The adverse event (AE) profile of lay volunteer CPR and public access defibrillation (PAD) programs is unknown. We undertook to investigate the frequency, severity, and type of AE's occurring in widespread PAD implementation.
A randomized-controlled clinical trial.
One thousand two hundred and sixty public and residential facilities in the US and Canada.
On-site, volunteer, lay personnel trained in CPR only compared to CPR plus automated external defibrillators (AEDs).
Persons experiencing possible cardiac arrest receiving lay volunteer first response with CPR+AED compared with CPR alone.
An AE is defined as an event of significance that caused, or had the potential to cause, harm to a patient or volunteer, or a criminal act. AE data were collected prospectively.
Twenty thousand three hundred and ninety six lay volunteers were trained in either CPR or CPR+AED. One thousand seven hundred and sixteen AEDs were placed in units randomized to the AED arm. There were 26,389 exposure months. Only 36 AE's were reported. There were two patient-related AEs: both patients experienced rib fractures. There were seven volunteer-related AE's: one had a muscle pull, four experienced significant emotional distress and two reported pressure by their employee to participate. There were 27 AED-related AEs: 17 episodes of theft involving 20 devices, three involved AEDs that were placed in locations inaccessible to the volunteer, four AEDs had mechanical problems not affecting patient safety, and three devices were improperly maintained by the facility. There were no inappropriate shocks and no failures to shock when indicated (95% upper bound for probability of inappropriate shock or failure to shock = 0.0012).
AED use following widespread training of lay-persons in CPR and AED is generally safe for the volunteer and the patient. Lay volunteers may report significant, usually transient, emotional stress following response to a potential cardiac arrest. Within the context of this prospective, randomized multi-center study, AEDs have an exceptionally high safety profile when used by trained lay responders.
The aim of the study is to examine the risk of sickness absence in public sector employees with allergic rhinitis or asthma or both conditions combined. This is a prospective cohort study of 48,296 Finnish public sector employees. Data from self-reported rhinitis and asthma were obtained from survey responses given during either the 2000-2002 or 2004 periods. Follow-up data on sickness absences for the public sector employees surveyed were acquired from records kept by the employers. During the follow-up, mean sick leave days per year for respondents were 17.6 days for rhinitis alone, 23.8 days for asthma alone and 24.2 days for both conditions combined. Respondents with neither condition were absent for a mean of 14.5 days annually. The impact of asthma and rhinitis combined on the risk of sick leave days was marginal compared to asthma alone (RR 1.1; 95% CI 1.0-1.3). In the subgroup analysis (those with current asthma or allergy medication), the risk ratio for medically certified sickness absence (>3 days) was 2.0 (95% CI 1.9-2.2) for those with asthma and rhinitis combined. Rhinitis, asthma and both these conditions combined increased the risk of days off work.
Few studies of patient harm and harm-prevention methods in dentistry exist. This study aimed to identify and characterize dental patient safety incidents (PSIs) in a national sample of closed dental cases reported to the Regional State Administrative Agencies (AVIs) and the National Supervisory Authority for Welfare and Health (Valvira) in Finland.
The sample included all available fully resolved dental cases (n = 948) during 2000-2012 (initiated by the end of 2011). Cases included both patient and next of kin complaints and notifications from other authorities, employers, pharmacies, etc. The cases analyzed concerned both public and private dentistry and included incident reports lodged against dentists and other dental-care professionals. Data also include the most severe cases since these are reported to Valvira. PSIs were categorized according to common incident types and preventability and severity assessments were based on expert opinions in the decisions from closed cases.
Most alleged PSIs were proven valid and evaluated as potentially preventable. PSIs were most often related to different dental treatment procedures or diagnostics. More than half of all PSIs were assessed as severe, posing severe risk or as causing permanent or long-lasting harm to patients. The risk for PSI was highest among male general dental practitioners with recurring complaints and notifications.
Despite some limitations, this register-based study identifies new perspectives on improving safety in dental care. Many PSIs could be prevented through the proper and more systematic use of already available error-prevention methods.
We examined the associations of contractual job insecurity (fixed-term vs permanent employment contract) and subjectively assessed job insecurity with sickness presenteeism among those who had no sickness absences during the study year.
Survey data from a sample of 18,454 Public sector employees were gathered in 2004 (the Finnish Public Sector study).
Fixed-term employees were less likely to report working while ill (odds ratio = 0.88, 95% confidence interval = 0.77 to 0.99) than permanent employees. Subjective insecurity was associated with higher levels of working while ill, and this association was stronger among older employees. These results remained after adjustments for demographics, health-related variables, and optimism.
Our results suggest that subjective job insecurity might be even more important than contractual insecurity when a public sector employee makes the decision to go to work despite feeling ill.
Forskningsprogram for ledelse og organisering i helsesektoren (HORN), Institutt for helseledelse og helseøkonomi, Det medisinske fakultet, Universitetet i Oslo, Postboks 1089 Blindern, 0317 Oslo. email@example.com
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2005 Nov 17;125(22):3130-2
BACKGROUND: After the Norwegian hospital reform of 2002, there has been increased acceptance of private-sector health-care providers. Still, the use of specialist services in private practice is less well documented. This article explores the use of private specialist health care in the south-east of Norway. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The article is based on several sources of data, including data from the Norwegian Patient Register and from the National Insurance Administration on reimbursements. Also a survey was sent out to a sample of general practitioner; in-depth interviews were carried out with a sample of hospital physicians and private specialists. RESULTS: The article shows that private specialists with contract with Helse Øst provided 151 consultations per 1000 inhabitants over the period September to November 2003, while the public outpatient clinics provided 186 consultations. The service provision varies geographically and between specialties. In one county the use of private specialists is 174 consultations per 1000 inhabitants; in another it is 80 per 1000 inhabitants. Private-sector specialists within the fields of eye, ear-nose-throat and skin provided two thirds of all outpatient services in their respective fields. INTERPRETATION: The results indicate that the services of specialists in private practice should be more focused on and discussed in relation to integrated healthcare and the relationship between specialised hospital services and primary healthcare.
The purpose of this study is to provide descriptive data on the presence of dental schools, dental school graduates, instate enrollment, and interstate dental education agreements for U.S. states, districts, and regions. This information may be helpful in deciding to open or maintain a dental school. Data from the American Dental Association (ADA), American Dental Education Association (ADEA), and U.S. Census Bureau were used to conduct cross-sectional comparisons for states, census divisions, and regions for 2000. In 2000, there were fifty-four dental schools in thirty-two states and the District of Columbia. Total graduation across 1990-2000 was 43,289 dentists. Over half (56 percent) of the graduates were from public schools. The distribution of schools and graduates differed by geographic region. Alaska, Utah, Hawaii, and Nebraska were outliers with respect to high and low numbers of dental schools in states, in-state enrollment, and dentists to population. U.S. states, districts, and regions vary widely on the number of dental schools, dentists to population, first-year dental school enrollees, and dental school graduates. Further assessment on additional factors such as dental health provider shortage areas, state oral health status, and attractiveness of locations to dentists is needed to more fully understand the impact of these factors.
To study the effect of a preventive vocationally oriented intervention on rates of sickness absence and disability pension in employees considered to be at risk of future work disability.
An observational register-based study of public sector employees.
2236 intervention programme participants and 8944 matched controls were followed up for 8 years.
Multidisciplinary intervention was carried out at rehabilitation institutions. Data on demographics and sickness absences were obtained from employers' records and information about health at baseline, participation in the intervention and subsequent disability pension from national registers.
Before the intervention participants had 17% more annual sick leave days and a 23% higher rate of absence spells lasting >21 days than controls. In the intervention year and 3 subsequent years, the sickness absence rate among participants reduced to that observed among controls but thereafter increased to the pre-intervention level (p for curvilinear trend
To examine the association between worktime control and subsequent disability pension among employees.
Two scores of worktime control (self-assessed and co-worker assessed) were obtained from a survey in 2000-2001 (score range 1-5) among 30 700 public sector employees (78% women) aged 18-64 years. Information on cause-specific disability pension during follow-up was collected from national registers.
During a mean follow-up of 4.4 years, 1178 employees were granted disability pensions (incidence per 1000 person-years: 9.2 in women and 8.7 in men). The most common causes of a disability pension were musculoskeletal disorders (43% of all pensions), mental disorders (25%), tumours (8%) and diseases of the circulatory system (6%) and nervous system (6%). A one unit increase in self-assessed and co-worker assessed worktime control score was associated with a 41-48% decrease in risk of disabling musculoskeletal disorders in men and a 33-35% decrease in women. This association was robust to adjustment for 17 baseline covariates (in men and women combined, adjusted HR 0.76, 95% CI 0.67 to 0.87 and 0.64, 95% CI 0.51 to 0.79 per one unit increase in self-assessed and co-worker assessed worktime control, respectively). Self-assessed, but not co-worker assessed, worktime control was also associated with risk of disability retirement due to mental disorders in women. Disability pensions from other disease categories were not related to worktime control.
In these public sector employees, high worktime control was associated with reduced risk of early retirement caused by musculoskeletal disorders independent of baseline characteristics.
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Most studies of the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and health have concentrated on disparities between the richest and poorest men; few studies have examined such relationships for women due to difficulties in measuring SES for women. For the present study, data collected from Canadian Public Service middle and senior managers provided an opportunity to examine associations between SES and health within the upper end of the SES spectrum for both genders, since women managers can be assumed to have a relatively high SES. Demographic, health and lifestyle characteristics are compared for middle and senior managers for each gender separately to determine whether women experience the health benefits associated with higher SES that have been previously observed for men. The results support the hypothesis that achieving a higher SES through work is a more stressful process for women than for men and that women's upward mobility is restricted compared to that of men. Despite these findings, there is little evidence that women's health has been adversely affected. Compared to male managers, fewer female managers smoke or drink and fewer have high body mass index, high blood pressure or high cholesterol levels. Female managers are also more likely to report being in good health.
The Public Access Defibrillation (PAD) Trial was a randomized, controlled trial designed to measure survival to hospital discharge following out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OOH-CA) in community facilities trained and equipped to provide PAD, compared with community facilities trained to provide cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) without any capacity for defibrillation.
To report the implementation of community-based lay responder emergency response programs in 1,260 participating facilities recruited for the PAD Trial in the United States and Canada.
This was a descriptive study of the characteristics of participating facilities, volunteers, and automated external defibrillator (AED) placements compiled by the PAD Trial, and a qualitative study of factors that facilitated or impeded implementation of emergency lay responder programs using focus groups of PAD Trial site coordinators.
The PAD Trial enrolled 1,260 community facilities (14.8% residential), with 20,400 lay volunteers (mean +/- standard deviation = 13.4 +/- 10.7 per facility) trained to respond to OOH-CA. The 598 locations randomized to receive AEDs required 2.7 +/- 1.8 AEDs per facility. Volunteer attrition was high, 36% after two years. Barriers to recruitment and implementation included identification of appropriate "at-risk" facilities, lack of interest or fear of litigation by a facility key decision maker, lack of motivated potential volunteer responders, training and retraining resource requirements, and lack of an existing communication/response infrastructure.
These data indicate that implementation of community-based lay responder programs is feasible in many types of facilities, although these programs require substantial resources and commitment, and many barriers to implementation of effective PAD programs exist.