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Cannabis-induced psychosis and subsequent schizophrenia-spectrum disorders: follow-up study of 535 incident cases.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature51780
Source
Br J Psychiatry. 2005 Dec;187:510-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2005
Author
Mikkel Arendt
Raben Rosenberg
Leslie Foldager
Gurli Perto
Povl Munk-Jørgensen
Author Affiliation
Aarhus University Hospital, Skovagervej 2, DK-824 0 Risskov, Denmark. mca@psykiatri.aaa.dk
Source
Br J Psychiatry. 2005 Dec;187:510-5
Date
Dec-2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Age Factors
Age of Onset
Cannabis - adverse effects
Denmark - epidemiology
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Incidence
Male
Marijuana Abuse - complications - epidemiology
Psychotic Disorders - diagnosis - epidemiology - etiology
Recurrence
Risk factors
Schizophrenia - diagnosis - epidemiology - etiology
Sex Factors
Abstract
BACKGROUND: Few studies have examined samples of people with cannabis-induced psychotic symptoms. AIMS: To establish whether cannabis-induced psychotic disorders are followed by development of persistent psychotic conditions, and the timing of their onset. METHOD: Data on patients treated for cannabis-induced psychotic symptoms between 1994 and 1999 were extracted from the Danish Psychiatric Central Register. Those previously treated for any psychotic symptoms were excluded. The remaining 535 patients were followed for at least 3 years. In a separate analysis, the sample was compared with people referred for schizophrenia-spectrum disorders for the first time, but who had no history of cannabis-induced psychosis. RESULTS: Schizophrenia-spectrum disorders were diagnosed in 44.5% of the sample. New psychotic episodes of any type were diagnosed in 77.2%. Male gender and young age were associated with increased risk. Development of schizophrenia-spectrum disorders was often delayed, and 47.1% of patients received a diagnosis more than a year after seeking treatment for a cannabis-induced psychosis. The patients developed schizophrenia at an earlier age than people in the comparison group (males, 24.6 v. 30.7 years, females, 28.9 v. 33.1 years). CONCLUSIONS: Cannabis-induced psychotic disorders are of great clinical and prognostic importance.
PubMed ID
16319402 View in PubMed
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Childhood trauma mediates the association between ethnic minority status and more severe hallucinations in psychotic disorder.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature265239
Source
Psychol Med. 2015 Jan;45(1):133-42
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2015
Author
A O Berg
M. Aas
S. Larsson
M. Nerhus
E. Hauff
O A Andreassen
I. Melle
Source
Psychol Med. 2015 Jan;45(1):133-42
Date
Jan-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Adult Survivors of Child Abuse - psychology
Africa - ethnology
Aged
Asia - ethnology
Cross-Sectional Studies
Ethnic groups - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Female
Hallucinations - diagnosis - epidemiology - etiology
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Minority Groups - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Multivariate Analysis
Norway - epidemiology
Psychiatric Status Rating Scales
Psychotic Disorders - diagnosis - epidemiology - etiology
Risk factors
Self Report
Young Adult
Abstract
Ethnic minority status and childhood trauma are established risk factors for psychotic disorders. Both are found to be associated with increased level of positive symptoms, in particular auditory hallucinations. Our main aim was to investigate the experience and effect of childhood trauma in patients with psychosis from ethnic minorities, hypothesizing that they would report more childhood trauma than the majority and that this would be associated with more current and lifetime hallucinations.
In this cross-sectional study we included 454 patients with a SCID-I DSM-IV diagnosis of non-affective or affective psychotic disorder. Current hallucinations were measured with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (P3; Hallucinatory Behaviour). Lifetime hallucinations were assessed with the SCID-I items: auditory hallucinations, voices commenting and two or more voices conversing. Childhood trauma was assessed with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, self-report version.
Patients from ethnic minority groups (n = 69) reported significantly more childhood trauma, specifically physical abuse/neglect, and sexual abuse. They had significantly more current hallucinatory behaviour and lifetime symptoms of hearing two or more voices conversing. Regression analyses revealed that the presence of childhood trauma mediated the association between ethnic minorities and hallucinations.
More childhood trauma in ethnic minorities with psychosis may partially explain findings of more positive symptoms, especially hallucinations, in this group. The association between childhood trauma and these first-rank symptoms may in part explain this group's higher risk of being diagnosed with a schizophrenia-spectrum diagnosis. The findings show the importance of childhood trauma in symptom development in psychosis.
PubMed ID
25065296 View in PubMed
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[Diagnosis and type of residence at the time of first consultation at a psychiatric outpatient clinic]

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature73473
Source
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 1992 Jun 20;112(16):2107-11
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-20-1992
Author
L J Vatten
A L Børve
Author Affiliation
Universitetet i Trondheim, Institutt for samfunnsmedisinske fag Medisinsk Teknisk Senter.
Source
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 1992 Jun 20;112(16):2107-11
Date
Jun-20-1992
Language
Norwegian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
English Abstract
Female
Humans
Male
Mental Disorders - diagnosis - epidemiology - etiology
Mental Health Services - statistics & numerical data
Neurotic Disorders - diagnosis - epidemiology - etiology
Norway - epidemiology
Outpatient clinics, hospital - statistics & numerical data
Psychotic Disorders - diagnosis - epidemiology - etiology
Residence Characteristics - statistics & numerical data
Risk factors
Rural Population - statistics & numerical data
Urban Population - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
Over a five-year period of registration in the county of S?r-Tr?ndelag we studied whether the frequency of consulting for one of three major psychiatric diagnostic groups (psychosis, neurosis, or "other") depended on the type of municipality (rural, coastal, urban) where the patient was resident. Diagnoses were based on consultations with a staff member of the regional outpatient psychiatric clinic, and the underlying population was described in the National Census, 1980. The results showed that, in general, urban residents sought help more frequently from the psychiatric outpatient clinic than rural residents did, (relative risk = 1.6, 95% confidence interval 1.4 to 1.8). The increased "risk" was attributed to a relatively larger number of neuroses and "other" diagnoses in the urban areas. The risk of consulting for psychosis was higher among coastal residents (relative risk = 1.8, 95% confidence interval 1.4 to 2.3) than among rural residents, was particularly evident among coastal residents between 16 and 39 years of age (relative risk = 4.1, 95% confidence interval 2.1 to 8.5), and was equally strong for men as for women. This study confirms that, in general, the risk of seeking outpatient psychiatric treatment is higher among urban than among rural and coastal residents. The apparently higher frequency of requests to the outpatient clinic for help for psychosis among coastal residents should be balanced against the tendency for city residents with psychosis to be admitted directly to the psychiatric hospital.
PubMed ID
1523635 View in PubMed
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Epilepsy in disintegrative psychosis and infantile autism: a long-term validation study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature33453
Source
Dev Med Child Neurol. 1999 Feb;41(2):110-4
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-1999
Author
S E Mouridsen
B. Rich
T. Isager
Author Affiliation
Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Bispebjerg Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark.
Source
Dev Med Child Neurol. 1999 Feb;41(2):110-4
Date
Feb-1999
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Autistic Disorder - diagnosis - epidemiology - etiology
Brain Damage, Chronic - diagnosis - epidemiology - etiology
Child
Child, Preschool
Comorbidity
Denmark
Epilepsy - diagnosis - epidemiology - etiology
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Infant
Intelligence
Male
Mental Retardation - diagnosis - epidemiology - etiology
Patient Admission - statistics & numerical data
Psychotic Disorders - diagnosis - epidemiology - etiology
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Risk factors
Abstract
This study aimed to investigate the validity of disintegrative psychosis (DP) as defined in the ICD-9. The history of epilepsy in 13 subjects with DP was compared with that of 39 subjects with infantile autism (IA) who were matched for sex, age, IQ, and socioeconomic status (SES). The average follow-up time was 22 and 23 years (range 11 to 33 years). A significant difference was found between the DP and IA groups in terms of incidence of epilepsy, 77% versus 33% respectively. The peak period of onset of epilepsy occurred before puberty in both groups. Different types of epilepsy were seen, but the psychomotor variant accounted for 50% in the DP group, while 46% of the IA group had the psychomotor and 62% had the grand mal variant. The types are not mutually exclusive. Individuals without epilepsy had significantly higher IQ scores than those with epilepsy, but only within the IA group. The increased risk of developing epilepsy in the DP group is most likely a reflection of an underlying early brain pathology probably present in most individuals with DP. On the whole our findings can be seen as a contribution to the validation of DP as separate from IA, as these two conditions could be distinguished in terms of the way they develop with reference to epilepsy.
PubMed ID
10075096 View in PubMed
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The incidence of first-episode schizophrenia-spectrum psychosis in adolescents and young adults in montreal: an estimate from an administrative claims database.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature119797
Source
Can J Psychiatry. 2012 Oct;57(10):626-33
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2012
Author
Kelly K Anderson
Rebecca Fuhrer
Michal Abrahamowicz
Ashok K Malla
Author Affiliation
Department of Epidemiology, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec.
Source
Can J Psychiatry. 2012 Oct;57(10):626-33
Date
Oct-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Age of Onset
Antipsychotic Agents - therapeutic use
Data Collection - methods
Delivery of Health Care - statistics & numerical data
Episode of Care
Female
Humans
Incidence
Insurance Claim Review - statistics & numerical data
Male
Mental Health Services - statistics & numerical data
Population Surveillance
Psychiatric Status Rating Scales
Psychosocial Deprivation
Psychotic Disorders - diagnosis - epidemiology - etiology - therapy
Quebec - epidemiology
Schizophrenia - complications - diagnosis - epidemiology - therapy
Schizophrenic Psychology
Abstract
There has been increasing interest in the psychiatric literature on research and service delivery focused on first-episode psychosis (FEP), and accurate information on the incidence of FEP is crucial for the development of services targeting patients in the early stages of illness. We sought to obtain a population-based estimate of the incidence of first-episode schizophrenia-spectrum psychosis (SSP) among adolescents and young adults in Montreal.
Population-based administrative data from physician billings, hospitalizations, pharmacies, and public health clinics were used to estimate the incidence of first-episode SSP in Montreal. A 3-year period (2004-2006) was used to identify patients with SSP aged 14 to 25 years. We used a 4- to 6-year clearance period to remove patients with a history of any psychotic disorder or prescription for an antipsychotic.
We identified 456 patients with SSP, yielding a standardized annual incidence of 82.9 per 100 000 for males (95% CI 73.7 to 92.1), and 32.2 per 100 000 for females (95% CI 26.7 to 37.8). Using ecologic indicators of material and social deprivation, we found a higher-incidence proportion of SSP among people living in the most deprived areas, relative to people living in the least deprived areas.
Clinical samples obtained from psychiatric services are unlikely to capture all treatment-seeking patients, and epidemiologic surveys have resource-intensive constraints, making this approach challenging for rare forms of psychopathology; therefore, population-based administrative data may be a useful tool for studying the frequency of psychotic disorders.
PubMed ID
23072954 View in PubMed
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[Puerperal psychoses. Clinical diagnoses and relative risk of admission after parturition]

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature64109
Source
Ugeskr Laeger. 1999 Mar 8;161(10):1414-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-8-1999
Author
I M Terp
P B Mortensen
Author Affiliation
Amtssygehuset i Glostrup, psykiatrisk afdeling.
Source
Ugeskr Laeger. 1999 Mar 8;161(10):1414-9
Date
Mar-8-1999
Language
Danish
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Denmark - epidemiology
English Abstract
Female
Humans
Patient Admission
Pregnancy
Psychotic Disorders - diagnosis - epidemiology - etiology
Puerperal Disorders - diagnosis - epidemiology - etiology
Registries
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Risk factors
Time Factors
Abstract
Previous studies have suggested that the risk of psychosis, especially affective psychosis, is greatly increased during the first 30 days following delivery. The aim of our study was to replicate these findings. Linking The Danish Medical Birth Register and The Danish Psychiatric Central Register from January Ist 1973 to December 31st 1993 has revealed 1253 admissions diagnosed as psychosis within 91 days after delivery. The admission rate following delivery was compared to the admission rate among non-puerperal women in the general, Danish female population. The relative risk of all admissions was only slightly increased, RR = 1.09 (CI, 1.03-1.16). The admission rate concerning first admissions was greatly increased, RR = 3.21 (CI, 2.96-3.49) whereas the admission rate concerning readmissions was reduced, RR = 0.66 (CI, 0.61-0.72. In conclusion, childbirth is a strong risk factor for first admission with psychosis, but the risk is less increased than previously assumed.
PubMed ID
10085750 View in PubMed
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Self-reported psychosis-like experiences in patients with mood disorders.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature297960
Source
Eur Psychiatry. 2018 06; 51:90-97
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
06-2018
Author
I Baryshnikov
J Suvisaari
K Aaltonen
M Koivisto
T Melartin
P Näätänen
K Suominen
B Karpov
M Heikkinen
J Oksanen
T Paunio
G Joffe
E Isometsä
Author Affiliation
Department of Psychiatry, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, P.O. Box 22 (Välskärinkatu 12 A), 00014 Helsinki, Finland.
Source
Eur Psychiatry. 2018 06; 51:90-97
Date
06-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Adult
Cognition
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Humans
Male
Mentally Ill Persons - psychology
Personality Disorders - classification - complications - psychology
Prevalence
Psychiatric Status Rating Scales
Psychotic Disorders - diagnosis - epidemiology - etiology - psychology
Self Concept
Self Report
Self-Assessment
Surveys and Questionnaires
Abstract
Self-reported psychosis-like experiences (PEs) may be common in patients with mood disorders, but their clinical correlates are not well known. We investigated their prevalence and relationships with self-reported symptoms of depression, mania, anxiety, borderline (BPD) and schizotypal (SPD) personality disorders among psychiatric patients with mood disorders.
The Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences (CAPE-42), Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ), McLean Screening Instrument (MSI), The Beck Depressive Inventory (BDI), Overall Anxiety Severity and Impairment Scale (OASIS) and Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire-Brief form (SPQ-B) were filled in by patients with mood disorders (n=282) from specialized care. Correlation coefficients between total scores and individual items of CAPE-42 and BDI, SPQ-B, MSI and MDQ were estimated. Hierarchical multivariate regression analysis was conducted to examine factors influencing the frequency of self-reported PE.
PEs are common in patients with mood disorders. The "frequency of positive symptoms" score of CAPE-42 correlated strongly with total score of SPQ-B (rho=0.63; P
PubMed ID
28797561 View in PubMed
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The social causes of psychosis in North American psychiatry: a review of a disappearing literature.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature163232
Source
Can J Psychiatry. 2007 May;52(5):287-94
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2007
Author
G Eric Jarvis
Author Affiliation
Culture and Mental Health Research Unit, Institute of Community and Family Psychiatry, Jewish General Hospital, Montreal, Quebec. eric.jarvis@mcgill.ca
Source
Can J Psychiatry. 2007 May;52(5):287-94
Date
May-2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
African Continental Ancestry Group - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Canada
Causality
Emigration and Immigration - statistics & numerical data
Europe
European Continental Ancestry Group - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Life Change Events
Psychotic Disorders - diagnosis - epidemiology - etiology
Research
Risk factors
Schizophrenia - diagnosis - epidemiology - etiology
Social Environment
United States
Abstract
To review the North American literature with respect to the role of social factors in the etiology of psychosis, including schizophrenia.
Relevant publications were identified through a search of MEDLINE from 1966 to 2006. Identified studies and articles had to originate in Canada or the United States to be included in the review. Articles written prior to 1966 were identified by cross-referencing bibliographies and reference lists. Articles were considered relevant if they discussed ethnoracial or other social factors as being causal or contributing to the development of psychosis or schizophrenia.
The relation between the etiology of psychosis and such social factors as poverty, migration, and racial discrimination has been neglected in the North American psychiatric literature for the last 40 years. In Canada and the United States, there is a dearth of research on these issues: the study of social causes of psychosis has been replaced by a focus on the clinical encounter, in which clinician bias is presumed to be responsible for widespread misdiagnosis of psychosis in minority (mainly African-American) populations. The reasons for neglecting social causes of psychosis in the North American psychiatric literature are obscure but may have to do with the rise of genetic-biological paradigms in recent decades.
The neglect of social causes of psychosis in the North American psychiatric literature has been coincident with an increase in scholarly concern among European clinicians and researchers. Careful reading of the European literature may reveal helpful avenues for future investigation in the North American context. In addition, drawing on social science literature and methods may help to clarify mechanisms underlying poverty, migration, and racial discrimination that contribute to psychosis in vulnerable individuals and groups.
Notes
Comment In: Can J Psychiatry. 2008 Jan;53(1):74; author reply 7418286875
Comment In: Can J Psychiatry. 2007 May;52(5):275-617542377
PubMed ID
17542379 View in PubMed
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8 records – page 1 of 1.