The APHEA 2 project investigated short-term health effects of particles in eight European cities. In each city associations between particles with an aerodynamic diameter of less than 10 microm (PM(10)) and black smoke and daily counts of emergency hospital admissions for asthma (0-14 and 15-64 yr), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and all-respiratory disease (65+ yr) controlling for environmental factors and temporal patterns were investigated. Summary PM(10) effect estimates (percentage change in mean number of daily admissions per 10 microg/m(3) increase) were asthma (0-14 yr) 1.2% (95% CI: 0.2, 2.3), asthma (15-64 yr) 1.1% (0.3, 1.8), and COPD plus asthma and all-respiratory (65+ yr) 1.0% (0.4, 1.5) and 0.9% (0.6, 1.3). The combined estimates for Black Smoke tended to be smaller and less precisely estimated than for PM(10). Variability in the sizes of the PM(10) effect estimates between cities was also investigated. In the 65+ groups PM(10) estimates were positively associated with annual mean concentrations of ozone in the cities. For asthma admissions (0-14 yr) a number of city-specific factors, including smoking prevalence, explained some of their variability. This study confirms that particle concentrations in European cities are positively associated with increased numbers of admissions for respiratory diseases and that some of the variation in PM(10) effect estimates between cities can be explained by city characteristics.
Lifetime respiratory function after extremely preterm birth (gestational age=28 wk or birth weight=1,000 g) is unknown.
To compare changes from 18-25 years of age in respiratory health, lung function, and airway responsiveness in young adults born extremely prematurely to that of term-born control subjects.
Comprehensive lung function investigations and interviews were conducted in a population-based sample of 25-year-old subjects born extremely prematurely in western Norway in 1982-1985, and in matched term-born control subjects. Comparison was made to similar data collected at 18 years of age.
At 25 years of age, 46/51 (90%) eligible subjects born extremely prematurely and 39/46 (85%) control subjects participated. z-Scores for FEV1, forced expiratory flow at 25-75% of vital capacity, and FEV1/FVC were significantly reduced in subjects born extremely prematurely by 1.02, 1.26, and 0.88, respectively, and airway resistance (kPa/L/s) was increased (0.23 versus 0.18). Residual volume to total lung capacity increased with severity of neonatal bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Responsiveness to methacholine (dose-response slope; 3.16 versus 0.85) and bronchial lability index (7.5 versus 4.8%) were increased in subjects born extremely prematurely. Lung function changes from 18 to 25 years and respiratory symptoms were similar in the prematurely born and term-born groups.
Lung function in early adult life was in the normal range in the majority of subjects born extremely prematurely, but methacholine responsiveness was more pronounced than in term-born young adults, suggesting a need for ongoing pulmonary monitoring in this population.
The research presents the authors' analysis of epidemiology of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in a big industrial city of Middle Volga. 2063 persons (903 men and 1160 women) were examined in four age groups (30-39 years, 40-49 years, 50-59 years, 60 years and upward) in Kirovskiy and Krasnoglinskiy districts of Samara. COPD was found out in 14,49% among 2063 examined people (30-39 years--10.76%, 40-49 years--10.89%, 50-59 years--15.88%, 60 years and upward--21.30%). COPD was found out in 18.72% among 903 examined men and in 11.21% among 1160 examined women. The data proved that leading risk factors of COPD are male sex, age, smoking, ecology, genetic predisposition, level of the education, marriage status.
The article is devoted to analysis of the problem of lung diseases due to industrial dust exposure in Kursk region and to studying the clinical features of the most widespread occupational respiratory disease--occupational chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, among patients of various age groups. It is shown that the development of dust-induced bronchoobstructive diseases provokes infringement of physiological lungs aging and in clinical course of the disease in elderly and senile age has its features.
The aim of the study was to clarify the relationships between bronchial asthma (BA), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and type 1 diabetes mellitus. Reduced prevalence of concomitant BA and DM1 suggests inverse relation between the two conditions and their mutually exclusive nature. The problem needs further studies. Taking into account age-specific and other features of COPD and DM1 pathological processes elucidation of their interrelation appears impractical.
University of British Columbia James Hogg Research Laboratories, Providence Heart and Lung Institute, St Paul's Hospital, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. email@example.com
To measure the prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and determine the effect of age and sex on the variation in prevalence across major cities within the same country and health care system.
We used the Burden of Obstructive Lung Disease (BOLD) methodology to estimate the prevalence of COPD in adults aged = 40 years in different Canadian cities. The study used interviewer-administered questionnaires on respiratory, smoking and occupational history, medication use and comorbidities. Post-bronchodilator spirometry was used to classify subjects. We determined the prevalence and severity of COPD with and without adjustments for age and sex distribution across different cities.
The study population was 3042. Overall, 16.7% (95%CI 14.8-18.7) of study subjects met the criteria for Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) severity Stage 1 or higher. The prevalence according to the criteria for the lower limits of normal of the ratio forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced vital capacity was 11.6% (95%CI 9.9-13.3). COPD prevalence varied by severity across site (P = 0.0025). After age-sex adjustment, the variation disappeared (P> 0.16).
Age and sex differences account for most of the heterogeneity in COPD estimates across large cities within the same country. Adjustments for age and sex are essential in comparing COPD rates across the country.
Asthma and COPD may overlap (ACO) but information about incidence and risk factors are lacking. This study aimed to estimate prevalence, incidence and risk factors of chronic airway obstruction (CAO) in a population-based adult asthma cohort.
During 1986-2001 a large population-based asthma cohort was identified (n?=?2055, 19-72y). Subsamples have participated in clinical follow-ups during the subsequent years. The entire cohort was invited to a clinical follow-up including interview, spirometry, and blood sampling in 2012-2014 when n?=?983 subjects performed adequate spirometry. CAO was defined as post-bronchodilator FEV1/FVC
Farmers have an increased risk of respiratory morbidity and mortality. The causal agents have not been fully established.
In a cross-sectional study of 4,735 Norwegian farmers, we assessed respiratory symptoms and lung function. Atopy was assessed in a subsample (n = 1,213). Personal exposures to dust, fungal spores, actinomycete spores, endotoxins, bacteria, storage mites, (1-->3)-ss-D-glucans, fungal antigens, organic dust, inorganic dust, silica, ammonia, and hydrogen sulfide were measured for 127 randomly selected farms.
Compared to crop farmers, livestock farmers were more likely to have chronic bronchitis (odds ratio [OR], 1.9; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.4 to 2.6) and COPD (OR, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.1 to 1.7). FEV(1) (-41 mL; 95% CI, -75 to -7) was significantly reduced, but FVC (-15 mL; 95% CI, -54 to 24) was not. Exposure to most agents were predictors of respiratory morbidity, except FVC. Ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, and inorganic dust were most strongly associated in multiple regression models adjusted for coexposures, but the effects of specific biological agents could not be assessed in multiple regression models because they were too highly correlated. Farmers with atopy had a significantly lower FEV(1) (OR, -87 mL; 95% CI, -170 to -7), but atopy was not directly associated with chronic bronchitis, COPD, and FVC. However, the effects of farming and specific exposures on COPD were substantially greater in farmers with atopy.
Livestock farmers have an increased risk of chronic bronchitis, COPD, and reduced FEV(1). Ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, inorganic dust, and organic dust may be causally involved, but a role for specific biological agents cannot be excluded. Farmers with atopy appear more susceptible to develop farming-related COPD.
The Swedish national register of severe alpha1-antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency was established in 1991. The main aims are to prospectively study the natural history of severe AAT deficiency, and to improve the knowledge of AAT deficiency. The inclusion criteria in the register are age = 18 years, and the PiZ phenotype diagnosed by isoelectric focusing. The register is kept updated by means of repeated questionnaires providing data to allow analysis of the mode of identification, lung and liver function, smoking-habits, respiratory symptoms and diagnoses as reported by physicians. Until February 2014, a total of 1553 PiZZ individuals had been included in the register. The 1102 subjects still alive constituted about 20% of the adult PiZZ individuals in Sweden. Forty-three percent of the subjects had been identified during investigation of respiratory symptoms, 7% by an investigation of liver disease, 26% in an investigation of other pathological conditions, and 24% in a population or family screening. Forty five percent of the subjects had never smoked, 47% were ex-smokers, and 8% current smokers. Twenty-eight percent of the never-smokers, 72% of the ex-smokers, and 61% of the current smokers fulfilled the criteria for COPD with a FEV1/FVC ratio of