The authors analyze the flaws in medical care rendered at various public health institutions by the results of 2436 expert committee conclusions, verified at bureaus of forensic medical expert evaluations. The essence and causes of these defects at the hospital and prehospital stages of medical care, rendered by physicians of different specializations and nurses, are analyzed.
This report provides an updated overview of recommended and mandatory vaccinations in the European Union (EU), Iceland and Norway, considering the differences in vaccine programme implementation between countries. In 2010, the Vaccine European New Integrated Collaboration Effort (VENICE) network, conducted a survey among the VENICE project gatekeepers to learn more about how national vaccination programmes are implemented, whether recommended or mandatory. Information was collected from all 27 EU Member States, Iceland and Norway. In total 15 countries do not have any mandatory vaccinations; the remaining 14 have at least one mandatory vaccination included in their programme. Vaccination against polio is mandatory for both children and adults in 12 countries; diphtheria and tetanus vaccination in 11 countries and hepatitis B vaccination in 10 countries. For eight of the 15 vaccines considered, some countries have a mixed strategy of recommended and mandatory vaccinations. Mandatory vaccination may be considered as a way of improving compliance to vaccination programmes. However, compliance with many programmes in Europe is high, using only recommendations. More information about the diversity in vaccine offer at European level may help countries to adapt vaccination strategies based on the experience of other countries. However, any proposal on vaccine strategies should be developed taking into consideration the local context habits.
The West Nile virus (WNV), as it was presented in the texts and discourses on the Public Health Agency of Canada's (PHAC) website during its initial emergence, was an effect of the kinds of knowledge, techniques of power and disciplinary apparatuses that operate on that website and in society. With reference to Michel Foucault's relations of power, this article offers an approach for translating theories of power into techniques and technologies of power that can be used to conduct a social construction discourse analysis, and gives examples from the use of surveillance, normalisation, exclusion and regulation in PHAC's responses to the WNV epidemic in Canada. This study concludes with the assertion that shifting the ways in which social and political relations of power contour public health theories and practice is crucial. The present moment requires the development of global health responses to pandemics that are rooted less in the proliferation of apparatuses of control and more in epidemiological innovations and integrated, multi-perspectival research approaches to infectious diseases research, and in the governance of pandemic control and prevention initiatives.