Is the abuse of psychoactive drugs in psychotic patients linked to social adjustment?
Fifty-five psychotic men from a detention centre or a psychiatric hospital were assessed with the Social Adjustment Scale (SAS-II) and a French version of the Phillips Rating Scale of Premorbid Adjustment in Schizophrenia.
In psychotic patients, the abuse of psychoactive drugs is linked to some indicators of social adjustment and premorbid sexual adaptation.
Differences were found in some aspects of social functioning, but it is difficult to establish an overall assessment of social adjustment.
A study sample of 51 patients with acute and transient psychotic disorder (ATPD) (ICD-10) is presented. The findings suggest that, in hospital settings, ATPD is a non-frequent condition with onset in early adult life and most often associated with female sex, good premorbid social functioning and no or minor/moderate psychosocial stressors. The DSM-IV criteria distribute the patients into three diagnostic categories: schizophreniform disorder (41%), brief psychotic disorder (33%) and psychotic disorder not otherwise classified (25%). A high prevalence (63%) of personality disorders (PD) is revealed after recovery from the psychotic episode. The ATPD is not related to any specific PD, and in a substantial minority (37%) of cases no PD is found. The unspecified category is by far the most frequent PD in patients with ATPD. The sample will be followed up and reassessed.
We investigated whether psychosis risk symptoms predicted psychiatric service use using seven-year register follow-up data.
Our sample included 715 adolescents aged 15-18, referred to psychiatric care for the first time. Psychosis risk symptoms were assessed with the Prodromal Questionnaire (PQ) at the beginning of the treatment. We assessed the power of the overall PQ as well as its positive, negative, general, and disorganized psychosis risk symptom factors in predicting prolonged service use. Baseline psychiatric diagnoses (grouped into 7 categories) were controlled for. Based on both inpatient and outpatient psychiatric treatment after baseline, adolescents were divided into three groups of brief, intermittent, and persistent service use.
Stronger symptoms on any PQ factor as well as the presence of a mood disorder predicted prolonged service use. All of the PQ factors remained significant predictors when adjusted for baseline mood disorder and multimorbidity.
In a prospective follow-up of a large sample using comprehensive mental health records, our findings indicate that assessing psychosis risk symptoms in clinical adolescent settings at the beginning of treatment could predict long-term need for care beyond diagnostic information. Our findings replicate the previous findings that positive psychosis risk symptoms are unspecific markers of severity of psychopathology. Also psychosis risk symptoms of the negative, disorganization, and general clusters are approximately as strongly associated with prolonged psychiatric service use in the upcoming years.
OBJECTIVES: Affective psychosis has its peak incidence during the childbearing years, but little is known about the effects of the illness on pregnancy. We investigated risks of preterm delivery (PTD), low birthweight (LBW), births of infants small for their gestational age (SGA), stillbirth and infant death in births to mothers with affective psychosis using a nested case-control design within a cohort of 1,558,071 singleton births in Sweden during 1983-1997. METHODS: Using prospectively collected data from population registers, we compared the pregnancy outcomes of 5,618 births to women with affective psychosis with the outcomes of 46,246 births to unaffected mothers. RESULTS: Mothers with affective psychosis had elevated risk for giving birth to preterm, small or growth-retarded babies. The risk for stillbirth and infant death during the first year of life was not significantly higher. The risks were greatest in mothers receiving hospital treatment for affective disorder during pregnancy: (i) preterm delivery: odds ratio (OR) = 2.67, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.71-4.17; (ii) SGA: OR = 2.36; 95% CI = 1.34-4.16; (iii) low birthweight: OR = 2.22; 95% CI = 1.31-3.76; and (iv) stillbirth: OR = 2.19; 95% CI = 0.55-8.76. After adjustment for covariates, particularly smoking, the risks were attenuated but remained significant. CONCLUSIONS: Clinicians should be aware of the increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes in women with affective psychosis, some of which may be preventable.
To examine the prevalence of homelessness and its relationship to mental disorder, criminal behaviour, and health care.
Interview and file data were collected for 790 male admissions to a large, pretrial jail facility over a 12-month period.
A significant relationship was found between homelessness and severe mental disorder as well as between homelessness and prior psychiatric history. There were no significant differences found between the homeless and the nonhomeless on the types of crimes for which they were incarcerated or on contact with health care services within the past year.
The findings indicate the need for a link between the jail and community services for homeless individuals.
OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between first hospital admissions due to postpartum psychosis and the explanatory variables age, educational level, marital status and year of delivery. METHOD: All Swedish first-time mothers (n = 502,767) were included during a 12-year period and followed for first hospital admissions due to postpartum psychosis. Cox regression was used to estimate hazard ratios, adjusted for the explanatory variables. RESULTS: Older age and being a single mother implied an increased risk of first hospital admissions due to postpartum psychosis among first-time mothers. Educational level was not associated with first hospital admissions due to postpartum psychosis. During the 1990s, when a reduction in psychiatric beds occurred, first hospital admissions due to postpartum psychosis decreased significantly. CONCLUSION: Certain sociodemographic factors are associated with first hospital admissions due to postpartum psychosis. Untreated postpartum psychosis due to fewer psychiatric beds could have hazardous effects on mothers and their children.
Reviews conclude that childhood and adolescence sexual, physical, emotional abuse and emotional and physical neglect are all risk factors for psychosis. However, studies suggest only some adversities are associated with psychosis. Dose-response effects of several adversities on risk of psychosis have not been consistently found. The current study aimed to explore adversity specificity and dose-response effects of adversities on risk of psychosis.
Participants were 101 persons with first-episode psychosis (FEP) diagnosed with ICD-10 F20 - F29 (except F21) and 101 non-clinical control persons matched by gender, age and parents' socio-economic status. Assessment included the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire and parts of the Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse Questionnaire.
Eighty-nine percent of the FEP group reported one or more adversities compared to 37% of the control group. Childhood and adolescent sexual, physical, emotional abuse, and physical and emotional neglect, separation and institutionalization were about four to 17 times higher for the FEP group (all p
The goals of this study were to investigate the prevalence and initial symptoms of the late-onset schizophrenia (LOS: >40 years) and very-late-onset schizophrenia-like psychosis (VLOSLP: >60 years) nosological groups proposed by the International Late-Onset Schizophrenia Group.
This was a retrospective, cross-sectional, chart review study.
The study was conducted at Centre Hospitalier Robert-Giffard (CHRG), Quebec City, Canada.
The medical records of inpatients from the CHRG who presented with psychotic symptoms were analyzed.
Positive and negative symptoms were scored using the SAPS and SANS. Groups' symptoms were compared using chi(2), Fisher's exact tests, t tests, and exact Mann-Whitney tests. An exact conditional logistic regression analysis was performed to determine which clinical characteristics were the most predictive of the groups' classification.
Among the 1,767 unique, first-admission medical records reviewed, 23 (1.3%) inpatients developed their first psychotic symptoms at the age of 40-59 years old (LOS), and 13 (0.7%) at the age of 60 years and above (VLOSLP). LOS patients were more apathetic and presented more abnormal psychomotor activity than the VLOSLP. Persecutory delusions, auditory hallucinations, inappropriate social behavior, formal thought disorders and anhedonia were frequent in the two groups. A logistic regression model including psychomotor abnormalities was statistically relevant to predict the belonging to LOS group.
LOS and VLOSLP are rare. Abnormal psychomotor activity can properly differentiate VLOSLP and LOS. The nosological model proposed by the International Late-Onset Schizophrenia Group is at least partially supported by the present data.
The aim of this study was to assess the impact of a community case identification program on duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) (a measure of delay in treatment) and characteristics of patients entering treatment for a first episode of psychosis.
Using a quasi-experimental historical control design, patients within a defined geographic catchment area who met DSM-IV criteria for a first episode of a psychotic disorder (FEP) were assessed on a number of demographic and clinical variables including DUP, length of prodromal period and symptoms at initial presentation, for 2 years prior to and 2 years after the introduction of a community-wide Early Case Identification Program (ECIP). The ECIP was designed to promote early recognition and referral of individuals with a FEP from any possible source of referral including self-referrals. Treatment interventions offered were the same throughout the two phases.
In all, 88 and 100 patients met criteria respectively in phases I and II. There were no significant differences in rates of treated incidence or DUP between the two phases. Patients recruited in phase II had significantly longer prodromal periods and higher level of psychotic and disorganization symptoms. There were no differences in level of negative symptoms or pre-morbid adjustment.
A community-wide approach to early case identification may not be the most effective way to reduce delay in treatment of psychosis, but may bring into treatment patients who have been ill for long periods of time and have a higher level of psychopathology. A more targeted approach directed at primary care and emergency services may achieve different results in reducing delay in treatment.
To examine the comorbidity of Axis I and II disorders within a community-based sample of adults with schizophrenia.
The study was conducted using data from the National Epidemiologic Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions. A diagnosis of schizophrenia was based on respondents' self-report that they had been diagnosed by a health professional with schizophrenia or a psychotic illness or episode (SPIE). Axis I disorders and Axis II personality disorders (PDs) were assessed using the Alcohol Use Disorders and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule. Mental and physical quality of life were assessed using the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 12 questionnaire.
The prevalence of SPIE was 0.9%. We used multiple logistic regression to examine the association between the presence and absence of SPIE in Axis I and II mental disorders. Each of the Axis I and II mental disorders examined were significantly associated with a diagnosis of SPIE after controlling for age, sex, education, marital status, and household income.
Clinicians should be aware of the patterns and extent of psychiatric comorbidities that may exist in schizophrenia. Possible mechanisms of these associations are discussed.