This randomized controlled trial was designed to evaluate the 2-year costs and effects of a proactive, public health nursing case management approach compared with a self-directed approach for 129 single parents (98% were mothers) on social assistance in a Canadian setting. A total of 43% of these parents had a major depressive disorder and 38% had two or three other health conditions at baseline.
Study participants were recruited over a 12 month period and randomized into two groups: one receiving proactive public health nursing and one which did not.
At 2 years, 69 single parents with 123 children receiving proactive public health nursing (compared with 60 parents with 91 children who did not receive public health nursing services) showed a slightly greater reduction in dysthymia and slightly higher social adjustment. There was no difference between the public health and control groups in total per parent annual cost of health and support services. However, costs were averted due to a 12% difference in non-use of social assistance in the previous 12 months for parents in the public health nursing group. This translates into an annual cost saving of 240,000 dollars (Canadian) of costs averted within 1 year for every 100 parents.
In the context of a system of national health and social insurance, this study supports the fact that it is no more costly to proactively service this population of parents on social assistance.
The aim of this study was to detect, using case-based reasoning (CBR) induction methods in time series analysis, how measurable socio-economical adjustments were related to the caries status development. The study concerned the year classes leaving the organised dental care for the time period 1987-95, and had received dental care at the Public Dental Service of Göteborg. The results, as presented by a caries incidence index, indicated that at least one socioeconomical factor, individuals seeking employment, was of importance for the caries status development, a factor with an increase of considerable proportions since 1990. The findings indicated that the other socio-economic variables used did not have the same importance for the caries status development. One feasible explanation is that these factors reflect more upon the social family situation than the economical. If the caries status reflects the social situation of the individual more than the economical, this argument will elucidate the reasoning. Using CBR for the analysis of relationships between oral disease and parameters possibly influencing health development has proven to be a valuable tool and complement to more traditional statistical methods. The analysis can make relationships explicit through the hierarchic knowledge trees and also show redundant information, attributes not appearing in the trees.
A survey of 875 disabled children in Norway aged 0-19, representing ten different disabling conditions, was carried out between January 1976 and December 1978. Parents of the disabled children were interviewed, medical records studied and the children examined. Mother's age, level of education, presence of disabled siblings, spouse's education and profession as well as emergency situations related to the disabled child's condition appeared to be factors influencing the mother's health and therefore inevitably the family's ability to cope with the situation. Social insurance seemed to have been granted in a rather haphazard way; only families of children suffering from hemophilia, mental retardation, spina bifida and cerebral palsy seemed to have received fairly adequate social insurance benefits. Families of children suffering from juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, asthma, congenital heart disease and epilepsy had received less social insurance assistance than those in the other groups. One-parent families had received more social insurance than others. Families with children who were totally dependent on their parents, who had several diagnoses or had spent much time in hospital, had also been granted more social insurance. Welfare benefits distributed by local authorities had mainly been given to families who were also receiving social insurance benefits and to families of children with brain damage. Almost half of all families expressed needs for welfare benefits which had not been met. Thus, there seemed to be an underconsumption of both social insurance and welfare benefits, particularly among some diagnostic groups.