disorder. In study group 1 the fetal intra-abdominal portion of the umbilical vein showed normal nonpulsatile blood flow pattern in every case. In study group 2 all the fetuses had atrial pulsations in the intraabdominal umbilical vein. After delivery blood samples were collected from the umbilical arteries, and cardiac troponin T concentrations were measured with commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. A clinically significant troponin T level was set at >/=0.10 ng/mL. RESULTS: In study group 1 the maternal main uterine arterial blood flow pattern was normal in 30 cases and abnormal in 2 cases. Umbilical artery blood velocity waveforms were normal in 26 fetuses, 4 fetuses had a decreased diastolic blood flow, 1 fetus had an absent diastolic blood flow pattern, and 1 fetus had a retrograde diastolic blood flow pattern. In study group 2 maternal uterine arterial Doppler findings were abnormal in every case, and all the fetuses had retrograde diastolic blood flow pattern in the umbilical artery. Neonatal troponin T levels were 0.10 ng/mL, with the range from 0.11 to 0.35 ng/mL. In study group 2 troponin T concentrations were significantly higher (P
Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) reduce cardiovascular events in hypertensive subjects, but their effect on carotid BP, pressure augmentation, and wave reflection is unknown. We compared the effect of atorvastatin with placebo in a substudy of the lipid-lowering arm of the Anglo-Scandinavian Cardiac Outcomes Trial (ASCOT-LLA). Hypertensive patients (n=142; age=43 to 79 years; 127 male) with total cholesterol
The measurement of central blood pressure has generated interest as a tool in predicting cardiovascular events. The purpose of this article is to review the meaning and measurement of the central blood pressure and consider its potential value as an index of the antihypertensive response. Indirect estimation of central aortic pressures is obtained by the study of the radial pulse wave compared with a central pulse wave contour measured at the carotid or femoral artery level. The sum of the forward pressure wave created by ventricular contraction and of the reflected pressure wave from the peripheral arterial system produce the peak systolic blood pressure in the aorta. Measurement of the peripheral reflected-wave contribution to aortic blood pressure can be quantified as the augmentation index. Also, the increase in the rapidity of this travelling wave can be measured as the pulse wave velocity. These 2 parameters are considered to be valid indices of the peripheral arterial stiffness. Along with the calculation of systolic and diastolic aortic pressures, these measurements can give a better understanding of the actual central blood pressure to which core organs like heart, brain, and kidneys are submitted. There is tantalizing evidence for the potential value of central blood pressure as a useful index of antihypertensive action, but until clear evidence is obtained, its use should continue to be considered exploratory.
To explore the association between nocturnal blood pressure (BP) dipper status and macro- and microvascular organ damage in type 2 diabetes.
Cross-sectional data from 663 patients with type 2 diabetes, aged 55-66 years, were analysed. Nurses measured office BP and ambulatory BP during 24h. Individuals with = 10% difference in nocturnal systolic blood pressure (SBP) relative to daytime values were defined as dippers. Non-dippers were defined as
OBJECTIVE: The aim of our study was to compare ultrasound vascular blood flow indices with the expression of CD-34 in women with benign and malignant adnexal tumors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Transvaginal color and pulsed Doppler sonography was performed before surgical procedure in 105 women with adnexal tumors. Blood flow indices: pulsatility index (PI) and resistive index (RI) in blood vessels with the highest flow velocity were measured within each tumor. Immunohistochemical analysis of microvessel density (MVD) was performed on representative highly vascular tumor specimens fixed in 10% formalin and paraffin embedded. The primary monoclonal mouse anti-human CD-34 antibody (1:25, DAKO, Denmark) was used. Statistical calculations included group comparison with Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA on ranks and correlation analysis (Statistica for Windows 6.0, Statsoft Poland). RESULTS: Mean age of the studied women was 55.6 +/- 11.5 yrs. Of 104 tumors, 35 (33.6%) were benign and 69 (66.4%) were malignant. The latter included 14 FIGO stage I cases. Low resistance or pulsatility indices (RI
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the potential benefits of transvaginal color Doppler in the diagnostic evaluation of tubal pregnancies. METHODS: Fifty-two women with suspected tubal pregnancy were examined by transvaginal ultrasonography and color Doppler. Those with positive scans were referred for exploratory laparoscopy. The area of the tubal pregnancy was examined by color flow imaging and the resistance indexes (RIs) of the artery blood flows were calculated. The pulsatility indexes (PIs) of both uterine arteries were also measured and serum beta-hCG was quantitated. RESULTS: Tubal pregnancy was diagnosed by transvaginal ultrasonography in 38 of the patients. There were two false-negative and two false-positive results. Color flow in the trophoblastic tissue was detected in 50% of the tubal pregnancies, and the mean (+/- standard deviation) RI of the trophoblastic flows was 0.51 +/- 0.12. The RIs of the trophoblastic flows tended to decrease at higher beta-hCG levels, and 88.2% of the cases with detectable trophoblastic flow had beta-hCG above 800 mIU/mL. The average PI of the uterine arteries was 2.28 +/- 0.89. The PIs of the ipsilateral uterine arteries were significantly lower in the patients with trophoblastic flow than in those without it. CONCLUSION: By monitoring trophoblastic activity, color Doppler may differentiate between active and inactive disease and could assist in choosing the correct treatment.