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[4 years after Chernobyl: medical repercussions]

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature25355
Source
Bull Cancer. 1990;77(5):419-28
Publication Type
Article
Date
1990
Author
D. Hubert
Source
Bull Cancer. 1990;77(5):419-28
Date
1990
Language
French
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Abnormalities, Radiation-Induced - epidemiology
Abortion, Habitual - epidemiology
Blood Cell Count
Bone Marrow Transplantation
Decontamination - methods
Diarrhea - etiology
English Abstract
Europe
Female
Humans
Male
Nuclear Reactors
Pregnancy
Prognosis
Psychophysiologic Disorders - etiology
Pulmonary Fibrosis - etiology
Radiation Dosage
Radiation Injuries - complications - epidemiology - therapy
Skin - radiation effects
Triage
Ukraine
Abstract
The nuclear accident at Chernobyl accounted for an acute radiation syndrome in 237 persons on the site. Triage was the initial problem and was carried out according to clinical and biological criteria; evaluating the doses received was based on these criteria. Thirty one persons died and only 1 survived a dose higher than 6 Gy. Skin radiation burns which were due to inadequate decontamination, greatly worsened prognosis. The results of 13 bone marrow transplantations were disappointing, with only 2 survivors. Some time after the accident, these severely irradiated patients are mainly suffering from psychosomatic disorders, in the USSR, some areas have been significantly contaminated and several measures were taken to mitigate the impact on population: evacuating 135,000 persons, distributing prophylactic iodine, establishing standards and controls on foodstuff. Radiation phobia syndrome which developed in many persons, is the only sanitary effect noticed up to now. Finally, in Europe, there was only an increase in induced abortions and this was totally unwarranted. If we consider the risk of radiation induced cancer, an effect might not be demonstrated.
PubMed ID
2205311 View in PubMed
Less detail

Asbestos exposure and upper lobe involvement.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature69844
Source
AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1982 Dec;139(6):1163-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-1982
Author
G. Hillerdal
Source
AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1982 Dec;139(6):1163-6
Date
Dec-1982
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Asbestos - adverse effects
Comparative Study
Environmental Exposure
Humans
Lung - pathology - radiography
Male
Middle Aged
Pleura - pathology - radiography
Pleural Diseases - etiology - radiography
Pulmonary Fibrosis - etiology - radiography
Sweden
Abstract
In a study of 1,251 persons with asbestos-related pleural and parenchymal changes, 16 had slowly progressive changes of the upper lobes, involving both pleura and parenchyma, with shrinkage of the lobes. In addition there were 41 cases with less advanced apical changes. Tuberculosis and other possible causes were excluded. It is hypothesized that the changes rate due to asbestos disease.
PubMed ID
6983261 View in PubMed
Less detail
Source
Radiat Res. 2000 Sep;154(3):237-45
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2000
Author
N A Koshurnikova
E S Gilbert
M. Sokolnikov
V F Khokhryakov
S. Miller
D L Preston
S A Romanov
N S Shilnikova
K G Suslova
V V Vostrotin
Author Affiliation
Branch No. 1 of the State Scientific Center "Biophysics Institute", Ozyorsk, Chelyabinsk Region, Russia.
Source
Radiat Res. 2000 Sep;154(3):237-45
Date
Sep-2000
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Body Burden
Bone Neoplasms - epidemiology - etiology
Cause of Death
Chondrosarcoma - epidemiology - etiology - mortality
Cohort Studies
England
Female
Humans
Lung Neoplasms - epidemiology - etiology
Male
Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced - epidemiology
Nuclear Energy
Occupational Diseases - epidemiology
Occupational Exposure
Osteosarcoma - epidemiology - etiology - mortality
Plutonium - adverse effects - urine
Pulmonary Fibrosis - etiology - mortality
Radiation monitoring
Risk
Russia - epidemiology
Sarcoma - epidemiology - etiology
Soft Tissue Neoplasms - epidemiology - etiology
United States
Abstract
Bone cancer mortality risks were evaluated in 11,000 workers who started working at the "Mayak" Production Association in 1948-1958 and who were exposed to both internally deposited plutonium and external gamma radiation. Comparisons with Russian and U.S. general population rates indicate excess mortality, especially among females, plutonium plant workers, and workers with external doses exceeding 1 Sv. Comparisons within the Mayak worker cohort, which evaluate the role of plutonium body burden with adjustment for cumulative external dose, indicate excess mortality among workers with burdens estimated to exceed 7.4 kBq (relative risk = 7.9; 95% CI = 1.6-32) and among workers in the plutonium plant who did not have routine plutonium monitoring data based on urine measurements (relative risk = 4.1; 95% CI = 1.2-14). In addition, analyses treating the estimated plutonium body burden as a continuous variable indicate increasing risk with increasing burden (P
PubMed ID
10956428 View in PubMed
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[Computed tomography in the assessment of causes of restrictive lung disorders in patients with pulmonary histiocytosis X].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature261255
Source
Vestn Rentgenol Radiol. 2013 Nov-Dec;(6):12-5
Publication Type
Article
Author
A A Speranskaia
M Iu Kameneva
L N Novikova
V V Amosov
M A Vasil'eva
Source
Vestn Rentgenol Radiol. 2013 Nov-Dec;(6):12-5
Language
Russian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Cysts - etiology - physiopathology - radiography
Diagnosis, Differential
Female
Histiocytosis, Langerhans-Cell - complications - diagnosis
Humans
Lung - physiopathology - radiography
Male
Pulmonary Fibrosis - etiology - physiopathology - radiography
Reproducibility of Results
Respiratory Function Tests - methods
Retrospective Studies
Russia
Tomography, X-Ray Computed - methods
Abstract
To estimate the capabilities of computed tomography (CT) in revealing the anatomic causes of restrictive lung changes in patients with pulmonary histiocytosis X.
The results of examining 36 patients with pulmonary histiocytosis X, who underwent comprehensive functional study of external respiration (CRSER), CT, and high-performance CT (HPCT), were analyzed.
According to the results of CRSER, the authors identified a group of patients with restrictive ventilation disorders, which included 7 men and 1 woman. The most common cause of restrictive disorders was generalized fibrous changes in lung tissue, which fails to result in its expansion. Multiple cysts were another cause of restrictive disorders in 2 patients. Fusion of individual cysts into large ones and the formation of a great number of paradoxically ventilated cysts were the third cause of restrictive disorders in pulmonary histiocytosis X, which was identified during HPCT.
Comprehensive morphofunctional examination involving CRSER and high-resolution CT can reveal the unfavorable course of pulmonary histiocytosis X with the restrictive type of lesion.
PubMed ID
25702437 View in PubMed
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Exposure to microbes, endotoxins and total dust in cigarette and cigar manufacturing: an evaluation of health hazards.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature197413
Source
Ann Occup Hyg. 2000 Sep;44(6):467-73
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2000
Author
M. Reiman
J. Uitti
Author Affiliation
Kuopio Regional Institute of Occupational Health, Kuopio, Finland.
Source
Ann Occup Hyg. 2000 Sep;44(6):467-73
Date
Sep-2000
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Air Microbiology
Air Pollutants, Occupational - adverse effects - analysis
Dust - analysis
Endotoxins - analysis
Environmental Monitoring - methods
Finland
Humans
Humidity
Inhalation Exposure - adverse effects - analysis
Occupational Exposure - adverse effects - analysis
Occupations
Pulmonary Fibrosis - etiology
Risk assessment
Tobacco Industry
Abstract
The concentrations of airborne microbes, endotoxins and total dust were measured in one cigar and two cigarette factories in order to evaluate the risk of respiratory symptoms. The role of humidifiers as a source of microbes was investigated. Air samples for the analyses were collected near workers' breathing zones during different phases of production. Gram-negative bacteria, mesophilic fungi, thermotolerant fungi and thermophilic actinomycetes, but not Aspergillus glaucus fungi, were found in higher concentrations in the cigar factory than in the cigarette factories. High microbe concentrations (10(4)-10(5)cfu m(-3)) occurred throughout the production line in the cigar factory. The highest dust and endotoxin concentrations were found in the wick-making department in the cigar factory (3.3mg dust per m(3) and 38ng endotoxin per m(3)) and during the weighing or handling of raw tobacco in the cigarette factories (4.5 mg dust per m(3) and 106ng endotoxin per m(3)). The spray humidifiers in the cigar factory were a more important source of microbes than was raw tobacco. In the cigarette factories, steam humidifiers were used; the humidified air was free of microbes. The microbe concentrations in the tobacco factories were lower than in environments known to have caused allergic alveolitis.
PubMed ID
10963711 View in PubMed
Less detail

Extrinsic allergic alveolitis in the tobacco industry.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature240894
Source
Br J Ind Med. 1984 Feb;41(1):77-83
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-1984
Author
M S Huuskonen
K. Husman
J. Järvisalo
O. Korhonen
M. Kotimaa
T. Kuusela
H. Nordman
A. Zitting
R. Mäntyjärvi
Source
Br J Ind Med. 1984 Feb;41(1):77-83
Date
Feb-1984
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Air Microbiology
Alveolitis, Extrinsic Allergic - etiology
Antibodies - analysis
Dust - adverse effects
Female
Finland
Fungi - immunology
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Occupational Diseases - etiology
Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A - metabolism
Plants, Toxic
Pulmonary Fibrosis - etiology
Respiratory Function Tests
Smoking
Tobacco
Abstract
A total of 57 subjects who had been exposed to mould dust in the tobacco industry were studied. Their working environment showed exposure to spores of different moulds, and 29 subjects (51%) showed antibodies against one or more of the microbes. Fifteen (26%) had work related respiratory symptoms. Eight (14%) showed slight radiographic pulmonary fibrosis. Spirometry showed a tendency toward restriction and obstruction, especially in small airways. Diffusion capacity was decreased in 18% of the workers. Three clinical cases of typical allergic alveolitis were also found. All this suggests that exposure of spores of different moulds (especially Aspergillus fumigatus) in the manufacture of tobacco products may induce symptoms and signs relating to extrinsic allergic alveolitis.
Notes
Cites: Am Rev Respir Dis. 1969 Jan;99(1):67-725762114
Cites: Scand J Work Environ Health. 1978 Dec;4(4):275-83734388
Cites: Clin Chem. 1979 Jul;25(7):1259-62222502
Cites: Br J Ind Med. 1980 Aug;37(3):268-727426478
Cites: Allergy. 1980 Sep;35(6):537-427008641
Cites: J Gen Microbiol. 1963 Jan;30:75-8813950271
PubMed ID
6318802 View in PubMed
Less detail
Source
Scand J Work Environ Health. 1996 Feb;22(1):62-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-1996
Author
E L Ruokonen
M. Linnainmaa
M. Seuri
P. Juhakoski
K O Söderström
Author Affiliation
Turku University Central Hospital, Department of Pulmonary Diseases, Finland.
Source
Scand J Work Environ Health. 1996 Feb;22(1):62-5
Date
Feb-1996
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Cobalt - adverse effects
Fatal Outcome
Finland
Humans
Lung Transplantation
Male
Metals - adverse effects
Occupational Diseases - etiology - pathology
Pulmonary Fibrosis - etiology - pathology
Time Factors
Abstract
The purpose of this report is to present a case of hard-metal disease in which the symptoms and findings were minimal early in the disease, but further exposure rapidly led to a fatal outcome.
A 22-year-old nonsmoking white male, employed for over four years in hard-metal tool grinding, started experiencing a dry cough and shortness of breath during exercise. Preliminary investigations did not reveal any cause for these symptoms, and the patient continued to work. Several months later he developed clinically apparent alveolitis with recurrent pneumothorax. Pulmonary infiltrates in chest radiographs did not disappear during corticosteroid treatment. Soon it was evident that the patient had irreversible pulmonary failure, and a bilateral lung transplantation was performed. No signs of rejection were seen in the resected lungs. The patient died of pneumonia five months later, but no signs of hard-metal disease were found in the transplanted lung.
This fatal case of hard-metal lung disease demonstrates that symptoms and findings in pulmonary function tests or chest radiographs may be minimal or misleading in the early stages of the disease. Cobalt-exposed workers with inexplicable respiratory symptoms should be closely monitored and the exposure should be suspended.
PubMed ID
8685677 View in PubMed
Less detail

High Level of Chemokine CCL18 Is Associated With Pulmonary Function Deterioration, Lung Fibrosis Progression, and Reduced Survival in Systemic Sclerosis.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature282847
Source
Chest. 2016 Aug;150(2):299-306
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2016
Author
Anna-Maria Hoffmann-Vold
Anders Heiervang Tennøe
Torhild Garen
Øyvind Midtvedt
Aurelija Abraityte
Trond Mogens Aaløkken
May Britt Lund
Cathrine Brunborg
Pål Aukrust
Thor Ueland
Øyvind Molberg
Source
Chest. 2016 Aug;150(2):299-306
Date
Aug-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Case-Control Studies
Chemokines, CC - immunology
Cohort Studies
Disease Progression
Female
Humans
Lung - physiopathology
Lung Diseases, Interstitial - etiology - immunology - mortality - physiopathology
Male
Middle Aged
Norway
Prognosis
Prospective Studies
Pulmonary Fibrosis - etiology - immunology - mortality - physiopathology
Respiratory Function Tests
Scleroderma, Systemic - complications - immunology - mortality - physiopathology
Survival Rate
Vital Capacity
Abstract
Markers for early identification of progressive interstitial lung disease (ILD) in systemic sclerosis (SSc) are in demand. Chemokine CCL18, which has been linked to pulmonary inflammation, is an interesting candidate, but data have not been consistent. We aimed to assess CCL18 levels in a large, prospective, unselected SSc cohort with longitudinal, paired data sets on pulmonary function and lung fibrosis.
Sera from the Oslo University Hospital SSc cohort (n = 298) and healthy control subjects (n = 100) were analyzed for CCL18 by enzyme immunoassay. High CCL18 (>53 ng/mL) was defined using the mean value plus 2 SD in sera obtained from healthy control subjects as the cutoff.
High serum CCL18 was identified in 35% (105 of 298). Annual decline in FVC differed significantly between high and low CCL18 subsets (13.3% and 4.7%; P = .016), as did the annual progression rate of lung fibrosis (0.9% [SD, 2.9] and 0.2% [SD, 1.9]). Highest rates of annual FVC decline > 10% (21%) and annual fibrosis progression (1.2%) were seen in patients with high CCL18 and early disease ( 10% (OR, 1.1; 95% CI, 1.01-1.11) and FVC 
PubMed ID
26997242 View in PubMed
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Lung damage following bone marrow transplantation: I. The contribution of irradiation.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature26608
Source
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 1985 May;11(5):907-14
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-1985
Author
B L Cardozo
H. Zoetelief
D W van Bekkum
C. Zurcher
A. Hagenbeek
Source
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 1985 May;11(5):907-14
Date
May-1985
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Bone Marrow Transplantation
Disease Models, Animal
Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation
Humans
Leukemia, Myeloid - radiotherapy
Pulmonary Fibrosis - etiology
Radiation Injuries, Experimental - etiology
Radiotherapy Dosage
Rats
Rats, Inbred BN
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Respiratory Function Tests
Whole-Body Irradiation
Abstract
High dose whole body irradiation is commonly included in conditioning regimens for bone marrow transplantation for treatment of patients with hematological malignancies. Interstitial pneumonitis is a major complication after BMT. About one-fourth of all BMT patients die from IP. In about half of these cases, an infectious agent, particularly cytomegalovirus, is involved. When no infectious cause is found, it is classified as idiopathic IP (IIP). Total body irradiation is often associated with the induction of IIP; however, extrapolation of animal data from the experiments presented indicates that this is not the only factor contributing to IIP in man. Brown Norway (BN/Bi) rats were bilaterally irradiated to the lungs with 300 kV X rays at a high dose rate (HDR; 0.8 Gy/min) and at a low dose rate (LDR; 0.05 Gy/min). The dose-response curves found were very steep. In the LDR group, lung function studies were performed. There was a strong correlation between the increase in ventilation rate and the death pattern. The LD50 at 180 days was 13.3 Gy for HDR and 22.7 Gy for LDR. The ratios of LD50/180 at 0.05 Gy/min to that at 0.8 Gy/min is 1.7, which indicates a great repair capacity of the lungs. Extrapolation of animal data to patient data leads to an estimated dose of about 15-16 Gy at a 50% radiation pneumonitis induction for low dose rate TBI. As the absorbed dose in the lungs of BMT patients rarely exceeds 10 Gy, additional factors such as remission-induction chemotherapy, cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, cyclosporin A, graft-versus-host disease, etc., might be involved in the high incidence of IIP in man after BMT.
PubMed ID
3886609 View in PubMed
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Lung function impairment in long-term survivors of Hodgkin's disease.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature23244
Source
Ann Oncol. 1995 May;6(5):495-501
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-1995
Author
M B Lund
J. Kongerud
O. Nome
A F Abrahamsen
O. Bjørtuft
K. Forfang
J. Boe
Author Affiliation
Department of Thoracic Medicine, National Hospital, Norway.
Source
Ann Oncol. 1995 May;6(5):495-501
Date
May-1995
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Antibiotics, Antineoplastic - adverse effects
Bleomycin - adverse effects
Child
Combined Modality Therapy
Dyspnea - etiology - physiopathology
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Hodgkin Disease - drug therapy - physiopathology - radiotherapy
Humans
Linear Models
Logistic Models
Lung - drug effects - physiopathology - radiation effects
Lung Diseases - etiology - physiopathology
Male
Middle Aged
Multivariate Analysis
Pulmonary Fibrosis - etiology - physiopathology
Radiation Injuries - etiology - physiopathology
Radiotherapy - adverse effects
Respiratory Function Tests
Survivors
Abstract
BACKGROUND: Treatment of Hodgkin's disease (HD) involves radiation and chemotherapy, modalities known to cause lung injury. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In Norway, between 1980 and 1988, 129 patients aged less than 50 years at the time of diagnosis, had curative treatment with thoracic radiation alone or combined-modality therapy for supradiaphragmatic HD. We have examined 116 (90%) of these patients by interview, chest X-ray and lung function tests, 5-13 years after treatment. RESULTS: Nearly 30% of the patients had dyspnoea on exertion and associated reductions in total lung capacity (TLC), forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and gas transfer (TLCO) (p
PubMed ID
7545431 View in PubMed
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16 records – page 1 of 2.