Many studies have shown associations between a history of childhood trauma and more severe or complex clinical features of bipolar disorders (BD), including suicide attempts and earlier illness onset. However, the psychopathological mechanisms underlying these associations are still unknown. Here, we investigated whether affective lability mediates the relationship between childhood trauma and the severe clinical features of BD.
A total of 342 participants with BD were recruited from France and Norway. Diagnosis and clinical characteristics were assessed using the Diagnostic Interview for Genetic Studies (DIGS) or the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I disorders (SCID-I). Affective lability was measured using the short form of the Affective Lability Scale (ALS-SF). A history of childhood trauma was assessed using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). Mediation analyses were performed using the SPSS process macro.
Using the mediation model and covariation for the lifetime number of major mood episodes, affective lability was found to statistically mediate the relationship between childhood trauma experiences and several clinical variables, including suicide attempts, mixed episodes and anxiety disorders. No significant mediation effects were found for rapid cycling or age at onset.
Our data suggest that affective lability may represent a psychological dimension that mediates the association between childhood traumatic experiences and the risk of a more severe or complex clinical expression of BD.
There are few reports on mobility limitations in persons with psychotic disorder although restrictions in mobility may aggravate the general functional limitations of these patients. Our aim was to investigate mobility limitations among subjects with psychotic disorder in a general population-based sample.
A nationally representative sample of 6,927 persons aged 30 and older self-reported mobility limitations in an interview and was examined in performance tests. Diagnostic assessment of DSM-IV psychotic disorders combined SCID interview and case note data. Lifetime-ever diagnoses of psychotic disorder were classified into schizophrenia, other nonaffective psychotic disorders and affective psychoses.
Self-reported mobility limitations were highly prevalent in persons with schizophrenia and other nonaffective psychosis, but not in the affective psychosis group. After adjusting for age and sex, persons with schizophrenia and other nonaffective psychoses but not affective psychoses had significantly increased odds of having both self-reported and test-based mobility limitations as well as weak muscle strength. Schizophrenia remained an independent predictor of mobility limitations even after controlling for lifestyle-related factors and chronic medical conditions. Among persons with nonaffective psychoses, higher levels of negative symptoms predicted mobility limitations.
Self-reported mobility limitations are prevalent already at a young age in persons with schizophrenia and other nonaffective psychotic disorders, and among older persons with these disorders both self-reported limitations and measured performance tests show lower capacity in mobility. Difficulties in mobility are associated with negative symptoms. Mental health care professionals should pay attention to mobility limitations in persons with psychotic disorder.
While functioning ability, quality of life (QoL) and depression are widely studied phenomena in schizophrenia, little is known about functioning ability, QoL and depression, especially among adolescents at high risk of developing first-episode psychosis.
To investigate associations between high risk of developing psychosis and functioning ability, depression and QoL among adolescents.
The data was collected by an early intervention team in Espoo, Finland, between 1 January 2007 and 31 May 2008. Subjects at high risk of developing psychosis were compared with subjects not at high risk in terms of functioning ability (GAF), QoL (16D) and depressive symptoms (RBDI) in a cross-sectional setting. The study was conducted with 80 adolescents (mean age 14.7, range 12-18 years).
Those at high risk of developing psychosis had significantly lower and poorer scores in functioning ability (53.4 vs. 58.4, P=0.006), had higher and poorer scores in QoL (10.81 vs. 7.05, P=0.002) and higher and poorer scores in depression (8.95 vs. 4.76, P=0.001) than those who did not meet the criteria of being at high risk of developing psychosis. Poorer functioning ability independently explained being at high risk of developing psychosis at a statistically significant level (P=0.021) in a logistic regression analysis after age, gender, depression and QoL were adjusted for.
Poor functioning ability seems to be associated with high risk of developing psychosis among adolescents.
Knowledge on the risk mechanisms of psychotic experiences (PE) is still limited. The aim of this population-based study was to explore developmental markers of PE with a particular focus on the specificity of hyper-theory-of-mind (HyperToM) as correlate of PE as opposed to correlate of any mental disorder.
We assessed 1630 children from the Copenhagen Child Cohort 2000 regarding PE and HyperToM at the follow-up at 11-12 years. Mental disorders were diagnosed by clinical ratings based on standardized parent-, teacher- and self-reported psychopathology. Logistic regression analyses were performed to test the correlates of PE and HyperToM, and the specificity of correlates of PE v. correlates of any Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV) mental disorder.
Univariate analyses showed the following correlates of PE: familial psychiatric liability; parental mental illness during early child development; change in family composition; low family income; regulatory problems in infancy; onset of puberty; bullying; concurrent mental disorder; and HyperToM. When estimating the adjusted effects, only low family income, concurrent mental disorder, bullying and HyperToM remained significantly associated with PE. Further analyses of the specificity of these correlates with regard to outcome revealed that HyperToM was the only variable specifically associated with PE without concurrent mental disorder. Finally, HyperToM did not share any of the investigated precursors with PE.
HyperToM may have a specific role in the risk trajectories of PE, being specifically associated with PE in preadolescent children, independently of other family and child risk factors associated with PE and overall psychopathology at this age.
Longitudinal epidemiological studies have shown worse outcomes in patients with psychotic disorder than in the general population. The reproductive pattern may be seen as a measure of outcome following psychotic disorder onset, and it may be measured as the rate of child births where the rate is a proxy measure of well-being.
To examine reproductive patterns following psychotic disorder onset by comparing the fertility rates of patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder with those of other psychiatric patients and the general population, taking into account parental status at disease-onset, time since onset, and the possible effect of abortions-rates.
A prospective register-based cohort study drawing on the entire Danish population born after 1950. Incidence Rate Ratios (IRRs) of fertility were analysed using survival analysis.
Compared with the general population, the lowest first-child fertility rate was found among men (IRR=0.10) and women (IRR=0.18) with schizophrenia. In comparison, bipolar male patients had an IRR=0.32 and female patients an IRR=0.36, while male unipolar patients had an IRR=0.46 and female patients an IRR=0.57. In the group with other psychiatric disorders men had an IRR=0.51 and women an IRR=0.70.
The results of the present study show a selection process where persons with more severe disorders are less likely to become parents. The reduced fertility was strongly influenced by the time since psychiatric disorder onset; thus, the longer the time since onset, the higher the fertility.
This is one of the very few studies to investigate the specific executive function/processing speed component of response initiation in subjects at familial risk (FR) for psychosis, and the first such study in subjects at clinical risk (CR) for psychosis.
Participants (N = 177) were members of the general population-based Northern Finland 1986 Birth Cohort in the following four groups: FR for psychosis (n = 62), CR for psychosis (n = 21), psychosis (n = 25) and control subjects (n = 69). The response initiation of these groups was compared in three different tests: Semantic fluency, Stockings of Cambridge and Spatial working memory.
The two risk groups did not differ significantly from control group, but differed from, and outperformed the psychosis group in semantic fluency response initiation.
Response initiation deficits were not evident in a non-help seeking psychosis high-risk sample.
The objective of the study was to examine the relationship between foreign birth and symptoms of schizophrenia and psychosis in a clinical sample of homeless persons.
All the charts documented between 2002 and 2007 by a psychiatric outreach team in Ottawa, Canada, were retrospectively reviewed regarding country of birth and psychiatric symptoms identified in a clinical assessment. Data were analyzed by univariate and multivariate logistic regressions.
The sample included 552 men and 333 women with data on psychiatric symptoms and country of birth. A total of 106 individuals (12%) were born outside of Canada. This proportion was lower than that observed in the general population of Ottawa or in Canada. Foreign-born individuals were older and had a higher level of education than Canadian-born individuals. Sixteen percent of the sample presented symptoms of schizophrenia, and 15% presented symptoms of psychosis other than schizophrenia. In univariate analyses persons presenting symptoms of schizophrenia or psychosis were more likely to be foreign-born than native-born (odds ratio [OR]=2.92, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.74-4.90, and OR=4.79, CI=2.92-7.86, respectively). Multivariate analyses gave very similar results (OR=2.62, CI=1.50-4.58, and OR=4.14, CI=2.44-7.03, respectively). A positive trend or significant association was observed for all regions of origin other than the non-Caribbean Americas.
This is the first study to report an association between foreign birth and symptoms of schizophrenia and psychosis among homeless persons. These findings are consistent with the increased risk of schizophrenia and psychosis observed among immigrants to European countries.