The ß(2)-adrenergic receptor (ADRB2) is an important regulator of airway smooth muscle tone. We tested the hypothesis that three functional polymorphisms in the ADRB2 gene (Thr164Ile, Gly16Arg and Gln27Glu) are associated with reduced lung function, asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We first genotyped 8,971 individuals from the Copenhagen City Heart Study for all three polymorphisms. To validate our findings, we genotyped an additional 53,777 individuals from the Copenhagen General Population Study for the Thr164Ile polymorphism. We identified 60,910 Thr164Ile noncarriers, 1,822 heterozygotes and 16 homozygotes. In the Copenhagen City Heart Study, the Thr164Ile genotype was associated with reduced forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV(1)) % predicted (trend p = 0.01) and FEV(1)/forced vital capacity (FVC) (p = 0.001): Thr164Ile heterozygotes had 3% and 2% reduced FEV(1) % pred and FEV(1)/FVC, respectively, compared with noncarriers. The odds ratio for COPD in Thr164Ile heterozygotes was 1.46 (95% CI 1.05-2.02). In the Copenhagen General Population Study, the Thr164 genotype associated with reduced FEV(1) % pred (p = 0.04) and FEV(1)/FVC (p
The APHEA 2 project investigated short-term health effects of particles in eight European cities. In each city associations between particles with an aerodynamic diameter of less than 10 microm (PM(10)) and black smoke and daily counts of emergency hospital admissions for asthma (0-14 and 15-64 yr), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and all-respiratory disease (65+ yr) controlling for environmental factors and temporal patterns were investigated. Summary PM(10) effect estimates (percentage change in mean number of daily admissions per 10 microg/m(3) increase) were asthma (0-14 yr) 1.2% (95% CI: 0.2, 2.3), asthma (15-64 yr) 1.1% (0.3, 1.8), and COPD plus asthma and all-respiratory (65+ yr) 1.0% (0.4, 1.5) and 0.9% (0.6, 1.3). The combined estimates for Black Smoke tended to be smaller and less precisely estimated than for PM(10). Variability in the sizes of the PM(10) effect estimates between cities was also investigated. In the 65+ groups PM(10) estimates were positively associated with annual mean concentrations of ozone in the cities. For asthma admissions (0-14 yr) a number of city-specific factors, including smoking prevalence, explained some of their variability. This study confirms that particle concentrations in European cities are positively associated with increased numbers of admissions for respiratory diseases and that some of the variation in PM(10) effect estimates between cities can be explained by city characteristics.
Lifetime respiratory function after extremely preterm birth (gestational age=28 wk or birth weight=1,000 g) is unknown.
To compare changes from 18-25 years of age in respiratory health, lung function, and airway responsiveness in young adults born extremely prematurely to that of term-born control subjects.
Comprehensive lung function investigations and interviews were conducted in a population-based sample of 25-year-old subjects born extremely prematurely in western Norway in 1982-1985, and in matched term-born control subjects. Comparison was made to similar data collected at 18 years of age.
At 25 years of age, 46/51 (90%) eligible subjects born extremely prematurely and 39/46 (85%) control subjects participated. z-Scores for FEV1, forced expiratory flow at 25-75% of vital capacity, and FEV1/FVC were significantly reduced in subjects born extremely prematurely by 1.02, 1.26, and 0.88, respectively, and airway resistance (kPa/L/s) was increased (0.23 versus 0.18). Residual volume to total lung capacity increased with severity of neonatal bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Responsiveness to methacholine (dose-response slope; 3.16 versus 0.85) and bronchial lability index (7.5 versus 4.8%) were increased in subjects born extremely prematurely. Lung function changes from 18 to 25 years and respiratory symptoms were similar in the prematurely born and term-born groups.
Lung function in early adult life was in the normal range in the majority of subjects born extremely prematurely, but methacholine responsiveness was more pronounced than in term-born young adults, suggesting a need for ongoing pulmonary monitoring in this population.
The research presents the authors' analysis of epidemiology of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in a big industrial city of Middle Volga. 2063 persons (903 men and 1160 women) were examined in four age groups (30-39 years, 40-49 years, 50-59 years, 60 years and upward) in Kirovskiy and Krasnoglinskiy districts of Samara. COPD was found out in 14,49% among 2063 examined people (30-39 years--10.76%, 40-49 years--10.89%, 50-59 years--15.88%, 60 years and upward--21.30%). COPD was found out in 18.72% among 903 examined men and in 11.21% among 1160 examined women. The data proved that leading risk factors of COPD are male sex, age, smoking, ecology, genetic predisposition, level of the education, marriage status.
To determine sex and age variations in hospital readmissions for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) associated with overall and cardiac comorbid conditions.
A one-year follow-up study was conducted for 108 726 COPD in-patients aged >or=40 years who were discharged alive after their first admission in the 1999-2000 fiscal year.
Within a year, 38 955 of the patients were readmitted to hospital for COPD. The incidence rate of COPD readmission was 49.1% per year. It was higher for men than women aged >or=70 years, but was almost the same for patients aged
The article is devoted to analysis of the problem of lung diseases due to industrial dust exposure in Kursk region and to studying the clinical features of the most widespread occupational respiratory disease--occupational chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, among patients of various age groups. It is shown that the development of dust-induced bronchoobstructive diseases provokes infringement of physiological lungs aging and in clinical course of the disease in elderly and senile age has its features.
This study aimed to investigate trends in first-time hospitalisations with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in a publicly financed healthcare system during the period from 2002 to 2008 with respect to incidence, outcome and characteristics of hospitalisations, departments, and patients.
Using health administrative data from national registers, all first-time hospitalisations with COPD in Denmark (population 5.4 million) were identified. Data based on the individual hospitalisations and patients were retrieved and analysed.
During the period 2002 to 2008 the total rate of COPD hospitalisations decreased from 460 to 410 per 100,000 person years. Among persons above 45 years of age, the age- and sex-adjusted incidence rate of first-time COPD hospitalisations decreased by 8.2% (95% CI 5.0-11.2%). The inpatient mortality increased OR 1.16 (95% CI 1.01-1.34) and the one-year mortality increased OR 1.12 (95% CI 1.03-1.21). Concurrently, significant age- and sex-adjusted increases were found in use of intensive care, comorbidity, patient travel distance, bed occupancy rate of the receiving department, prior use of oral and inhaled corticosteroids, use of outpatient clinics and encounters in general practice, while length of stay and number of receiving hospitals decreased.
Decreasing rate of first-time COPD hospitalisations combined with shorter lengths of stay and increasing severity of cases indicates that the use of hospital beds for COPD exacerbations has been gradually restricted. This may be causally related to both the centralisation into overcrowded departments and the improved outside hospital treatment of COPD, also demonstrated in this study.
Individuals with pulmonary and cardiac disorders are particularly at risk of developing hypoxemia at altitude. Our objective is to describe the normal and maladaptive physiological responses to altitude-related hypoxia, to review existing methods and guidelines for preflight assessment of air travelers, and to provide recommendations for treatment of hypoxia at altitude.
Falling partial pressure of oxygen with altitude results in a number of physiologic adaptations including hyperventilation, pulmonary vasoconstriction, altered ventilation/perfusion matching, and increased sympathetic tone. According to three guideline statements, the arterial pressure of oxygen (PaO2) should be maintained above 50 to 55 mm Hg at all altitudes. General indicators such as oxygen saturation and sea level blood gases may be useful in predicting altitude hypoxia. More specialized techniques for estimation of altitude PaO2, such as regression equations, hypoxia challenge testing, and hypobaric chamber exposure have also been examined. A regression equation using sea level PaO2 and spirometric parameters can be used to estimate PaO2 at altitude. Hypoxia challenge testing, performed by exposing subjects to lower inspired FIO2 at sea level may be more precise. Hypobaric chamber exposure, the gold standard, mimics lower barometric pressure, but is mainly used in research.
Oxygen supplementation during air travel is needed for individuals with an estimated PaO2 (8000 ft) below 50 mmHg. There are a number of guidelines for the pre-flight assessment of patients with pulmonary and/or cardiac diseases. However, these data are based on small studies in patients with a limited group of diseases.
This study concerns a comparative analysis of hospital readmission rates and related utilization in six areas, including three European countries (Finland, Scotland and the Netherlands) and three states in the USA (New York, California, Washington State). It includes a data analysis on six major causes of hospitalization across these areas. Its main focus is on two questions. (1) Do hospital readmission rates vary among the causes of hospitalization and the study populations? (2) Are hospital inpatient lengths of stay inversely related to readmissions rates? The study demonstrated that diagnoses such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and congestive heart failure (CHF) were the major causes of hospital readmission rates. The data showed that (initial) hospital stays were generally longer for patients who were readmitted than for those who were not. As a result, short stays were not associated with a higher risk of readmission, meaning that hospital readmissions were not produced by premature hospital discharges in the study population. Furthermore, the spatial variation in readmission rates within 7 versus 8-30 days showed to be identical. Finally, it was found that countries or states with relatively shorter stays showed higher readmission rates and vice versa. Since patients with readmissions in all of the areas had on average longer initial stays, this finding at country level does illustrate that there seems to be a country specific trade off between length of stay and rate of readmission. An explanation should be sought in differences in health care arrangements per area, including factors that determine length of stay levels and readmission rates in individual countries (e.g. managed care penetration, after care by GP's or home care).
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are effectors of host defence against infection, inflammation and wound repair. We aimed to study AMP levels in stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and during acute exacerbations of COPD (AECOPD), and to examine their relation to clinical parameters and inflammatory markers.The 3-year Bergen COPD Cohort Study included 433 COPD patients and 325 controls. Induced sputum was obtained and analysed for levels of the AMPs human cathelicidin (hCAP18/LL-37) and secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI), and for the inflammatory markers interleukin (IL)-8, IL-6 and tumour necrosis factor-a (TNF-a) using immunoassays. Systemic hCAP18/LL-37 and vitamin D levels were also studied. Treating AMPs as response variables, non-parametric tests were applied for univariate comparison, and linear regression to obtain adjusted estimates. The risk of AECOPD was assessed by Cox proportional-hazard regression.Sputum AMP levels were higher in patients with stable COPD (n=215) compared to controls (n=45), and further changed during AECOPD (n=56), with increased hCAP18/LL-37 and decreased SLPI levels. Plasma hCAP18/LL-37 levels showed a similar pattern. In stable COPD, high sputum hCAP18/LL-37 levels were associated with increased risk of AECOPD, non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae colonisation, higher age, ex-smoking and higher levels of inflammatory markers.Altered levels of selected AMPs are linked to airway inflammation, infection and AECOPD, suggesting a role for these peptides in airway defence mechanisms in COPD.