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Airborne exposure and biological monitoring of bar and restaurant workers before and after the introduction of a smoking ban.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature82661
Source
J Environ Monit. 2006 Mar;8(3):362-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2006
Author
Ellingsen Dag G
Fladseth Geir
Daae Hanne L
Gjølstad Merete
Kjaerheim Kristina
Skogstad Marit
Olsen Raymond
Thorud Syvert
Molander Paal
Author Affiliation
National Institute of Occupational Health, P.O. Box 8149 Dep, N-0033, Oslo, Norway. dag.ellingsen@stami.no
Source
J Environ Monit. 2006 Mar;8(3):362-8
Date
Mar-2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Air Pollutants, Occupational - analysis
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
Cotinine - urine
Dust - analysis
Environmental monitoring
Female
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Nicotine - analysis
Norway
Occupational Exposure - analysis
Public Facilities - legislation & jurisprudence
Restaurants
Smoking - legislation & jurisprudence
Time Factors
Tobacco Smoke Pollution - analysis - legislation & jurisprudence
Abstract
The aims were to assess the impact of a total smoking ban on the level of airborne contaminants and the urinary cotinine levels in the employees in bars and restaurants. In a follow up design, 13 bars and restaurants were visited before and after the implementation of a smoking ban. Ninety-three employees in the establishments were initially included into the study. The arithmetic mean concentration of nicotine and total dust declined from 28.3 microg m(-3) (range, 0.4-88.0) and 262 microg m(-3) (range, 52-662), respectively, to 0.6 microg m(-3) (range, not detected-3.7) and 77 microg m(-3) (range, not detected-261) after the smoking ban. The Pearson correlation coefficient between airborne nicotine and total dust was 0.86 (p
PubMed ID
16528420 View in PubMed
Less detail

The impact of small changes in bar closing hours on violence. The Norwegian experience from 18 cities.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature131436
Source
Addiction. 2012 Mar;107(3):530-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2012
Author
Ingeborg Rossow
Thor Norström
Author Affiliation
Norwegian Institute for Alcohol and Drug Research, Oslo, Norway. ir@sirus.no
Source
Addiction. 2012 Mar;107(3):530-7
Date
Mar-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alcohol Drinking - epidemiology - legislation & jurisprudence
Alcoholic Beverages - supply & distribution
Cities
Commerce - legislation & jurisprudence
Cross-Sectional Studies
Health Policy
Humans
Norway - epidemiology
Public Facilities - legislation & jurisprudence
Time Factors
Violence - legislation & jurisprudence - prevention & control - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
To estimate the effect on violence of small changes in closing hours for on-premise alcohol sales, and to assess whether a possible effect is symmetrical.
A quasi-experimental design drawing on data from 18 Norwegian cities that have changed (extended or restricted) the closing hours for on-premise alcohol sales. All changes were = 2 hours.
Closing hours were measured in terms of the latest permitted hour of on-premise trading, ranging from 1 a.m. to 3 a.m. The outcome measure comprised police-reported assaults that occurred in the city centre between 10 p.m. and 5 a.m. at weekends. Assaults outside the city centre during the same time window should not be affected by changes in closing hours but function as a proxy for potential confounders, and was thus included as a control variable. The data spanned the period Q1 2000-Q3 2010, yielding 774 observations.
Outcomes from main analyses suggested that each 1-hour extension of closing hours was associated with a statistically significant increase of 4.8 assaults (95% CI 2.60, 6.99) per 100,000 inhabitants per quarter (i.e. an increase of about 16%). Findings indicate that the effect is symmetrical. These findings were consistent across three different modelling techniques.
In Norway, each additional 1-hour extension to the opening times of premises selling alcohol is associated with a 16% increase in violent crime.
Notes
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PubMed ID
21906198 View in PubMed
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Impact of the 1976 Tobacco Control Act in Finland on the proportion of ever daily smokers by socioeconomic status.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature159653
Source
Prev Med. 2008 Apr;46(4):340-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2008
Author
Satu Helakorpi
Tuija Martelin
Jorma Torppa
Erkki Vartiainen
Antti Uutela
Kristiina Patja
Author Affiliation
National Public Health Institute (KTL), Mannerheimintie 166, FI-00300 Helsinki, Finland. satu.helakorpi@ktl.fi
Source
Prev Med. 2008 Apr;46(4):340-5
Date
Apr-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Censuses
Cross-Sectional Studies
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Health Policy - legislation & jurisprudence
Humans
Logistic Models
Male
Middle Aged
Prevalence
Program Evaluation
Public Facilities - legislation & jurisprudence
Sex Factors
Smoking - epidemiology - legislation & jurisprudence - prevention & control
Social Class
Tobacco Smoke Pollution - legislation & jurisprudence - prevention & control
Abstract
To assess the impact of the 1976 Tobacco Control Act (TCA) on smoking initiation across socioeconomic groups.
Nationwide data from independent annual cross-sectional postal surveys in 1978-2002 in Finland. Subjects were 25-64-year-old men and women born 1926-1975 (n=68 071). Socioeconomic status was derived individually from population census data. Logistic regression was applied to assess the impact of the 1976 TCA on the prevalence of ever daily smoking in birth cohorts and socioeconomic groups.
Clear socioeconomic differences in ever daily smoking among men and women were found. In all socioeconomic groups a declining cohort trend was observed among men whereas women showed an increasing trend in early cohorts and a declining one thereafter. A statistically significant decline in the proportion of ever daily smokers compatible with the impact of the TCA was found in all socioeconomic groups except farmers. Among women the decline was roughly similar in each socioeconomic group, while among men it varied and was most pronounced among white collar employees.
The impact of the 1976 TCA was less pronounced among male lower socioeconomic groups. In spite of the even impact of the TCA on female smoking across socioeconomic groups, large socioeconomic disparities remain. Tobacco control policy measures specifically directed at lower socioeconomic groups are needed.
PubMed ID
18158177 View in PubMed
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Public attitudes towards smoking and tobacco control policy in Russia.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature155968
Source
Tob Control. 2008 Aug;17(4):276-83
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2008
Author
K. Danishevski
A. Gilmore
M. McKee
Author Affiliation
Open Health Institute, Moscow, Russia.
Source
Tob Control. 2008 Aug;17(4):276-83
Date
Aug-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Attitude to Health
Female
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Public Facilities - legislation & jurisprudence
Russia
Smoking - legislation & jurisprudence - prevention & control - psychology
Tobacco Industry
Abstract
Since the political transition in 1991, Russia has been targeted intensively by the transnational tobacco industry. Already high smoking rates among men have increased further; traditionally low rates among women have more than doubled. The tobacco companies have so far faced little opposition as they shape the discourse on smoking in Russia. This paper asks what ordinary Russians really think about possible actions to reduce smoking.
A representative sample of the Russian population (1600 respondents) was interviewed face to face in November 2007.
Only 14% of respondents considered tobacco control in Russia adequate, while 37% thought that nothing was being done at all. There was support for prices keeping pace with or even exceeding inflation. Over 70% of all respondents favoured a ban on sales from street kiosks, while 56% believed that existing health warnings (currently 4% of front and back of packs) were inadequate. The current policy of designating a few tables in bars and restaurants as non-smoking was supported by less than 10% of respondents, while almost a third supported a total ban, with 44% supporting provision of equal space for smokers and non-smokers. Older age, non-smoking status and living in a smaller town all emerged as significantly associated with the propensity to support antismoking measures. The tobacco companies were generally viewed as behaving like most other companies in Russia, with three-quarters of respondents believing that these companies definitely or maybe bribe politicians. Knowledge of impact of smoking on health was limited with significant underestimation of dangers and addictive qualities of tobacco. A third believed that light cigarettes are safer than normal cigarettes.
The majority of the Russian population would support considerable strengthening of tobacco control policies but there is also a need for effective public education campaigns.
Notes
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PubMed ID
18653793 View in PubMed
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Public opinion towards supervised injection facilities and heroin-assisted treatment in Ontario, Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature161973
Source
Int J Drug Policy. 2007 Jan;18(1):54-61
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2007
Author
Michelle Firestone Cruz
Jayadeep Patra
Benedikt Fischer
Jürgen Rehm
Kate Kalousek
Author Affiliation
Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, Canada. michelle_firestone@camh.net
Source
Int J Drug Policy. 2007 Jan;18(1):54-61
Date
Jan-2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Educational Status
Female
Harm Reduction
Heroin Dependence - epidemiology - rehabilitation
Humans
Interviews as Topic
Male
Middle Aged
Ontario - epidemiology
Public Facilities - legislation & jurisprudence
Public Opinion
Public Policy
Socioeconomic Factors
Substance Abuse Treatment Centers - methods
Substance Abuse, Intravenous - rehabilitation
Abstract
In recent years, controversial interventions such as 'heroin-assisted treatment' (HAT) and 'supervised injection facilities' (SIFs) have been established in attempts to minimise the high morbidity and mortality consequences of illicit drug use. This paper examines public opinion towards HAT and SIF using data from the 2003 Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH) Monitor, a representative population survey conducted among adults residing in Ontario, Canada. Data relating specifically to SIFs and HAT were isolated from the main database (n=885); agreement scores were collapsed to create a scale and analysed using independent sample t-tests and ANOVAs. Results revealed that 60 percent (n=530) of the sample agreed that SIFs should be made available to injection drug users, while 40 percent (n=355) disagreed. When asked about the provision of HAT, a similar pattern emerged. Variables significantly associated with positive opinions toward SIFs and HAT were: income; higher education; the use of cocaine or cannabis within the last 12 months; being in favour of cannabis decriminalisation; support of needle exchange in prison; view of illicit drug users as ill people; and agreement that drug users are in need of public support. Given the current political climate and the tentative position of SIFs and HAT in Canada, understanding the public's opinion is crucial for the feasibility and long-term sustainability of these interventions.
PubMed ID
17689344 View in PubMed
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Russia fails to ban drinking in public despite soaring alcoholism.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature177374
Source
BMJ. 2004 Nov 20;329(7476):1202
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-20-2004

6 records – page 1 of 1.