Interstitial lung abnormalities have been associated with lower 6-minute walk distance, diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide, and total lung capacity. However, to our knowledge, an association with mortality has not been previously investigated.
To investigate whether interstitial lung abnormalities are associated with increased mortality.
Prospective cohort studies of 2633 participants from the FHS (Framingham Heart Study; computed tomographic [CT] scans obtained September 2008-March 2011), 5320 from the AGES-Reykjavik Study (Age Gene/Environment Susceptibility; recruited January 2002-February 2006), 2068 from the COPDGene Study (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease; recruited November 2007-April 2010), and 1670 from ECLIPSE (Evaluation of COPD Longitudinally to Identify Predictive Surrogate Endpoints; between December 2005-December 2006).
Interstitial lung abnormality status as determined by chest CT evaluation.
All-cause mortality over an approximate 3- to 9-year median follow-up time. Cause-of-death information was also examined in the AGES-Reykjavik cohort.
Interstitial lung abnormalities were present in 177 (7%) of the 2633 participants from FHS, 378 (7%) of 5320 from AGES-Reykjavik, 156 (8%) of 2068 from COPDGene, and in 157 (9%) of 1670 from ECLIPSE. Over median follow-up times of approximately 3 to 9 years, there were more deaths (and a greater absolute rate of mortality) among participants with interstitial lung abnormalities when compared with those who did not have interstitial lung abnormalities in the following cohorts: 7% vs 1% in FHS (6% difference [95% CI, 2% to 10%]), 56% vs 33% in AGES-Reykjavik (23% difference [95% CI, 18% to 28%]), and 11% vs 5% in ECLIPSE (6% difference [95% CI, 1% to 11%]). After adjustment for covariates, interstitial lung abnormalities were associated with a higher risk of death in the FHS (hazard ratio [HR], 2.7 [95% CI, 1.1 to 6.5]; P?=?.03), AGES-Reykjavik (HR, 1.3 [95% CI, 1.2 to 1.4]; P?
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Lung Clearance Index (LCI) provides an overall measurement of ventilation inhomogeneity. This population-based study examines whether LCI predicts pulmonary obstruction and incidence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) events over a long-term follow-up. Multiple breath nitrogen washout and spirometry were performed in 674 men from the cohort "Men born in 1914" at age 55 years. Subjects were classified into quartiles (Q) of LCI and according to LCI above and below upper limit of normal (ULN). Incidence of COPD events (COPD hospitalisations or COPD-related deaths) were monitored over the remaining life span of the men, by linkage with national hospital registers. In addition, development of pulmonary obstruction (i.e., FEV1/vital capacity below lower limit of normal (LLN)) was studied in 387 men who were re-examined with spirometry at 68 years of age. Over 44 years of follow-up, there were 85 incident COPD events. Hazards ratios (HRs) for COPD across quartiles of LCI were: Q1 1.00 (reference), Q2 1.30 (95% confidence interval: 0.61-2.74), Q3 1.97 (0.97-3.98) and Q4 3.99 (2.06-7.71) (p value for trend
Ambient air pollution has been suggested as a risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, there is a lack of longitudinal studies to support this assertion.
To investigate the associations of long-term exposure to elevated traffic-related air pollution and woodsmoke pollution with the risk of COPD hospitalization and mortality.
This population-based cohort study included a 5-year exposure period and a 4-year follow-up period. All residents aged 45-85 years who resided in Metropolitan Vancouver, Canada, during the exposure period and did not have known COPD at baseline were included in this study (n = 467,994). Residential exposures to traffic-related air pollutants (black carbon, particulate matter
During the 80s and 90s the mortality and number of hospitalisations due to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in the country of Denmark almost doubled. Since then there has been a plateau.
To analyse age, period, and cohort effects on rates of deaths and first-time hospitalisations with COPD in Denmark during the period from 1994 to 2012 and to make a forecast of these parameters.
By use of national registers, two separate age-period-cohort analyses were made, one on COPD-specific mortality rates and the other on incidence rates of first-time hospitalisations with COPD.
Both analyses found that high risk of developing severe COPD is associated with being born for women around year 1930 and for men around year 1925. The model has solid predictive ability and projections of future death- and hospitalisation rates due to COPD were made.
Long-term cohort effects rather than present exposure and treatment explain the recent rise and fall in the epidemic of COPD in Denmark. In the near future ageing of birth cohorts with lower COPD-specific mortality and hospitalisation rates will most likely lead to a substantial decrease in severe COPD in Denmark. However, rising trends for cohorts born after year 1948 calls for concern.
There has been a large increase in treatment and in research on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) from the common starting point of the original Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) study. There is currently little evidence on the degree of similarity and difference between national programmes or on the linkage between research and policy.
To review the evidence on programme development and the effectiveness gap from the UK, France, Germany, and Finland.
Visits and literature reviews were undertaken for regional centres in Lancashire, Nord-Pas de Calais, and Finland, and Eurostat data on mortality and hospital discharges were analysed, and telephone interviews in Nord-Rhein Westphalia.
There have been very significant differences in programme development from the original GOLD starting point. The UK has national strategies but they are without consistent local delivery. The French Affection de Longue Durée (ALD) programme limits special help to at most 10% of patients and there is little use of spirometry in primary care. Germany has a more general Disease Management Programme with COPD as a late starter. Finland has had a successful 10-year programme. The results for the effectiveness gap on hospital discharges show a major difference between Finland (40.7% fall in discharges) and others (increases of 6.0-43.7%).
The results show the need for a simpler programme in primary care to close the effectiveness gap. Such a programme is outlined based on preventing the downward spiral for high-risk patients.
Department of Epidemiology and Community Medicine and McLaughlin Centre for Population Health Risk Assessment, Institute of Population Health, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. email@example.com
To assess the association between relatively low levels of size-fractioned particulate matter (PM) and hospitalization for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), we conducted a time-series analysis among elderly people 65 yr of age or more living in Vancouver between June 1995 and March 1999. Measures of thoracic PM (PM(10)), fine PM (PM(2.5)), coarse PM (PM(10-2.5)), and coefficient of haze (COH) were examined over periods varying from 1 to 7 days prior to hospital admissions. Generalized additive models (GAMs; general linear models, GLMs) were used, and temporal trends and seasonal and subseasonal cycles in COPD hospitalizations were removed by using GLM with parametric natural cubic splines. The relative risks were calculated based on an incremental exposure corresponding to the interquartile range of these measures, and were adjusted for daily weather conditions and gaseous pollutants. PM measures had a positive effect on COPD hospitalization, especially 0 to 2 days prior to the admissions, before copollutants were accounted for. For 3-day average levels of exposure the relative risk estimates were 1.13 (95% confidence interval: 1.05-1.21) for PM(10), 1.08 (1.02-1.15) for PM(2.5), 1.09 (1.03-1.16) for PM(10-2.5), and 1.05 (1.01-1.09) for COH. The associations were no longer significant when NO(2) was included in the models. We concluded that the particle-related measures were significantly associated with COPD hospitalization in the Vancouver area, where the level of air pollution is relatively low, but the effects were not independent of other air pollutants.
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a complex, multisystem disorder that often results in exacerbations requiring emergency department (ED) management. Following an exacerbation and discharge from the ED, reassessment and management adjustment with a health care provider are recommended to re-establish control of the disease.
To describe outcomes of all COPD presentations to EDs made by adults in Alberta including the time spent in the ED and the physician visits following the ED visit.
Provincial administrative databases were used to obtain all ED encounters for COPD during six fiscal years (1999 to 2005). The information extracted included demographics, ED visit timing, and acute and subacute outcomes (physician visits up to 365 days after discharge for all 7302 discharged individuals during a one-year period). Data analysis included descriptive summaries and survival curves.
There were 85,330 ED visits for acute COPD, of which 67% were discharged from the ED. Median ED length of stay was longer in large urban areas (Calgary: 5 h 9 min; Edmonton: 4 h 58 min) than in other regions of Alberta (1 h 17 min). Admissions resulted from 32% of visits and varied among regions; however, few were admitted to the intensive care unit (1%) or died (0.1%). Following discharge, the median time to first follow-up with a physician was 13 days; however, only 40% of patients had follow-up visits in the first seven days. Repeat ED visits within seven days occurred in 5.7% of discharged patients, while 25.6% of discharged patients had repeat ED visits within 365 days of discharge.
More than 30% of COPD ED visits resulted in admission; regional variation was significant. Moreover, discharged patients experienced delayed follow-up and often required repeat ED visits. Interventions to improve reassessment and reduce COPD-related repeat ED visits should be explored.
In Scandinavia no large audits of hospitalizations for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have been performed, and data on adherence to national guidelines are scarce. The aims of the present study were to audit hospitalizations for COPD exacerbations in three Scandinavian hospitals with respect to incidence, patient population and standards of hospital care. Retrospectively all hospitalizations in the Departments of Internal and Respiratory Medicine in Ostersund Hospital (Sweden), Aalesund Hospital (Norway) and Trondheim University Hospital (Norway) from Jan 1 to Dec 31, 2005, with discharge ICD-10 diagnoses J43-J44, J96 + J44 or J13-18 + j44 were registered. A total of 1144 admissions (731 patients) were identified from patient administrative systems and medical charts. Among the admitted patients 27% were >80 years old, >50% had COPD stage III or IV, and 14% had respiratory acidosis at admittance. Patients with 3 or more admissions (13%) during 2005 accounted for 36% of all hospitalizations. One third of the patients were current smokers. Non-invasive ventilation was used in 14% of the admissions, with large variation between centres. In-hospital mortality was 3.7%. In this first large Scandinavian audit of COPD-hospitalizations, all centres had low in-hospital mortality. We consider this as an indication of good clinical practice in the three studied centres and possibly due to the frequent use of non-invasive ventilation.
Although social differences in respiratory diseases are considerable, few studies have focused on this disease entity using mortality as an outcome. Does mortality from respiratory disease, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) differ with social position measured by education, income, housing and employment grade? The study population consisted of 26,392 males and females from pooling of two population studies in the Copenhagen area. Data was linked with information from social registers in Statistics Denmark. The relationship between socioeconomic factors and risk of death from respiratory disease and COPD was assessed with an average duration of follow-up of 12 yrs. Education was strongly associated with respiratory mortality in both sexes. The association was stronger in later birth cohorts comparing the highest level of education (>11 yrs) with the lowest (