The increasingly used concept new public health indicates that a fundamental change has occurred in the goals and methods of disease prevention and health promotion. The change is often said to imply less expert-driven governing of citizens. In this article, governing technologies in the field of public health in Denmark and Sweden are analysed to investigate whether substantial changes have taken place in the governing efforts. In the endeavours unfolded in relation to health examinations for children and pregnant women during the last eighty years, no apparent evidence exists of a significant change in governing technologies. Regulatory, expert-driven and empowering technologies have been used during the whole period; additionally, appeals to autonomy, responsibility and obedience as well as to trust in authorities co-exist throughout the period. The fundamental change is the huge increase in the health authorities' governing ambitions.
Community-based heart health promotion is viewed as an effective means of reducing cardiovascular disease risk. Although public health agencies have a central role in the implementation and dissemination of heart health programmes, their effectiveness is being challenged by major structural changes to Provincial public health systems across Canada, although the impacts of the changes have received relatively little attention in the research literature. As part of the Canadian Heart Health Initiative--Ontario Project (CHHIOP), this study used a qualitative approach to address the perceived implications of these changes to Ontario's public health system for heart health promotion. Interviews (n = 38) were conducted in eight public health units with staff most familiar with managing and/or delivering heart health activities. The results are mixed; that is, while many see the future of heart health promotion programming in Ontario as being at risk, others see recent changes as a step forward toward their institutionalization, particularly in light of recent funding decisions made by the Ministry of Health's Health Promotion Branch.
The results of 5 years' observation of the epidemiologic situation for tuberculosis in the northwest region of the Russian Federation have shown that tuberculosis prevalence among the rural population is less than in Russia, on the average. There is a tendency towards disappearance of the epidemiologic differences between the rural and urban locality, which enables one to regard tuberculosis as a single epidemiologic problem. At the same time, high level of tuberculosis contingents is maintained in rural settlements, which can be ascribed to the insufficient effectiveness of treatment or dispensary follow-up. A negative influence of social factors also grows. In conditions of the multivariant character of the organization of the public-health service optimization of work can be achieved by the creation of interregional scientific-practical centres.