The article presents public health system characterized by public responsibility for health of citizen under various forms of property. The issues of management, planning, financing and organization of health care are discussed.
The objectives of this study were to use Indian Health Service (IHS) data from electronic health records to analyze human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) diagnoses among American Indian/Alaska Natives (AI/ANs) and to identify current rates and trends that can support data-driven policy implementation and resource allocation for this population.
We analyzed provider visit data from IHS to capture all AI/AN patients who met a definition of a new HIV diagnosis from 2005 through 2014 by using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes. We calculated rates and trends of new HIV diagnoses by age, sex, region, and year per 100?000 AI/ANs in the IHS user population.
A total of 2273 AI/ANs met the definition of newly diagnosed with HIV from 2005 through 2014, an average annual rate of 15.1 per 100?000 AI/ANs. Most (356/391) IHS health facilities recorded at least 1 new HIV diagnosis. The rate of new HIV diagnoses among males (21.3 per 100?000 AI/ANs) was twice as high as that among females (9.5 per 100?000 AI/ANs; rate ratio = 2.2; 95% confidence interval, 2.1-2.4); by age, rates were highest among those aged 20-54 for males and females. By region, the Southwest region had the highest number (n = 1016) and rate (19.9 per 100?000 AI/ANs) of new HIV diagnoses. Overall annual rates of new HIV diagnoses were stable from 2010 through 2014, although diagnosis rates increased among males ( P
THE THEME: Assessment of health risk from water chemicals to population health in the Voronezh regio.
Water sources, population of municipalities of the Voronezh region.
The substantiation of priority measures aimed at minimizing the human health risk due to chemical contamination of water fed for the needs of centralized water supply of population of the Voronezh region.
Method of human health risk assessment from environmental chemicals.
The priority pollutants of drinking water in municipalities are established. Also area of risk and the number of exposed population are identified.
This paper adopts the position that although the Canadian family is, and will continue to be an important source of support for its older members, there are limitations in its ability to do so. These limitations have to do with demographic and social changes occurring in contemporary society and highlight the importance of looking to alternative sources of support emerging in the literature as significant to people in their later years. These alternative sources of support which have potential importance for health and wellbeing in later life, have to a large extent been neglected by health care providers. It is suggested that health care practitioners expand the notion of family as the unit of care, which is central to their practice, to include sources of support beyond the immediate family.
The history of public health has followed different trends, depending on the prevailing theories of disease causality and the interventions that these suggest. From the concern with miasmas to the germ theory, to the stress on lifestyles and the current interest on the linkages between health, economic welfare, and social status, the proposed policies are contingent on how health and disease are conceptualized and explained. Ironically, now that there is increasing evidence on the socio-economic determinants of health, interventions continue to focus on specific target groups or disease categories, as well as on the medical sector.