The aim of this study was to assess the impact of a community case identification program on duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) (a measure of delay in treatment) and characteristics of patients entering treatment for a first episode of psychosis.
Using a quasi-experimental historical control design, patients within a defined geographic catchment area who met DSM-IV criteria for a first episode of a psychotic disorder (FEP) were assessed on a number of demographic and clinical variables including DUP, length of prodromal period and symptoms at initial presentation, for 2 years prior to and 2 years after the introduction of a community-wide Early Case Identification Program (ECIP). The ECIP was designed to promote early recognition and referral of individuals with a FEP from any possible source of referral including self-referrals. Treatment interventions offered were the same throughout the two phases.
In all, 88 and 100 patients met criteria respectively in phases I and II. There were no significant differences in rates of treated incidence or DUP between the two phases. Patients recruited in phase II had significantly longer prodromal periods and higher level of psychotic and disorganization symptoms. There were no differences in level of negative symptoms or pre-morbid adjustment.
A community-wide approach to early case identification may not be the most effective way to reduce delay in treatment of psychosis, but may bring into treatment patients who have been ill for long periods of time and have a higher level of psychopathology. A more targeted approach directed at primary care and emergency services may achieve different results in reducing delay in treatment.
Although there have been numerous studies on pathways to care in first-episode psychosis (FEP), few have examined the determinants of the pathway to care and its impact on subsequent engagement with mental health services.
Using a sample of 324 FEP patients from a catchment area-based early intervention (EI) program in Montréal, we estimated the association of several socio-demographic, clinical, and service-level factors with negative pathways to care and treatment delay. We also assessed the impact of the pathway to care on time to disengagement from EI services.
Few socio-demographic or clinical factors were predictive of negative pathways to care. Rather, service-level factors, such as contact with primary care providers, have a stronger impact on patterns of health service use across multiple indicators. Patients who were in contact with primary care had a reduced likelihood of negative pathways to care, but also had longer referral delays to EI services. Socio-demographic and clinical factors were more relevant for predicting subsequent engagement with EI services, and indicators of negative pathways to care were not associated with service disengagement.
Primary care providers may be an efficacious target for interventions aimed at reducing overall treatment delay. Increasing the uptake of primary care services may also reduce the likelihood of negative pathways to care. Our findings draw attention to the need for further investigations of the role that the primary care system plays in early intervention for FEP, and strategies for supporting service providers in this role.
Criminal recidivism was studied during 2 years in a Swedish population-based cohort (N = 318) of mentally disordered male offenders who had undergone a pretrial forensic psychiatric investigation, been convicted in subsequent trials, and been sentenced to forensic psychiatric treatment (FPT; n = 152), prison (n = 116), or noncustodial sanctions (n = 50). Recidivism was analysed in relation to index sanctions, levels of supervision, diagnoses, and criminological factors. Significantly lower recidivism in the FPT group was related to lower crime rates during periods at conditional liberty in this group alone, and recidivism was significantly more common among offenders with at least one of the two diagnoses of substance abuse disorder and personality disorder than among those with psychotic or other mental disorders alone. Age at index crime and number of previous crimes emerged as significant predictors of recidivism. The results of this study suggest that the relapse rates depend as much on level of supervision as on individual characteristics.
To identify predictors of non-remission in first-episode, non-affective psychosis.
During 4 years, we recruited 301 patients consecutively. Information about first remission at 3 months was available for 299 and at 2 years for 293 cases. Symptomatic and social outcomes were assessed at 3 months, 1 and 2 years.
One hundred and twenty-nine patients (43%) remained psychotic at 3 months and 48 patients (16.4%) remained psychotic over 2 years. When we compared premorbid and baseline data for the three groups, the non-remitted (n = 48), remitted for
Timely aftercare can be viewed as a patient safety imperative. In the context of decreasing inpatient length of stay (LOS) and known child psychiatry human resource challenges, we investigated time to aftercare for adolescents following psychiatric hospitalization.
We conducted a population-based cohort study of adolescents aged 15 to 19 years with psychiatric discharge between April 1, 2002, and March 1, 2004, in Ontario, using encrypted identifiers across health administrative databases to determine time to first psychiatric aftercare with a primary care physician (PCP) or a psychiatrist within 395 days of discharge.
Among the 7111 adolescents discharged in the study period, 24% had aftercare with a PCP or a psychiatrist within 7 days and 49% within 30 days. High socioeconomic status (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR] 1.31; 95% CI 1.21 to 1.43, P