To study the associations between exposure to bioaerosols and work-related symptoms, lung function and biomarkers of airway inflammation in compost workers.
Personal full-shift exposure measurements were performed on 47 workers employed at five windrow plants (n=20) and five reactor plants (n=27). Samples were analyzed for endotoxins, bacteria, fungal and actinomycetes spores. Health examinations were performed on workers and 37 controls before and after work on the day exposure was measured. The examinations included symptoms recorded by questionnaire, lung function by spirometry and nasal dimensions by acoustic rhinometry (AR). The pneumoproteins CC16, SP-D and SP-A were measured in a blood sample drawn at the end of the day.
The levels of endotoxins (median 3 EU/m(3), range 0-730 EU/m(3)) and actinomycetes spores (median 0.2 ? 10(6) spores/m(3), range 0-590 ? 10(6) spores/m(3)) were significantly higher in reactor plants compared to windrow plants. However, windrow composting workers reported more symptoms than reactor composting workers, probably due to use of respiratory protection. Exposure-response relationships between actinomycetes spores exposure and respiratory effects, found as cough and nose irritation during a shift, was significantly increased (OR 4.3, 95% CI 1.1-16, OR 6.1, 95% CI 1.5-25, respectively, p
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) causes seasonal epidemics of bronchiolitis among susceptible infants. Surfactant protein A (SP-A), a lung C-type lectin involved in innate host defense, opsonizes RSV and enhances phagocytosis. The candidate gene approach was used to investigate association of SP-A polymorphism with susceptibility to severe RSV infection. Genotype analysis was done for 86 infants with severe RSV infection and 95 matched control subjects. A significant difference in the frequency of SP-A2 was observed. The SP-A2 allele 1A(3) was overrepresented in RSV-infected infants, compared with control subjects (5% vs. 0.5%; P =.006), whereas allele 1A was underrepresented (1% vs. 6%; P =.011). The allele pool in which lysine was amino acid 223 was overrepresented in infants with severe RSV infection (28% vs. 18%; P =.023), whereas the allele pool in which proline was amino acid 99 was underrepresented (5% vs. 16%; P =.001). These results indicate that a genetic association exists between SP-A gene locus and severe RSV infection.
Respiratory-distress syndrome (RDS) in the newborn is a major cause of neonatal mortality and morbidity. Although prematurity is the most-important risk factor for RDS, the syndrome does not develop in many premature infants. The main cause of RDS is a deficiency of pulmonary surfactant, which consists of phospholipids and specific proteins. The genes underlying susceptibility to RDS are insufficiently known. The candidate-gene approach was used to study the association between the surfactant protein A (SP-A) gene locus and RDS in the genetically homogeneous Finnish population. In the present study, 88 infants with RDS and 88 control infants that were matched for degree of prematurity, prenatal glucocorticoid therapy, and sex were analyzed for SP-A genotypes. We show that certain SP-A1 alleles (6A2 and 6A3) and an SP-A1/SP-A2 haplotype (6A2/1A0) were associated with RDS. The 6A2 allele was overrepresented and the 6A3 allele was underrepresented in infants with RDS. These associations were particularly strong among small premature infants born at gestational age
Evaluate role of gene polymorphisms of surfactant proteins in susceptibility and severity of influenza infection course in representatives of Moscow population. MATERIALS AND METHODS; 320 influenza patients, infected with various influenza virus strains, and 115 healthy individuals (control group),, were included into the study. Human DNA samples genotyping for determination of SFTPA2 gene rs1965708 and rs1059046, SFTPB gene rs1130866 polymorphisms was carried out using a modified method of "adjacent samples".
Most of the individuals of the control group and influenza patients are carries of alleles and genotypes rs1965708 and rs1059046 of SFTPA2 gene, rs1130866 of SFTPB gene, that have, based on scientific literature data, shown association with severe course of influenza A(H1N1) pdm09 and other inflammatory diseases of the respiratory tract. Generally, significant differences in frequency of occurrence of unfavorable genotypes CC rs1965708, AA rs1059046 of SFTPA2 gene and CC rs1130866 of SFTPB gene in influenza patients in comparison with individuals of the control group were not detected, that gives evidence on a high (from 19 to 51%) prevalence of these genotypes in the studied population. Allele C and genotype CC rs1965708 of SFTPA2 gene, allele A and genotype AA rs1059046 of SFTPA2 gene, allele C and genotype CC rs1130866 of SFTPB gene did not shown an association with severe course of A(H1N1) pdm09 influenza. The following pathology registered in most (88%) of the patients with severe course of influenza A (H1N1)pdm09: diseases of cardiovascilar (44%), endocrine (36%) and respiratory (12%) systems.
Because in most of the deceased patients due to severe course of A (H1N1)pdm09 influenza, diseases of cardiovascular, respiratory and endocrine system were detected, and an association of unfavorable disease outcome with the studied genetic markers was not detected, dominating risk factor of development of severe course and lethal outcome for A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza in the studied cohort was comorbidity.
Intra-amniotic interleukin (IL)-1 increases surfactant components in immature fetal lung, whereas high IL-1 after birth is associated with surfactant dysfunction. Our aim was to investigate whether the fetal age influences the responsiveness of surfactant proteins (SPs) to IL-1. Rabbit lung explants from fetuses at 19, 22, 27, and 30 d of gestation and 1-d-old newborns were cultured in serum-free medium in the presence of recombinant human (rh) IL-1alpha or vehicle. The influence of IL-1alpha on SP-A, -B, and -C messenger RNA (mRNA) content was dependent on the conceptional age. In very immature lung on Day 19, rhIL-1alpha (570 ng/ml for 20 h) increased SP-A, -B, and -C mRNA by 860+/-15%, 314+/-108%, and 64+/-17%, respectively. The increase in SP-A mRNA was evident within 4 to 6 h. IL-1alpha increased the SP-A concentration in alveolar epithelial cells and in the culture medium within 20 h. In contrast, at 27 to 30 d of gestation and in newborns, IL-1alpha decreased SP-C, -B, and -A mRNA by means of 64 to 67%, 48 to 59%, and 12 to 15%, respectively. SP-B protein decreased by 45 to 60%. The decrease in mRNA became evident within 8 to 12 h and was dependent on IL-1 concentration. On Day 27, IL-1alpha accelerated the degradation of SP-B mRNA in the presence of actinomycin D. IL-1 did not increase the degradation rate of SP-A mRNA unless both actinomycin D and cycloheximide were added to the explants. The present findings may explain some of the contrasting associations between inflammatory cytokines and lung diseases during the perinatal period. The determinants of the direction of the IL-1 effect on the expression of SPs remain to be identified.
Neonatal lung diseases may have a genetic background. The available studies mainly concentrate on surfactant proteins (SP-A, SP-B) and respiratory distress syndrome. Specific alleles of the SP-A and SP-B genes associate interactively with susceptibility to respiratory distress syndrome. This genetic impact on the condition is influenced by environmental, acquired and inherited factors. Other alleles and genotypes of SP-A and SP-D associate with severe respiratory infections in early infancy. Rare mutations causing an absence of the SP-B protein result in progressive respiratory failure. Dominant mutations of SP-C associate with chronic lung disease, with variable manifestations. The first steps towards unraveling the genetic network influencing the susceptibility to neonatal lung diseases are now being taken. Genes encoding multifunctional proteins in the distal lung are prime candidates for causing susceptibility to neonatal lung disease, including bronchopulmonary dysplasia.
Lung surfactant lowers the surface tension but surfactant proteins also have other functions. Surfactant protein A (SP-A) has a well-defined role in innate immunity. The gene locus for human SP-A genes is in chromosome 10q21 through q24 and consists of two highly homologous functional SP-A genes (SP-A1 and SP-A2) and a pseudogene. Several alleles that differ by a single amino acid have been identified for both SP-A genes. The SP-A gene locus has been shown to be sufficiently polymorphic for genetic studies in the American population. In this study, we analysed the SP-A allele frequencies in a Finnish population (n = 790) and found them to differ from the frequencies observed in US. Furthermore, we describe several new alleles for both SP-A genes. The heterozygosity indices and polymorphism information content values ranged between 0.50--0.62 indicating that SP-A gene locus is polymorphic enough for studies associating the locus with pulmonary diseases.
Spontaneous preterm birth due to intrauterine infection is associated with increased concentrations of cytokines in amniotic fluid and in the airways at birth. Intra-amniotic IL-1 induces fetal lung maturity, consistent with the decrease in the incidence of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) in intrauterine inflammation. On the other hand, antenatal corticosteroid decreases the incidence of RDS in infants born prematurely. The aim of the present study was to investigate the interaction between IL-1 and glucocorticoid in the expression of the surfactant proteins SP-A, -B, and -C. Lung explants from rabbit fetuses at 22 (immature), 27 (transitional), and 30 (mature) d of gestation (term, 30-31 d) and on d 1 after term birth were cultured with dexamethasone (Dx), IL-1alpha, or vehicle in the presence or absence of actinomycin D. According to the present results, IL-1alpha and Dx additively increased the expression of SP-A and SP-B on d 22. Later in gestation, SP-B and SP-C were suppressed by IL-1, whereas glucocorticoid tended to increase the expression of SP-B and SP-C and prevented the IL-1-induced suppression of SP. IL-1alpha and steroid interactively increased the stability of SP mRNA compared with the single agonist, possibly explaining the additive effects on the SP mRNA levels. The present results reveal beneficial additive effects of glucocorticoid and cytokine on lung surfactant. They may explain some of the acute beneficial effects of glucocorticoid therapy in chorioamnionitis before premature birth and in inflammatory lung disease after birth.
Major cause of prematurity is spontaneous preterm birth (PTB) associated with intrauterine inflammation. Our aim was to establish a model of endotoxin Lipopolysaccharide-induced PTB of live-born pups and to study early immune activation in fetal and maternal compartments. Expression of several proteins that bind microbes (Toll-like receptors TLR4, TLR2; surfactant proteins SP-A, SP-D) was analyzed. At 16 or 17 d of gestation, C57BL/6 dams received a single dose of intraperitoneal LPS, leading to PTB within 17 h. Cytokine levels increased in maternal serum, followed by a modest increase in fetal serum and in amniotic fluid. In uterus, placenta, and fetal membranes, LPS mostly increased the expressions of TLR, SPs, and cytokines. The number of TLR2-positive macrophages increased in labyrinthine placenta. In fetal lung, intestine, liver, and brain there were modest changes in cytokine expressions. In fetal lung, SP and TLR mRNAs decreased and TLR2-positive macrophages redistributed around vessels. LPS-induced fetal deaths associated with early age (16 d gestation) rather than with proinflammatory activation. Here we propose that maternal LPS response leads to PTB and acute decrease of immune proteins in epithelial lining of fetal lung. Instead, acceleration of lung maturity has been previously observed in intraamniotic inflammation.
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is an adult-onset Idiopathic Interstitial Pneumonia (IIP) usually diagnosed between age 50 to 70?years. Individuals with Familial Pulmonary Fibrosis (FPF) have at least one affected first or second-degree relative and account for 0.5-20% of cases.
We ascertained and collected DNA samples from a large population-based cohort of IPF patients from Newfoundland, Canada. For each proband, a family history was documented and medical records were reviewed. Each proband was classified as familial (28 patients) or sporadic (50 patients) and all 78 probands were screened for variants in four highly penetrant, adult-onset PF genes (SFTPC, SFTPA2, TERT,TERC).
Seventy-eight IPF probands were enrolled of whom 28 (35.9%) had a positive family history. These 28 familial patients led to the recruitment of an additional 49 affected relatives (total of 77 FPF patients). By age 60?years, 42% of the familial cohort had been diagnosed with PF compared with only 16% of the sporadic patient collection (?2?=?8.77, p?=?0.003). Mean age of diagnosis in the familial group was significantly younger than the sporadic group (61.4?years vs. 66.6?yrs, p?=?0.012) with a wider age range of diagnosis (19-92?years compared with 47-82?years). Thirty-three of 77 (42.8%) FPF patients had a tissue diagnosis and all but five had usual interstitial pneumonia histology. Compared with other published case series, the familial IIP histologies were more homogeneous. Three of 28 familial probands (10.7%) and none of the 50 sporadic probands had pathogenic variants in the four genes tested. All three familial probands had mutations in TERT. Other phenotypes associated with telomerase deficiency were present in these families including cirrhosis, bone marrow hypoplasia and premature graying. Telomere length assays were performed on mutation carriers from two families and confirmed telomere-related deficiency.
The proportion of familial cases in our cohort is higher than any previously reported estimate and we suggest that this is due to the fact that Newfoundland cohort is ethnically homogeneous and drawn from a founder population. In our patient collection, diagnosis with IPF prior to age 45?years predicted familial disease. In two of the three TERT mutation families, the pedigree appearance is consistent with genetic anticipation. In the other 25 FPF families negative for mutations in known PF genes, we did not identify other telomerase associated medical problems (bone marrow dysfunction, cirrhosis) and we hypothesize that there are novel PF genes segregating in our population.
Cites: Nucleic Acids Res. 1988 Feb 11;16(3):12153344216