In Sweden, governmental agencies and bodies are required to implement a higher level of accessibility in their buildings than that stipulated by the National Building and Planning Act (PBL). The Swedish Agency for Participation (MFD, Myndigheten för delaktighet) develops holistic guidelines in order to conceptualize this higher level of accessibility. In conjunction to these guidelines, various checklist protocols have been produced. The present study focuses on the efficiency of such checklist protocols. The study revolved around the use of a checklist protocol in assessments of two buildings in Stockholm: the new head office for the National Authority for Social Insurances (ASI) and the School of Architecture at the Royal Institute of Technology (KTH). The study included three groups: Group 1 and Group 2 consisted of 50 real estate managers employed by the ASI, while Group 3 consisted of three participants in a course at the KTH. The results were similar in all of the groups. The use of the checklist protocol generated queries, which related mainly to two factors: (1) the accompanying factsheet consisted of textual explanations with no drawings, photographs or illustrations and (2) the order of the questions in the checklist protocol was difficult to correlate with the two buildings' spatial logic of accessing, egressing and making use of the built space.
Owing to physical inaccessibility persons with mobility restrictions and other functional limitations often face problems in public environments, leading to restrictions in activity and participation. To investigate general accessibility and perceived problems of accessibility to the public environment in a town centre, as well as visiting preferences to public facilities, among teenagers with functional limitations.
An interview questionnaire specific to a south Swedish town was constructed and used with 33 Swedish teenagers with functional limitations.
To a varying degree, all 33 teenagers commented on accessibility problems, e.g. concerning uneven surface material outdoors, steps at entrances, heavy doors and restricted space indoors. The results also indicated that teenagers with functional limitations to a high extent want to visit the same environments as other teenagers, but that it is often impossible owing to accessibility problems. Furthermore, because of accessibility problems, many of the teenagers were dependent on personal assistance.
Inaccessibility results in dependence, which might affect personal development negatively, and much effort are required in order to ensure activity and societal participation. Efficient priorities in public environment accessibility matters and discussions with the actors involved require valid and reliable data on local accessibility problems.
Recreational facilities are an important community resource for health promotion because they provide access to affordable physical activities. However, despite their health mandate, many have unhealthy food environments that may paradoxically increase the risk of childhood obesity. The Alberta Nutrition Guidelines for Children and Youth (ANGCY) are government-initiated, voluntary guidelines intended to facilitate children's access to healthy food and beverage choices in schools, childcare and recreational facilities, however few recreational facilities are using them.
We used mixed methods within an exploratory multiple case study to examine factors that influenced adoption and implementation of the ANGCY and the nature of the food environment within three cases: an adopter, a semi-adopter and a non-adopter of the ANGCY. Diffusion of Innovations theory provided the theoretical platform for the study. Qualitative data were generated through interviews, observations, and document reviews, and were analysed using directed content analysis. Set theoretic logic was used to identify factors that differentiated adopters from the non-adopter. Quantitative sales data were also collected, and the quality of the food environment was scored using four complementary tools.
The keys to adoption and implementation of nutrition guidelines in recreational facilities related to the managers' nutrition-related knowledge, beliefs and perceptions, as these shaped his decisions and actions. The manager, however, could not accomplish adoption and implementation alone. Intersectoral linkages with schools and formal, health promoting partnerships with industry were also important for adoption and implementation to occur. The food environment in facilities that had adopted the ANGCY did not appear to be superior to the food environment in facilities that had not adopted the ANGCY.
ANGCY uptake may continue to falter under the current voluntary approach, as the environmental supports for voluntary action are poor. Where ANGCY uptake does occur, changes to the food environment may be relatively minor. Stronger government measures may be needed to require recreational facilities to improve their food environments and to limit availability of unhealthy foods.
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The aims were to assess the impact of a total smoking ban on the level of airborne contaminants and the urinary cotinine levels in the employees in bars and restaurants. In a follow up design, 13 bars and restaurants were visited before and after the implementation of a smoking ban. Ninety-three employees in the establishments were initially included into the study. The arithmetic mean concentration of nicotine and total dust declined from 28.3 microg m(-3) (range, 0.4-88.0) and 262 microg m(-3) (range, 52-662), respectively, to 0.6 microg m(-3) (range, not detected-3.7) and 77 microg m(-3) (range, not detected-261) after the smoking ban. The Pearson correlation coefficient between airborne nicotine and total dust was 0.86 (p
The aim of this study was to examine how vigorous physical activity (recreational physical activity) (VPA) and moderate to vigorous physical activity as a part of daily life (MVPA) is associated with structural characteristics (availability of sports facilities and sports clubs with child members) in Greenlandic adolescents.
Data from the 2006 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children survey including 2,430 children aged 11-17 years was used. Logistic regression models were developed with dichotomous measures on VPA and MVPA as outcomes, number of indoor sports facilities and of sports clubs with child members as independent variables, and adjusted for age, gender, family affluence (FAS), and type of habitation (capital, town or village).
High VPA increased with access to indoor facilities, while high MVPA was less likely (odds ratio (OR) 0.54 (0.42-0.70)) if indoor sports facilities were present, both unadjusted and adjusted. Access to a local sports club increased OR for high VPA both unadjusted and adjusted to about 2.3 for five or more clubs, while access to sports clubs was not associated with unadjusted MVPA, negatively associated if adjusted for age, gender and FAS but positively associated if also adjusted for indoor sports facilities.
Access to indoor sports facilities itself had a positive association with high VPA, but was persistently negatively associated with high MVPA. Presence of sports clubs with child members was positively associated with high VPA while the association with high MVPA was more complex. The findings have implications for public health planning.
We studied whether park size, number of features in the park, and distance to a park from participants' homes were related to a park being used for physical activity.
We collected observational data on 28 specific features from 33 parks. Adult residents in surrounding areas (n=380) completed 7-day physical activity logs that included the location of their activities. We used logistic regression to examine the relative importance of park size, features, and distance to participants' homes in predicting whether a park was used for physical activity, with control for perceived neighborhood safety and aesthetics.
Parks with more features were more likely to be used for physical activity; size and distance were not significant predictors. Park facilities were more important than were park amenities. Of the park facilities, trails had the strongest relationship with park use for physical activity.
Specific park features may have significant implications for park-based physical activity. Future research should explore these factors in diverse neighborhoods and diverse parks among both younger and older populations.
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To clarify environmental predictors of bar-room aggression by differentiating relationships due to nightly variations versus across bar variations, frequency versus severity of aggression and patron versus staff aggression.
Male-female pairs of researcher-observers conducted 1334 observations in 118 large capacity (> 300) bars and clubs in Toronto, Canada.
Observers independently rated aspects of the environment (e.g. crowding) at every visit and wrote detailed narratives of each incident of aggression that occurred. Measures of severity of aggression for the visit were calculated by aggregating ratings for each person in aggressive incidents.
Although bivariate analyses confirmed the significance of most environmental predictors of aggression identified in previous research, multivariate analyses identified the following key visit-level predictors (controlling for bar-level relationships): rowdiness/permissive environment and people hanging around after closing predicted both frequency and severity of aggression; sexual activity, contact and competition and people with two or more drinks at closing predicted frequency but not severity of aggression; lack of staff monitoring predicted more severe patron aggression, while having more and better coordinated staff predicted more severe staff aggression. Intoxication of patrons was significantly associated with more frequent and severe patron aggression at the bar level (but not at the visit level) in the multivariate analyses and negatively associated with severity of staff aggression at the visit level.
The results demonstrate clearly the importance of the immediate environment (not just the type of bar or characteristics of usual patrons) and the importance of specific environmental factors, including staff behaviour, in predicting both frequency and severity of aggression.
The purpose of this study was to examine bingo halls as a frequent site for exposure to secondhand cigarette smoke for First Nations women in rural communities. Thematic analysis of interviews with key informants, group discussions with young women, and observations in the study communities revealed that smoky bingo halls provided an important refuge from everyday experiences of stress and trauma, as well as increased women's risk for addiction, marginalization, and criticism. The findings illustrate how the bingo economy in isolated, rural First Nation communities influences tobacco use and second-hand smoke exposure, and how efforts to establish smoke-free bingos can be supported.